Tag Archives: Violence

Prevention and control of hooliganism

Prevention and control of hooliganism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Prevention and control of hooliganism


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Sport

Prevention and control of hooliganism

Document or Iniciative

Council Recommendation of 22 April 1996 on guidelines for preventing and restraining disorder connected with football matches [Official Journal C 131 of 3.5.1996].

Council Resolution of 9 June 1997 on preventing and restraining football hooliganism through the exchange of experience, exclusion from stadiums and media policy [Official Journal C 193 of 24.6.1997].

Council Resolution of 21 June 1999 concerning a handbook for international police cooperation and measures to prevent and control violence and disturbances in connection with international football matches [Official Journal C 196 of 13.7.1999].

Council Resolution of 6 December 2001 concerning a handbook with recommendations for international police cooperation and measures to prevent and control violence and disturbances in connection with football matches with an international dimension [Official Journal C 22 of 24.1.2002].


EU action to combat hooliganism is based mainly on the 1985 Council of Europe Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in Particular at Football Matches and on the Joint Action with regard to cooperation on law and order and security. However, a number of other instruments have been adopted by the Council since the Treaty of Maastricht.

Prevention and control of hooliganism: Community acts

In 1996 the Council adopted a Recommendation that:

Member States should use a common format for police intelligence reports about known or suspected groups of troublemakers. These should be exchanged via the network of football hooliganism correspondents set up in 1994;

  • information should be exchanged about techniques for preventing disorder, and joint training courses organised for police officers from the different Member States;
  • provision should be made for requesting reinforcements from the police forces of other Member States for particular football matches;
  • there should be close cooperation between police officers and stewards in those Member States where this role exists, so as to ensure the best possible division of responsibilities.

In 1997 the Council passed a Resolution calling for:

  • stadium exclusions imposed under domestic law to apply throughout the EU;
  • an annual report to be produced on hooliganism;
  • more care to be taken over media strategy;
  • an annual meeting of experts to be arranged for the exchange of relevant experience.

In 1999 the Council produced a handbook aimed at the police forces of the Member States. This contained practical examples of working methods for developing police cooperation to prevent and control violence and disturbances at international football matches. It includes provisions on:

  • the content and scope of police cooperation (preparations by police forces, organising cooperation between them before the event, information management);
  • relations between the police and the media;
  • cooperation between police forces and stewards;
  • admission policy and ticketing policy.

In the light of experience in recent years (such as the European Championships – Euro 2000) and developments in international police cooperation in this field, the Council Resolution of 6 December 2001 calls for the Member States to step up cooperation.

A handbook aimed at police forces is annexed to this resolution (which replaces the Council resolution of 29 June 1999). The new version of the handbook will include provisions on:

  • the exchange and management of information by the police;
  • cooperation between the police forces in the organising country and the participating countries;
  • cooperation between the police and the organisers of a football match.

The Council does not rule out the possibility that forms of police cooperation established for football matches might be extended to other sporting events.

EU guidelines on violence against women and girls

EU guidelines on violence against women and girls

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EU guidelines on violence against women and girls


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Human rights > Human rights in non-EU countries

EU guidelines on violence against women and girls

Document or Iniciative

EU guidelines on violence against women and girls and combating all forms of discrimination against them . General Affairs Council of 8 December 2008 [Not published in the Official Journal].


Violence against women and girls is a worldwide, institutionalised phenomenon, which may vary depending on a society’s social, economic, cultural and political context. It has serious consequences for the physical and mental health of victims, as well as to societal development in general. It mainly results from economic and power inequalities between sexes, customs, traditions, religious values, political instability and armed conflict.

The term “violence against women” refers to “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”.

With the adoption of these guidelines, the European Union (EU) is making a political and long-term commitment to the issue of women’s rights. Its action in combating violence against women focuses on three interrelated aims:

  • preventing violence;
  • protecting and supporting victims;
  • prosecuting perpetrators.

To this end, the guidelines provide the following operational objectives:

  • promoting gender equality and combating discrimination against women, particularly in the private sphere and in legislation and public policies;
  • gathering data and developing indicators on violence against women, to which end the EU will identify appropriate tools and support EU countries’ data collection efforts;
  • designing effective and coordinated strategies that are applied at all levels and in all sectors of society to prevent violence and protect victims;
  • combating the impunity of perpetrators by ensuring that acts of violence against women are punishable by law, and taking measures to facilitate victims’ access to justice.

EU intervention tools

The EU intervention tools must necessarily allow all relevant actors to become involved. They conform to the operational objectives and are applied complimentarily with other human rights guidelines, such as those on children’s rights and on human rights defenders.

Under the general approaches, the issue of violence against women and girls, and the forms of discrimination that result in such violence, is introduced in all relations with non-EU countries and regional organisations. The main concerns relate to the compliance of national legal frameworks with international standards and commitments, as well as to the proper application and follow-up of the latter. In this context, the EU will also further encourage the ratification of relevant conventions and protocols, namely the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.

The specific additional measures to combat violence against women include:

  • promoting the role of the UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women in situations of widespread and unpunished violence and ensuring that his/her recommendations are followed-up;
  • monitoring the proceedings of cases of violence against women and girls;
  • supporting women’s rights and female human rights defenders;
  • supporting awareness-raising campaigns and policies.

In individual cases of exceptional gravity, for example where violence is perpetrated or tolerated by a country contrary to its international commitments, the EU may also take specific measures.

Violence against women and discrimination that results in such violence are incorporated in the EU’s specific dialogues on human rights and, where necessary, in its other policy dialogues. This includes following-up recommendations of international and regional mechanisms related to women’s rights. The EU will also continue to promote internationally the prevention of violence against women, mainly within the UN.

The Heads of EU Missions have the obligation to include in their human rights reports information on the respect of women’s fundamental rights. EU special representatives and envoys, whose mandates also include women’s rights, are likewise responsible for reporting on the topic.

In its bilateral and multilateral cooperation to defend human rights, the EU will give priority to combating violence against women and girls. Civil society, including the legal and educational fields, will be closely involved. The emphasis will be on cooperation that takes place within the framework of the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights. The aim of this cooperation is to support civil society programmes, focusing on:

  • promoting access to justice and care services;
  • preventing violence;
  • strengthening the capacities of national administrations, relevant civil society organisations and other stakeholders involved in dealing with violence against women, its causes and consequences.

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Action to prevent violence against children, young people and women: the DAPHNE II programme

Action to prevent violence against children, young people and women: the DAPHNE II programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Action to prevent violence against children, young people and women: the DAPHNE II programme


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Human rights > Fundamental rights within the European Union

Action to prevent violence against children, young people and women: the DAPHNE II programme (2004-08)

This programme is the second phase of the Daphne programme. Its aim is to prevent and combat all forms of violence against children, young people and women by taking preventive measures and providing support for victims. It also seeks to assist organisations active in this field and to encourage cooperation between them.

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 803/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 adopting a programme of Community action (2004 to 2008) to prevent and combat violence against children, young people and women and to protect victims and groups at risk [OJ L 34 of 30.04 2004].


Thanks to the Daphne programme, the EU provides added value to actions predominantly undertaken by the Member States to prevent violence through the dissemination and exchange of information and experience, the promotion of an innovative approach, the joint establishment of priorities, the development of networking and the mobilisation of all parties concerned.


Three target groups have been clearly identified. These are children (up to the age of 18), young people (12-25 years old) and women.

All types of violence and all aspects of this phenomenon are concerned, whether occurring in public or in private. It includes violence in the family, in schools and other educational institutions or in the workplace, commercial sexual exploitation, genital mutilation and human trafficking.

The programme is open to the Member States of the European Union and the European Economic Area (EEA), Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria (subject to certain conditions as regards the last three countries).

Access to the programme

The programme is open to participation by public or private not-for-profit organisations and institutions (local authorities at the relevant level, university departments and research centres) working to prevent and combat violence against children, young people and women, to provide support for victims, to promote rejection of such violence or to encourage attitude and behaviour change towards vulnerable groups and victims of violence.

Programme objectives

An annex to Decision 803/2004/EC describes the transnational actions which are eligible for aid. This basically involves the development of networking, exchanges of information and good practice and awareness-raising measures. The Daphne programme covers the following types of action, which form part of the call for proposals for specific co-financed projects (“Call for Proposals I”):

  • identification and exchange of good practice and professional experience;
  • production of surveys, studies and research;
  • field work involving the beneficiaries in project design, implementation and evaluation;
  • creation of sustainable multidisciplinary networks;
  • training and use of educational packages;
  • treatment and support programmes for victims and perpetrators;
  • development and implementation of information and awareness-raising activities for specific target groups;
  • identification and promotion of activities which help to generate respect for persons who are vulnerable to violence and to ensure their well-being and development.

Provision has also been made for additional activities at the Commission’s initiative to fill any gaps in the programme or to complement areas which have not been sufficiently taken into account in the proposals. These activities form part of the call for proposals for the transfer, adaptation and use of the available results (“Call for Proposals II”). Examples include studies, development of indicators and data gathering or other activities to reinforce the knowledge base of the programme.

Eligible projects

To be eligible for funding, projects must involve at least two Member States. “Call for Proposals 1” projects may last 12 or 24 months and financial support from the Community budget may not exceed 80 % of the total cost of the project. “Call for Proposals II” projects must last 12 months and may receive support equivalent to 100 % of the total cost.

Implementation and follow-up

The Commission is responsible for managing and implementing the programme. It must ensure that any results or products funded by the programme are available free of charge and in electronic format. It must also ensure a balanced approach towards the three target groups (children, young people and women). It is assisted in these various tasks by a committee.
The Commission is required to submit a progress report to Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions by 1 June 2006 at the latest and a final report on completion of the programme.


Daphne II follows up the Daphne I programme, which expired at the end of 2003. Daphne I was a great success and met a real need in terms of strategies to combat violence. The financial framework for the second phase of the programme (2004-2008) is EUR 50 million, as against EUR 20 million for the first phase. Daphne funds projects which aim to provide support to victims of violence and to prevent their being exposed to violence in future. Projects of this kind should help to raise awareness of the personal and social damage which violence does to victims, families, communities and society at large.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 803/2004/EC 30.04.2004 OJ L 143 of 30.04.2004.

Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015

Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Equality between men and women

Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 21 September 2010 – Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015 [COM(2010) 491 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


This Strategy follows on from the roadmap 2006-2010 for equality between women and men. It takes up the priorities defined by the women’s charter and forms the Commission’s work programme. It also outlines the key actions planned for the period 2010-2015.

This Strategy also acts a basis for the cooperation between the Commission and the other European institutions, Member States and other stakeholders, as part of the European Pact for equality between women and men.

Economic independence of women

The female employment rate has increased significantly during the past decade. However, this progression needs to continue if the objective of a 75% employment rate, as set by the Europe 2020 strategy, is to be met. It also needs to be extended to those groups of women with the lowest employment rates. Progress is needed in order to improve the quality of jobs and work/life reconciliation policies.

The Commission will undertake initiatives aimed at:

  • promoting equality as part of the Europe 2020 strategy and through EU funding;
  • promoting female entrepreneurship and self-employment;
  • assessing workers’ rights with regard to leave for family reasons;
  • assessing Member States’ performance with regard to childcare facilities;
  • supporting gender equality in matters of immigration and the integration of migrants.

Equal pay

The Commission highlights that the gender pay gap still exists, including for equal work and work of equal value. There are many causes of this pay gap, in particular, segregation in education and in the labour market.

In order to contribute towards eliminating unequal pay, the Commission will:

  • with social partners, explore possible ways to improve the transparency of pay;
  • support equal pay initiatives in the workplace such as equality labels, ‘charters’ and awards;
  • institute a European Equal Pay Day;
  • seek to encourage women to enter non-traditional professions, for example in the ‘green’ and innovative sectors.

Equality in decision-making

Women are under-represented in the decision-making process, both in parliaments and national governments and on management boards of large companies, despite making up half the workforce and more than half of new university graduates in the EU.

The Commission will:

  • propose targeted initiatives to improve the situation;
  • monitor progress made towards achieving the 25% target for women in top-level decision-making positions in research;
  • promote an increase in the number of women in the committees and expert groups established by the Commission, with the aim of achieving at least 40% female membership;
  • promote greater participation of women in European Parliament elections.

Dignity, integrity and an end to gender-based violence

According to estimates, 20 to 25% of women living in the EU have suffered physical violence at least once during their lives and up to half a million women living in Europe have been subjected to genital mutilation.

The Commission will:

  • propose an EU-wide strategy on combating violence;
  • ensure that EU asylum legislation takes account of gender equality considerations;
  • monitor gender issues in the field of health.

Gender equality in external actions

The EU’s external policy will contribute towards gender equality and women’s empowerment. In this respect, the Commission will:

  • progress equal treatment between women and men in the candidate and potential candidate countries for accession to the EU;
  • implement the EU Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Development (2010-2015);
  • conduct a regular dialogue and exchange of experience with the European Neighbourhood Policy partner countries;
  • integrate equal treatment considerations into humanitarian aid operations.

Horizontal issues

The Commission is committed to progressing equal treatment between women and men, paying particular attention to:

  • the role of men in gender equality;
  • disseminating good practice on redefining gender roles in youth, education, culture and sport;
  • the correct implementation of European legislation, particularly Directive 2004/113/EC on equal treatment in the access to and supply of goods and services and Directive 2006/54/EC on equal opportunities;
  • the governance and tools of gender equality, particularly through the drafting of an annual report on gender equality in order to contribute to a yearly top-level Gender Equality Dialogue involving the European Parliament, the Commission, Member States and key stakeholders.