Tag Archives: TU

Turkey: the Commission recommends opening accession negotiations

Turkey: the Commission recommends opening accession negotiations

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey: the Commission recommends opening accession negotiations

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Ongoing enlargement > Turkey

Turkey: the Commission recommends opening accession negotiations

In its Communication of October 2004 the European Commission finds that Turkey sufficiently fulfils the Copenhagen political criteria and recommends opening accession negotiations with Turkey. It does however set certain conditions for opening negotiations. It suggests a strategy based on three pillars.
In the Commission’s view the final objective, accession, is clear but it cannot be guaranteed in advance.

Document or Iniciative

Communication of 6 October 2004 from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Recommendation of the European Commission on Turkey’s progress towards accession [COM(2004) 656 final – Not published in the Official Journal]

Summary

The Commission considers that Turkey sufficiently fulfils the Copenhagen political criteria and suggests opening accession negotiations subject to certain conditions. It also proposes – for the first time – establishing a tight framework for the negotiations using a three-pillar strategy.

The Commission stresses that accession cannot take place before 2014, and that it must be thoroughly prepared to allow for smooth integration and to avoid endangering the achievements of over fifty years of European integration.

Opening negotiations subject to conditions

In the light of the changes that have taken place in Turkey in recent years, the Commission considers that it sufficiently fulfils the Copenhagen political criteria. It has made substantial progress with political reform, in particular through the far-reaching constitutional and legislative changes adopted in recent years in line with the priorities set out in the Accession Partnership. However, the Law on Associations, the new Penal Code and the Law on Intermediate Courts of Appeal have not yet entered into force. Moreover, the Code on Criminal Procedure, the legislation establishing the judicial police and the law on execution of punishments have yet to be adopted.

Turkey is making serious efforts to ensure proper implementation of these reforms. Nevertheless, legislation and implementation measures need to be further consolidated and broadened. This applies specifically to the zero tolerance policy in the fight against torture and ill-treatment and the implementation of provisions relating to freedom of expression, freedom of religion, women’s rights, International Labour Organisation (ILO) standards including trade union rights, and minority rights.

In view of the overall progress already achieved with reforms, and provided that Turkey brings into force the outstanding legislation mentioned above, the Commission recommends that accession negotiations be opened. It proposes that when opened, they should be organised around three pillars.

Three-pillar negotiations

The first pillar concerns cooperation to reinforce and support the reform process in Turkey, in particular in relation to the continued fulfilment of the Copenhagen political criteria. The EU will therefore monitor the progress of the political reforms closely. This will be done on the basis of a revised Accession Partnership setting out priorities for the reform process. Starting at the end of 2005 there will be an annual general review of the progress of political reforms. To this end, the Commission will present a first report to the European Council in December 2005.

The Commission may also recommend suspending the negotiations if there is a serious and persistent breach of the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms or the rule of law on which the Union is founded. If such a recommendation is made, the Council may, by a qualified majority, decide to suspend negotiations.

The second pillar concerns the specific way in which accession negotiations with Turkey are to be approached. They will be held in the framework of an Intergovernmental Conference consisting of all Member States of the EU. For each chapter of the negotiations, the Council must lay down benchmarks for the provisional closure of negotiations, including a satisfactory track record on implementation of the acquis. Existing legal obligations relating to alignment with the acquis must be fulfilled before negotiations on the chapters concerned are closed. Long transition periods may be necessary.

In some spheres, such as structural policies and agriculture, specific arrangements may be needed. The Commission is considering permanent safeguards concerning the free movement of workers. Turkey’s accession is also likely to have an important financial and institutional impact. The EU will therefore need to define its financial perspective for the period from 2014 before negotiations can be concluded.

The third pillar entails enhanced political and cultural dialogue between the people of the EU Member States and Turkey. This includes a dialogue on cultural differences, religion, migration issues and concerns about minority rights and terrorism. Civil society should play the most important role in this dialogue, which the EU will facilitate.

Assessment of issues raised by Turkey’s possible accession

As well as the Regular Report on Turkey and its recommendation, the Commission has also presented a detailed impact study on issues raised by Turkey’s possible accession to the European Union. The study concludes that Turkey’s accession would be a challenge for both the EU and Turkey. If well managed, it could offer important opportunities for both. The necessary preparations for accession would last well into the next decade. The EU will evolve over this period, and Turkey should change even more radically. The Community acquis, i.e. the whole body of EU policies and legislation, will develop further and respond to the needs of an EU of 27 or more. Its development may also anticipate the challenges and opportunities of Turkey’s accession.

Background

Relations between the EU and Turkey go back a long way. In 1963 Turkey and the European Economic Community entered into an Association Agreement which referred to the possibility of membership. In 1995, a customs union was formed and, in Helsinki in December 1999, the European Council decided to grant Turkey the official status of an accession candidate. It considered at that point that the country had the basic features of a democratic system but displayed serious shortcomings in terms of human rights and the protection of minorities.

Against this background, in December 2002 the Copenhagen European Council concluded that the European Council of December 2004 should decide on the basis of a report and a recommendation from the Commission whether Turkey fulfilled the Copenhagen political criteria and, accordingly, whether the EU would open accession negotiations with Turkey.

Related Acts

EEC-Turkey Association Agreement (1963), Official Journal No 217 of 29.12.1964.

Conclusions of the Brussels European Council of 16 and 17 December 2004

The European Council decided that the European Union would open accession negotiations with Turkey on 3 October 2005. The negotiations will be based on the three pillars proposed by the Commission in its recommendation of October 2004.

COMMISSION ASSESSMENT

Commission report COM(98)711 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(1999)513 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2000)713 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2001)700 final – SEC(2001) 1756
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2002)700 final – SEC(2002) 1412
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003)676 final – SEC(2003) 1212
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2004)656 final – SEC(2004) 1201
Not published in the Official Journal

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Turkey – Regional policy

Turkey – Regional policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Regional policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Ongoing enlargement > Turkey

Turkey – Regional policy

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

References

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report highlights progress concerning regional policy, but also some failures concerning the financial management and financial control of pre-accession funds. The administrative capacities still need to be strengthened.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

In the field of regional policy, the acquis essentially comprises framework regulations and implementing regulations which do not require transposition into national law. They define the rules applicable to the development, approval and implementation of the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund, which each reflect the territorial organisation of the country. These programmes are negotiated and agreed with the Commission, but their implementation is the responsibility of the Member States. When choosing and implementing projects, Member States must comply with Community legislation in general, for example in the areas of public procurement, competition and the environment. They must have a suitable institutional framework and administrative capacities to ensure that the programming, implementation, monitoring and assessment of projects are carried out in a rational and cost-effective manner with regards to management and financial control.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Some progress was made in the field of regional policy and co-ordination of structural instruments. There are delays in establishing the bodies to take over the financial management and control responsibilities of pre-accession funds in this policy area. Although the institutional administrative capacity has been improved, there is a need for further strengthening of this capacity and improved coordination between all relevant institutions in order to accelerate implementation.

RELATED ACTS

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report highlighted the progress made to finalise the legislative and institutional framework required for using the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA). In addition, the structures for establishing regional policy needed to be designed with accession in mind, particularly those relating to the structural funds and to strengthening local and regional institutions.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1390 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Turkey – External relations, Common Foreign and Security Policy

Turkey – External relations, Common Foreign and Security Policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – External relations, Common Foreign and Security Policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Ongoing enlargement > Turkey

Turkey – External relations, Common Foreign and Security Policy

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

References

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report highlights progress made by Turkey in terms of alignment. However, although Turkey has made an effort to maintain a dialogue on common foreign and security policy matters, its relations with Israel have deteriorated somewhat.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

In this field the Community acquis mainly comprises directly binding legislation which does not require transposition into national law. EU legislation results from the Union’s multi-lateral and bi-lateral agreements on matters of trade policy as well as from a certain number of autonomous preferential trade measures. In the fields of development and humanitarian aid, Member States must comply with the relevant EU legislation and international commitments and equip themselves with the capacities required to participate in EU policies in these sectors. Candidate countries are invited to progressively align their policies with regard to third countries, and their positions within international organisations, with the policies and positions adopted by the Union and its Member States.

The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) are based on legal acts, legally binding international agreements in particular, and on policy documents. The acquis comprises declarations, actions and policy agreements. Member States must be in a position to conduct political dialogue under the framework of the CFSP, to align with the EU’s declarations, to take part in EU action and to apply the appropriate sanctions and restrictive measures. Candidate countries are invited to progressively align with the EU’s declarations and to apply sanctions and restrictive measures if required.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Turkey has achieved a high level of alignment in the area of external relations, owing to the Customs Union. Some discrepancies still remain in areas such as the general system of preferences in terms of its geographical coverage.

Turkey’s alignment with the EU’s common foreign and security policyhas continued; overall Turkish alignment with CFSP declarations fell during the reporting period and Turkey did not align with EU restrictive measures on Iran, Libya or Syria. Turkey has sought dialogue and consultation with the EU on various foreign policy issues. Turkey made efforts to normalise relations with its neighbouring countries, such as Iraq, including the Kurdish regional government. No progress was made in the normalisation of ties with Armenia. Relations with Israel further deteriorated since the Gaza Flotilla incident in 2010. After the publication of the independent UN report, Turkey downgraded relations with Israel and suspended military agreements with Israel.

Turkey is continuing to contribute to CSDP and is seeking greater involvement in CSDP activities. The issue of EU-NATO cooperation, which would involve all EU Member States beyond the “Berlin plus arrangements”, remains to be resolved. Turkey has not aligned itself with the EU position on membership of the Wassenaar Arrangement.

RELATED ACTS

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report presented Turkey’s efforts to normalise its relations with its neighbours, particularly Greece, Armenia, Iraq (including the Kurdish government) and Syria. At the same time, its relations with Israel had deteriorated. In addition, the country had not aligned with the European position regarding the export controls for conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies. Finally, progress needed to be made in order to conclude the country’s alignment with the acquis on external relations and commercial matters, in particular.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1390 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Turkey

Turkey

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Ongoing enlargement > Turkey

Turkey

STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK

  • Partnership for the accession of Turkey
  • Turkey: the Commission recommends opening accession negotiations
  • Participation of Cyprus, Malta and Turkey in Community programmes
  • Turkey’s pre-accession strategy

ADOPTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS

  • Turkey – Economic and Monetary Policy
  • Turkey – Employment and social policy
  • Turkey – Agriculture, fisheries and food safety
  • Turkey – Enterprises
  • Turkey – Internal market
  • Turkey– Taxation
  • Turkey – Competition
  • Turkey – Transport
  • Turkey – Energy
  • Turkey – Environment
  • Turkey – Health and consumers
  • Turkey – Education and culture
  • Turkey – Information society and media
  • Turkey – Research and new technologies
  • Turkey – External relations, Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • Turkey – Regional policy
  • Turkey – Justice and security

Turkey's pre-accession strategy

Turkey’s pre-accession strategy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey’s pre-accession strategy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Ongoing enlargement > Turkey

Turkey’s pre-accession strategy

Turkey is adopting the Community acquis in stages; the approach is set out in the following documents:

  • the Association Agreement between the European Community and Turkey (1963) and the 1970 additional protocol;
  • the Commission’s communication on a European strategy for Turkey (4 March 1998);
  • the Commission’s Regular Reports on Turkey’s progress towards accession;
  • The Council Decision of 19 May 2003 on the principles, priorities, intermediate objectives and conditions contained in the Accession Partnership with Turkey.

Background

The Association Agreement (“Ankara Agreement“) signed between the Community and Turkey in 1963 and the protocol added in 1970 lay down basic objectives in their relations, such as the continuous and balanced strengthening of trade and economic relations and the establishment, in three phases, of a customs union. Another objective of the Ankara Agreement is the free movement of workers. For socio-economic reasons however, it has not been possible to achieve this according to the timetable set. Decision No 1/95 of the Association Council (31 December 1995) completed the final phase of the customs union and gave significant impetus to Turkey’s efforts to align its national legislation with that of the Community. In fact, for the customs union to operate smoothly, Turkey had to adopt a large part of the acquis before it entered into force; in particular, this concerned aspects relating to customs, trade policy, competition and the protection of intellectual, industrial and commercial property.

On 4 March 1998, following the request of the Luxembourg European Council (12 and 13 December 1997), the Commission adopted its Communication on a European strategy for Turkey. The main elements of the pre-accession strategy for Turkey include the approximation of legislation and the adoption of the acquis. The Communication also contains initial operational proposals for implementing the strategy. Apart from extending the customs union to the service sector and agriculture, the Communication proposes closer cooperation between the EC and Turkey and the approximation of legislation in certain areas. The strategy was welcomed by the Cardiff European Council (15 and 16 June 1998), where it was felt that the Communication, “taken as a package, … provides the platform for developing our relationship on a sound and evolutionary basis”.

Subsequently, on 17 July 1998, Turkey responded with its own suggestions in a document entitled “A strategy for developing relations between Turkey and the European Union Turkey’s proposals“, which is generally in line with the Commission’s text.

The Communication of 4 March 1998 contains proposals which can be followed up in future. Indeed, the Cardiff Council invited the Commission and the appropriate Turkish authorities “to pursue the objective of harmonising Turkey’s legislation and practice with the acquis“. In due course, there would need to be a thorough examination of Turkish legislation. The Council, recalling the need for financial support for the European strategy, noted “the Commission’s intention to reflect on ways and means of underpinning the implementation of the European strategy, and to table appropriate proposals to this effect”. On 21 October 1998, the Commission presented two draft regulations to provide funding of EUR 50 million a year for the European strategy.

As regards the administrative and judicial capacity to apply the acquis, the Madrid European Council (15 and 16 December 1995) set out the preconditions for the gradual and harmonious integration of the applicant countries. The Commission’s Agenda 2000 communication showed that the Turkish administration had the capacity needed to draw up and apply legislation compatible with the acquis. Nevertheless, in its November 1998 report, the Commission highlighted certain weaknesses in the judicial system.

The Report on Turkey’s progress towards accession, published in November 1998, followed the same methodology as that used for the Opinions on the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEECs). It was based on Article 28 of the Association Agreement and the conclusions of the Luxembourg European Council. When drawing up the report, however, the Commission encountered some difficulties in obtaining quickly all the information needed to assess Turkey’s capacity to adopt those aspects of the Community acquis that go beyond what has already been integrated under the customs union or covered in the European strategy for Turkey.

The situation changed after the report was published in November 1998. The Commission’s 1999 Regular Report on Turkey’s progress towards accession, the European Commission recognised Turkey’s status as an applicant country. It stressed, however, that negotiations would not start until the political criteria had been met. In the meantime, Turkey will benefit in the framework of the current European strategy from a pre-accession strategy designed to encourage and support its reforms. In this connection, the Commission intended to adopt a number of measures aimed at:

  • strengthening the political dialogue, with a particular focus on human rights issues, and involving Turkey in Community positions and activities under the CFSP;
  • coordinating all sources of EU financial assistance in the run-up to accession within a single instrument;
  • providing for Turkey’s full participation in Community programmes and agencies;
  • adopting an accession partnership, linked to a national programme for the adoption of the acquis;
  • establishing mechanisms similar to those in the Europe Agreements for monitoring the implementation of the accession partnership, and starting with Turkey a process of analysing the acquis with a view to harmonising legislation and practices.

The Commission’s 2000 Regular Report on Turkey’s progress towards accession states that debate on political reforms with a view to accession to the European Union has already commenced. Turkey has adopted a number of international human rights instruments and accepted the work of the Supreme Board of Coordination for Human Rights. However, the situation on the ground remains unchanged and Turkey still does not meet the Copenhagen political criteria. Turkey is slow in implementing the institutional reforms needed to guarantee democracy and the rule of law. Corruption remains a problem. Although a large proportion of the Turkish economy is strong enough to cope with competitive pressure and market forces in a customs union with the European Union, implementation of a viable market economy is not yet complete. Restructuring is required in a number of sectors, such as banking, agriculture and state enterprises. The report states that alignment with the acquis in Turkey is very far advanced in the fields covered by the customs union, but that greater effort is required with regard to other policies. An implementation and enforcement mechanism must be put into action. Administrative reform at all levels is also necessary.

The 2001 Regular Report considers that all components of the pre-accession strategy for Turkey decided upon a the Helsinki European Council will be in place by the end of that year and that the next, more intensive phase can be launched with a detailed analysis of Turkish legislation and preparations to align it on the Community acquis. The Commission encourages Turkey to continue the process of political and economic reform and to implement the priorities set out in its partnership for accession. In the short term, Turkey should give priority to improving the observance of human rights and creating conditions conducive to development and economic growth. The report finds that Turkey has not managed to progress towards attaining a viable market economy, even though large parts of its economy are already competitive on the EU market under the customs union.

According to the 2002 Regular Report, Turkey, through constitutional reform and a series of legislative packages, has made noticeable progress towards meeting the Copenhagen political criteria, as well as moving forward on the economic criteria and alignment with the acquis. Nonetheless, considerable further efforts are still needed. Against this background and with a view to the next stage of its candidacy, the Commission recommends that the EU should step up support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations and provide significant additional resources for this purpose. The report welcomes the progress made by Turkey, particularly in abolishing the death penalty (except in wartime), adopting important measures for authorising languages other than Turkish in radio, television and education, and lifting the state of emergency in two of the four provinces in which it was in force. It also points out that Turkey has made progress towards a viable market economy, which should improve its ability to deal with the pressure of competition and market forces within the European Union. However, it finds that Turkey does not fully meet the criteria relating to the acquis and needs to make further efforts in this area.

The 2003 Regular report describes the significant progress that Turkey has made towards meeting the political, economic and acquis-related Copenhagen criteria. In 2003 the Turkish government showed great determination in accelerating the pace of reforms, which brought far-reaching changes to the political and legal system. It also took important steps to ensure their effective implementation, in order to allow Turkish citizens to enjoy fundamental freedoms and human rights in line with European standards. However, much effort is still needed in quite a number of areas.

The 2004 Regular Report notes that Turkey has substantially progressed in its political reform process, in particular by means of far-reaching constitutional and legislative changes adopted over the last years, in line with the Accession Partnership priorities. Despite this, legislation and implementation needs to be further consolidated and broadened. This applies in particular to a zero-tolerance policy for combating torture and maltreatment and to the application of provisions on freedom of expression, religious freedom and women’s and minority rights. In its Recommendation of 6 October 2004, the Commission considered that Turkey sufficiently meets the Copenhagen political criteria. It therefore recommends that conditional accession negotiations be opened with the country. On that basis, the European Council of December 2004 programmed the opening of accession negotiations with Turkey for October 2005.

References

EEC-Turkey Association Agreement (1963)
Official Journal No 217 of 29.12.1964

Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council
OJ L 35, 13.2.1996

Commission Communication to the Council: European strategy for Turkey – COM(98) 124 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(98) 711 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Regular Reports on the applicant countries
Composite document COM(1999) 500 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(1999)513 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2000)713 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Decision 2001/235/EC

Official Journal L 85 of 24.3.2001

Commission Report COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756
Not published in the Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 2500/2001

Official Journal L 342 of 27.12.2001, corrigendum: Official Journal L 285 of 23.10.2002

Commission Report COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412
Not published in the Official Journal

Decision 2003/398/EC

Official Journal L 145 of 12.6.2003

Commission Report COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201
Not published in the Official Journal

Conclusions of the Brussels European Council of 16 and 17 December 2004
The European Council decided that the European Union would open accession negotiations with Turkey on 3 October 2005. The negotiations will be based on the three pillars proposed by the Commission in its recommendation of October 2004.

Article 28 of the Association Agreement: “As soon as the operation of this Agreement has advanced far enough to justify envisaging full acceptance by Turkey of the obligations arising out of the Treaty establishing the Community, the Contracting Parties shall examine the possibility of the accession of Turkey to the Community”

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Turkey – Economic and Monetary Policy

Turkey – Economic and Monetary Policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Economic and Monetary Policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Economic and monetary affairs > Economic and monetary affairs: enlargement

Turkey – Economic and Monetary Policy

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report notes a robust economic recovery in Turkey. The market economy is functioning and is able to cope with competitive pressure. However, the Report regrets to report a rise in trade account deficits, and external imbalances. Some structural reform needs to be implemented.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS – (according to the Commission’s words)

EU legislation on economic and monetary policy contains specific rules requiring the independence of central banks in Member States, prohibiting direct financing of the public sector by the Central Bank and prohibiting privileged access of the public sector to financial institutions. Upon accession, new Member States will be expected to coordinate their economic policies and will be subject to the provisions of the Stability and Growth Pact on budget monitoring matters. These States are also committed to complying with the criteria laid down in the Treaty in order to be able to adopt the euro. Until their adoption of the euro, they will participate in Economic and Monetary Union as a Member State with derogation and will treat their exchange rates as a matter of common concern.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

The economy of Turkey is currently experiencing a robust economic recovery. Public finances are improving and confidence in a lasting transformation of the country’s economic prospects and stability is increasing. Nevertheless, the rapid expansion of economic activity, driven by strong domestic demand, has led to significant and rising external imbalances that pose a threat to macroeconomic stability.

As regards the economic criteria, Turkey is a functioning market economy. It should be able to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union in the medium term, provided that it accelerates the implementation of its comprehensive structural reform programme.

The economy expanded rapidly in 2010 and in the first half of 2011. Along with the high GDP growth, strong employment growth allowed for a decrease in unemployment. As a result of primarily higher cyclical revenues and a lower interest burden, the consolidation of public finances remained on track. The financial sector has shown considerable strength thanks to earlier reforms while the legal system continues to function relatively well. Moreover, the new law on State aid monitoring and the operation of the regulatory authority may increase transparency and lead to a reduction of State aid. The free interplay of market forces has been confirmed. Privatisation has accelerated. The EU remains Turkey’s most important trade partner and investor.

However, trade and current account deficits have been rising and external imbalances are now significant. Monetary policy has been only mildly successful in curbing credit growth, which along with high commodity prices, continues to feed Turkey’s growing current account deficit. More support from the fiscal side, and some specific and targeted micro-prudential measures are being elaborated, including by the banking regulator, in order to help engineering a soft landing of the economy and ease the burden placed on monetary policy. Turkey’s price and cost export competitiveness has slightly worsened. Inflation has started to rise, in large part due to pressures stemming from energy and food inputs, buoyant economic activity and hikes in administrative prices. A more resolute implementation of structural reforms is awaited. Measures to increase fiscal transparency and better anchor fiscal policy were modest, while they could help Turkey to gain credibility in the markets. Market exit remains difficult and bankruptcy proceedings are still relatively cumbersome.

Turkey has made some progress on economic and monetary policy. The Central Bank adopted a new policy mix to ensure financial stability, reducing policy rates while increasing reserve requirements for the banking sector. Turkey’s alignment with the acquis on economic and monetary policy is not complete, particularly as regards the full independence of the Central Bank and the prohibition of privileged access of the public sector to financial institutions. The overall level of preparedness is advanced.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report presented the economic and monetary strategies adopted by the country following the international financial crisis. The authorities have also been very active in improving their economic relations at international level and cooperation with neighbouring States. However, progress was still required in aligning Turkish legislation with the acquis, particularly in the financial institutions sector.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2008 Report highlighted the continuing problems. The Central Bank was still not totally independent and monetary financing of the public sector and privileged access of public authorities to financial markets were maintained. However, measures taken to coordinate and reform economic and monetary policy have enabled the country to progress towards a more stable macroeconomic framework.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2007 Report found that progress had been made as regards economic and monetary policy. However, certain steps had still not been taken, in particular provisions for the independence of the Central Bank. The European Commission also noted that economic policy formulation remained fragmented and often insufficiently coordinated. In general, preparations in the field of economic and monetary affairs were at an advanced stage.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2006 Report found that Turkey had made little progress as regards monetary policy but rather more in terms of economic policy. Legislation to prevent monetary financing of the public sector and to prohibit privileged access of public authorities to financial institutions was not in line with the acquis. The absence of economic impact assessments and efficient coordination and cooperation reduced the effectiveness of economic policy.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2005 Report noted some progress in the field of economic policy. Alignment on the acquis in the monetary policy field remained limited. However, the capacity to implement an effective economic and monetary policy was still held back by the lack of an effective system for coordinating formulation, cooperation and implementation.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].
Its October 2004 Report found that Turkey had made no progress in adopting the EMU acquis, covering direct public-sector financing by the Central Bank, prohibition of privileged access by the public sector to financial institutions, and the independence of the Central Bank.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in the Official Journal].

In its November 2003 Report the Commission noted that no progress had been made in this field.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
Its October 2002 Report found that no further progress had been made as regards direct public-sector financing by the Central Bank. The same was true of the prohibition on privileged access by the public sector to financial institutions and the independence of the Central Bank.

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In its November 2001 Report the Commission found that Turkey had made progress in the adoption of the economic and monetary union (EMU) acquis.

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission’s November 2000 Report found that little progress had been made in the area of economic and monetary policy.

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Turkey – Health and consumers

Turkey – Health and consumers

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Health and consumers

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Ongoing enlargement > Turkey

Turkey – Health and consumers

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report signals progress both in public health and consumer protection matters. However, the country must complete its alignment with European legislation and develop its administrative capacities.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

The acquis in this area covers protection of the economic interests of consumers in a number of specific sectors (misleading and comparative advertising, price indication, consumer credit, unfair contract terms, distance and doorstep selling, package travel, timeshare, injunctions for the protection of consumers’ interests, certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees), as well as general safety of consumer goods (liability for defective products, dangerous imitations and general safety of goods) and distance marketing of consumer financial services. The Member States of the European Union (EU) must transpose the acquis into their national law, and establish administrative structures and independent implementation bodies which ensure real market surveillance and effective application of the acquis. They must also provide appropriate judicial and out-of-court dispute resolution mechanisms. Furthermore, they must ensure that consumers are informed and educated and that consumer organisations play an active role. This chapter also covers certain binding rules with regard to public health.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Some progress can be reported on consumer and health protection.

In the area of consumer protection, revised framework laws for consumer protection and general product safety are still to be adopted. Improvement of market surveillance activities requires the allocation of further financial and human resources, while cooperation with consumer NGOs needs strengthening.

In the area of public health, Turkey has not yet completed the legislative alignment process nor built up the administrative capacity to improve the enforcement of legislation in order to enhance the health and safety status of the population.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report stated that preparations in the fields of consumer protection and public health were on the right track. However, in terms of consumer protection, additional effort was required to strengthen consumer organisations and to ensure that legislation is implemented effectively. In the field of public health, the Report noted significant progress in terms of alignment with the acquis. However, implementation of the legislation still needed to be improved.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2009 Report did not present any significant progress but the Commission announced preparations in view of the continuation of the reforms.

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2008 Report emphasised the good level of consumer protection offered by Turkey. However, the administrative capacity and cooperation of the market surveillance authorities should be developed. In addition, the share of the budget allocated to market surveillance was not adapted to the size of the country. The Commission also noted with regret the weak influence of the consumer associations.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2007 Report presented the progress made by Turkey. It also noted the lack of influence on the part of the consumer movement in Turkey.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2006 Report noted that Turkey had still to comply with European standards for the notification of dangerous products and the exchange of information on such products. Nevertheless, the Report mentioned improvements in the protection of consumers’ economic interests, such as the transposal of the Community Directive on credit cards.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2005 Report described progress in implementing non-safety-related measures, but no progress had been made in the area of safety. The increase in administrative capacity had not yet taken effect.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2004 Report noted that Turkey had made progress in implementing the acquis with regard to non-safety-related measures. It should therefore continue its efforts to transpose and implement the acquis with regard to liability for defective products.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2003 Report confirmed that Turkey had made good progress, but needed to continue its efforts to transpose and apply the acquis.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2002 Report recommended concentrating on bringing the legal framework into line with the acquis and on effectively implementing the measures already transposed.

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 1999 Report noted that the alignment of Turkish legislation with the Community acquis was continuing to progress slowly. Improvements were expected particularly in institutional terms.

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In its 1998 Report the Commission noted that the framework Consumer Protection Act adopted in September 1995 had led to major improvements in legislative harmonisation in this field.

Turkey – Employment and social policy

Turkey – Employment and social policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Employment and social policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Employment and social policy: international dimension and enlargement

Turkey – Employment and social policy

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM (2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report notes limited progress in the area of employment and social policy. Although constitutional changes have been made, the granting of full trade union rights is still not guaranteed. Undeclared work and that of women remain a source for concern.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

The acquis in the social field includes minimum standards in areas such as labour law, equal treatment of women and men, health and safety at work and anti-discrimination. The European Social Fund (ESF) is the main financial tool through which the EU supports the implementation of its Employment Strategy and contributes to social inclusion efforts in the fight against social exclusion (implementation rules are covered under Chapter 22, which deals with all structural instruments). The Member States participate in social dialogue at European level and in EU policy processes in the areas of employment policy, social inclusion and social protection.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Turkey made limited progress in the field of social policy and employment. Administrative capacity showed some improvement. Constitutional amendments regarding trade union rights have not resulted in further changes of the legislation aimed at granting full trade union rights in line with EU standards and ILO conventions. The reduction of large-scale undeclared work and the increase of female employment rates are still matters of concern. The scope of the labour law remains limited. Enforcement of health and safety at work legislation needs to be stepped up. The risk of poverty remains very high, especially for the rural population and for children. Legislation establishing an equality body has not yet been adopted.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2010 Report highlighted the progress made by Turkey in the field of social policy and employment. However, alignment with the European social acquis remained limited. Reforms needed to continue in the areas of health and safety at work, trade union law and the fight against poverty.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2009 Report noted limited progress. The legislation on labour law, discrimination, health and safety at work had not yet been aligned with European standards. However, there had been good progress on the preparations for the introduction of the European Social Fund in the country. The establishment of the Parliamentary Commission on Equal Opportunities for Men and Women also constituted progress. The country had to take appropriate action to reduce unemployment and to combat poverty.

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2008 Report noted that Turkey still needed to make progress despite the adoption of a package of political measures in employment, social protection law and a social security system. The Joint Assessment Paper on priorities in employment and the Joint Inclusion Memorandum on inclusion were still to be finalized.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The 2007 Report highlighted the efforts necessary to promote gender equality and to strengthen administrative capacity.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2006 Report noted the progress made, particularly with regard to social protection and the implementation of a new law on people with disabilities.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2005 Report noted changes in the fields of labour law and health and safety at work. The Turkish authorities had started working on the Joint Assessment Paper of Employment Policy Priorities (JAP) and the Joint Inclusion Memorandum (JIM) to combat social exclusion. The administrative capacity of the Ministry of Labour had also been strengthened.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2004 Report noted that the process of alignment was still incomplete. Progress was needed to improve the health of the population and to make promoting social inclusion a priority.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in Official Journal].
The 2003 Report emphasised that, although the process of alignment on Community law had begun, particularly labour law, a great deal nevertheless remained to be done on social dialogue, social protection, promoting social inclusion and public health.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2000 Report noted that Turkey had much to do as regards transposing Community acquis in the areas of employment and social affairs.

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Turkey – Agriculture, fisheries and food safety

Turkey – Agriculture, fisheries and food safety

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Agriculture, fisheries and food safety

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Agriculture > Agriculture: enlargement

Turkey – Agriculture, fisheries and food safety

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report notes progress on agricultural and rural development matters. The European Commission believes that the country is ready to move to the second phase of the Instrument for pre-Accession Assistance in Rural Development (IPARD) programme. Food security and veterinary and phytosanitary policy are also progressing, as is the fisheries policy. However, animal welfare still needs to be improved.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

The agriculture chapter covers a large number of binding rules, many of which are directly applicable. The proper application of these rules and their effective enforcement by an efficient public administration are essential for the functioning of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). The CAP includes the setting-up of management and control systems such as a paying agency and the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), and also the capacity to implement rural development measures. EU accession requires integration into the common market organisations for a range of agricultural products, including arable crops, sugar, animal products and specialised crops. Member States must also be able to apply EU legislation on direct aid for farmers and to manage the common market organisations for various agricultural products.

The fisheries
acquis consists of regulations, which do not need to be transposed into national legislation. However, it requires the introduction of measures to prepare the administration and operators for participation in the Common Fisheries Policy (in the areas of market policy, resource and fleet management, inspection and control, structural actions and State aid). In some cases, existing fisheries agreements or conventions with third countries or international organisations need to be adapted.

This chapter covers detailed rules in the area of food safety. The general foodstuffs policy sets hygiene rules for foodstuff production. Furthermore, the acquis provides detailed rules in the veterinary field, which are essential for safeguarding animal health, animal welfare and safety of food of animal origin in the internal market. In the phytosanitary field, EU rules cover issues such as quality of seed, plant protection material, harmful organisms and animal nutrition.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

There is some progress to report in the area of agriculture and rural development. Significant progress has been made in the implementation of the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance for Rural Development (IPARD) programme, leading to the Commission Decision to confer the management of EU funds, as well as in preparations achieved for the second phase of the IPARD programme. Agricultural support policy differs substantially from the CAP and there is still no strategy for its alignment. The failure to fully remove barriers to beef imports also constitutes a major shortcoming.

As regards food safety, veterinary and phytosanitary policy, progress towards transposition and implementation of the acquis has been achieved. The restructuring of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is a positive step towards strengthening the official control system. The overall control system is still not fully in line with the EU acquis. Considerable effort is needed in the area of animal health and in bringing agri-food establishments into compliance with the EU hygiene and structural requirements.

In fisheries, some progress can be reported overall. In particular some progress has been made on setting up administrative structures as well as on resource and fleet management. Turkey is expected to make further progress in other areas such as inspections and controls.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].

In its 2010 Report, the Commission noted the improvements in the management of the fisheries sector and marine resources. On the other hand, in the field of agriculture, considerable efforts remained to be made in order to develop an appropriate administration, to remove obstacles to trade, to improve the quality of production and to encourage rural development.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2008 Report indicated that progress made in terms of alignment with the acquis remained limited. Turkey has however strengthened the capacity required to implement IPARD. However, it still had to put into place the corresponding administrative and monitoring structures. Turkey seemed to be drifting away from the principles governing the reformed CAP by encouraging aid related to production.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2007 Report recorded some progress on agriculture, in particular the adoption of the legislation on the paying agency for the instrument for pre-accession assistance in the field of rural development (IPARD). Turkey also needed to continue aligning its legislation with the post-reform CAP. On fisheries, there had been some progress as regards resource and fleet management, but more work was needed.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2006 Report showed that legislative changes had produced uneven results in the field of agriculture. Some progress had been seen on rural development. However, Turkey’s adoption of a new law on agriculture signalled a move away from the principles of the reformed CAP. No progress was reported on fisheries. Limited progress had been made in aligning veterinary, plant-health and food policies. Neither the legislative framework nor the administrative structures to allow implementation of the acquis had been set up.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The October 2005 Report indicated that limited progress had been made on alignment with the Common Agriculture Policy mechanisms. In addition, Turkey needed to build the administrative capacity needed to ensure implementation. Nonetheless, progress had been reported in some areas of veterinary, plant-health and food policies. Turkey had not made substantial progress in the fisheries sector, regarding either legislation or administrative restructuring.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The October 2004 Report registered that only limited progress had been made since the previous report. Turkey needed to pursue the process of alignment and improve the administrative capacity necessary to satisfy the essential requirements for implementing EU agricultural rules. Similarly, the degree of alignment with the acquis and application of existing regulations was limited.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2003 Report highlighted the continued effort being made by Turkey. Generally, programmes needed to be launched in most sectors. Some progress had been made, particularly in the veterinary and plant-health fields, but Turkey had to do more to align its legislation. Limited progress had been made on fisheries.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2002 Report showed the limited progress made by Turkey on alignment with EU agriculture and fisheries legislation.

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2001 Report showed that Turkey was only beginning the process of alignment with the acquis. Moreover, no progress had been made since the previous report on either agriculture or fisheries.

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2000 Report underlined that many changes were needed to align Turkish agricultural policy with the Community acquis. No progress had been made on fisheries since the previous report.

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

In its October 1999 Report, the Commission noted that Turkey would have to make substantial efforts to align its agricultural policy with the Community acquis. There was no information available to assess Turkey’s progress in the area of fisheries.

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Turkey – Enterprises

Turkey – Enterprises

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Enterprises

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enterprise > International dimension and enlargement

Turkey – Enterprises

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report notes the substantial progress made with regard to enterprise policy and industrial policy, to the extent that they now comply with almost all of the criteria of the acquis. An effective action plan and industrial strategy must be implemented for the period 2011-2014.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

EU industrial policy seeks to promote industrial strategies which strengthen competitiveness by accelerating adaptation to structural changes and encouraging a framework conducive to the creation and development of enterprises across the EU and to national and foreign investment. It also seeks to improve the overall business environment in which small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operate. It presupposes a process of privatisation and restructuring (see also Chapter 8 – Competition policy). The Community strategy in this area essentially involves defining fundamental principles and drawing up industrial policy declarations. The implementation of enterprise policy and industrial policy requires an adequate administrative capacity at national, regional and local level.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Turkey has made further progress in the area of enterprise and industrial policy, where Turkey maintains a sufficient level of alignment with the acquis. The progress relates to the adoption of an Industrial Strategy and Action Plan covering the period 2011-2014, the wider availability of enterprise and industrial policy instruments, the adoption of sectoral strategies and alignment on combating late payment in commercial transactions.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report noted a satisfactory level of alignment with the acquis of the legislation concerning enterprises and industrial policy. However, the improvements made to the business environment remained inadequate.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The Report noted that Turkish legislation was now satisfactorily aligned with the Community acquis. New progress had been made, in particular, in the establishment of comprehensive and sectoral industrial strategies.

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2008 Report noted the new progress achieved regarding SME policy and the improvement to the business environment. However, Turkey had not yet adopted the revised comprehensive industrial strategy.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2007 Report noted that overall, Turkey has achieved a good degree of alignment with the acquis in the field of enterprise policy and industrial policy.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2005) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2006 Report noted the substantial progress achieved by Turkey and specified what progress had yet to be made.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2005 Report noted further progress. Turkey’s industrial policy was then largely in line with the fundamental principals of the common industrial policy. However, Turkey had to continue its efforts to make further progress and to build on the advances already made.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2004 Report highlighted Turkey’s progress with regard to its industrial policy. Although Turkey had achieved a degree of conformity with Community principles in this field, further efforts were nevertheless required.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2003 Report stated that Turkey had made some progress with its industrial policy. Efforts did, however, need to be made in terms of privatisation. The same applied to SMEs, where the business climate and access to funding remained uncertain.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC (2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2002 Report noted that Turkey had made little progress in the field of industrial policy and a policy in favour of SMEs.

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC (2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2001 Report stated that Turkey had continued to stabilise the macroeconomic situation. Little progress had been made with the policy on enterprise and industry. The policy on SMEs and the system of support for enterprises had been revised.

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In its November 2000 Report, the Commission noted that the main progress had been achieved in the privatisation of state enterprises.

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In its 1999 Report, the Commission stressed that Turkish industry had been influenced by negative international macroeconomic developments.

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].