Tag Archives: Tourism

Sectoral development policies

Sectoral development policies

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Sectoral development policies


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > Sectoral development policies

Sectoral development policies

Within the framework of development cooperation the Union places the emphasis on a number of areas where solutions have been tailored to the needs of developing countries on the basis of the relevant comparative advantage, which involve not only economic and social development and governance but also the environment food security, agriculture and infrastructure.

This thematic, cross-sectoral approach, particularly highlighted in the “European Consensus on Development”, also aims to ensure cohesion between European policies and the development priorities which might be affected by those policies.



  • Governance in the consensus on development
  • Governance and development
  • Tax governance in developing countries

Human Rights

  • A financing instrument for the promotion of democracy and human rights in the world (2007 – 2013)

Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) and civil society

  • Local authorities and development assistance
  • Non-state Actors and Local Authorities
  • Cooperation with indigenous peoples


Education and training

  • Investing in people
  • Education and training in the context of poverty reduction

Equality between men and women

  • Strategy for gender equality in development policy


  • Children in EU external action


  • The EU Role in Global Health
  • Health: health and poverty reduction
  • Programme for Action to combat lack of personnel in the health sector (2007-2013)
  • Compulsory licensing system for the production and export of generic medicinal products to developing countries
  • Programme for Action to Confront HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis (2007-2011)
  • Update on the EC Programme for Action – Accelerated action on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis
  • Health: programme for accelerated action on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis (2001-2006)
  • Essential medicines for developing countries (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria)
  • Health: global fund to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria


  • Global partnership for sustainable development
  • Integrating sustainable development into Community cooperation policy
  • Strategy for sustainable development



  • Environment and sustainable management of natural resources, including energy
  • United Nations Convention to combat desertification in countries seriously affected by drought

Climate change

  • Global climate change alliance
  • Climate change in the context of development cooperation


  • Biodiversity Action Plan for Economic and Development Co-operation
  • The Rio de Janeiro Convention on biological diversity


  • Water: water management in developing countries
  • Guidelines for cooperation towards development in the area of water resources
  • European Water Facility for the ACP countries


  • The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
  • Cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries on nuclear safety
  • Energy cooperation with the developing countries
  • ACP-EU Energy Facility


  • FLEGT Licensing scheme
  • Fight against illegal logging
  • Combating deforestation


  • Partnership agreements with Non-EU Member Countries
  • Fisheries: fisheries and poverty reduction


  • Agricultural commodities, dependence and poverty
  • Fighting rural poverty
  • Advancing African agriculture
  • Land policy in developing countries
  • Partnership with Africa for the development of the cotton industry
  • The International Coffee Agreement 2007


  • Strategic framework for food security in developing countries
  • Facility for rapid response to soaring food prices
  • Combating hunger: strategy for food security
  • Food Aid Convention


  • Supporting developing countries in coping with the crisis


  • Scheme of preferences from 2006 to 2015 – Guidelines
  • A scheme of generalised tariff preferences 2009-2011
  • Generalised System of Preferences 2006 – 2008
  • Aid for Trade in developing countries
  • Towards an EU Aid for Trade strategy
  • Assisting developing countries to benefit from trade
  • Fair Trade and non-governmental trade-related sustainability assurance schemes
  • Fair trade


  • International investments: towards a comprehensive European policy
  • EU support for business sector development in third countries
  • The reform of state-owned enterprises in developing countries


  • Euro-African Partnership for infrastructure


  • Transport: guidelines
  • Promoting sustainable transport

Communication and information

  • Information and communication Technologies


  • Development of sustainable tourism


  • Migration and development: some concrete orientations
  • Cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in the areas of migration and asylum


  • Mine Action Strategy 2005-2007

The new supporting competences of the EU

The new supporting competences of the EU

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The new supporting competences of the EU


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Lisbon Treaty: a comprehensive guide

The new supporting competences of the EU

The Treaty of Lisbon creates four new areas of competence in which the European Union (EU) may intervene: civil protection, administrative cooperation, tourism and sport.

The EU’s new competences in these areas are supporting competences. The EU does not acquire any additional legislative powers insofar as it can act only to support the actions of Member States, without being able to harmonise national law.

Moreover, the EU already intervened in these areas by means of cross-cutting policies. From now on, the Treaty of Lisbon clarifies the EU’s objectives and action by creating specific legal bases for these four areas.


The Treaty of Lisbon endeavours to improve the EU’s ability to deal with natural or man-made disasters. Article 196 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU enables the EU to adopt measures relating to:

  • risk prevention;
  • preparing civil-protection personnel;
  • responding to natural or man-made disasters;
  • international cooperation between national civil-protection services;
  • consistency in international civil-protection work.

Moreover, these provisions on civil protection are to be linked with the solidarity clause in Article 222 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU. This clause enables the EU to assist a Member State which has been the victim of a terrorist attack or a natural or man-made disaster.


Administrative cooperation between Member States becomes a competence of the EU (Article 197 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU). The aim is to guarantee the effective implementation of European law, particularly by improving the effectiveness of Member States’ administrations. The EU can therefore adopt new measures aimed at facilitating the exchange of good practice between Member States and the introduction of training programmes.

However, the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU places two restrictions on the exercise of this new power:

  • a Member State may not, under any circumstances, be obliged to avail itself of the support of the Union;
  • the Union may not adopt measures relating to the harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States.


Tourism was already present in several European policies, such as regional policy and employment policy. From now on, the Treaty creates a specific legal basis in order to enable the EU to intervene in this area (Article 195 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU).

EU action can therefore have two objectives:

  • creating a favorable environment for the development of undertakings in the tourism sector;
  • promoting cooperation between the Member States, particularly through the exchange of good practice.


The Treaty of Lisbon confirms the EU’s competence in the area of sport. However, it does not create a specific article but incorporates a legal basis relating to sport into the section of the Treaties devoted to education, vocational training and young people.

Article 165 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU states that the EU’s objective is to promote European sporting issues. Specifically, the EU will be able for example to support Member States’ actions aimed at protecting the physical and moral integrity of sportsmen and sportswomen or actions aimed at combating doping in sport.

The EU will also be able to develop cooperation with international bodies in the area of sport.

Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism

Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enterprise > Industry

Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 19 October 2007 – Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European tourism [COM(2007) 621 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


This Communication is the official launching and endorsement of an Agenda for sustainable and competitive tourism. The objectives of this Agenda are to deliver economic prosperity, social equity and cohesion and environmental and cultural protection.

These involve several challenges for the sector, including:

  • ensuring the safety of tourists and local communities;
  • protecting the natural and cultural resources of tourist destinations;
  • minimising resource use and pollution in tourism destinations;
  • managing change in the interests of the wellbeing of the community;
  • reducing the seasonality of demand;
  • addressing the environmental impact of transport linked to tourism;
  • making tourism experiences accessible to all, without discrimination;
  • improving the quality of tourism jobs.

The objectives of the Agenda will be achieved by means of appropriate policies such as sustainable destination management (for example, through spatial and land use planning or investment decisions on infrastructure and services), the integration of sustainability concerns by businesses and raising awareness of sustainability among tourists.

To achieve competitive and sustainable tourism the Commission proposes the following principles:

  • taking a holistic and integrated approach in order to ensure that tourism is well balanced and respectful of society and the environment;
  • planning for the long term, with an eye to the needs of future generations as well as our own;
  • achieving an appropriate pace of development, respecting the character of tourist destinations;
  • involving all stakeholders;
  • using the best available knowledge and sharing it across Europe;
  • minimising and managing risk (precautionary principle), i.e. taking preventative action to avoid damage to the environment or society;
  • reflecting impacts in costs (user and polluter pay) – prices should reflect the real costs to society of consumption and production activities;
  • setting and respecting limits, where appropriate – it is sometimes necessary to evaluate the capacity of tourist destinations and to limit the amount of tourism development;
  • undertaking continuous monitoring – sustainability means being alert all the time.

All tourism stakeholders in Europe are called upon to participate in the implementation of this Agenda: public authorities at all levels, businesses, tourists, educational and research establishments, trade unions, consumer associations, NGOs and international organisations. The Commission, for its part, plans to implement all of the actions set out below.

Mobilising actors to produce and share knowledge

Best practice related to sustainability and competitiveness must be shared. For this reason the Commission actively supports or will actively support the following initiatives:

  • the organisation of conferences and studies and the publication of a tourism learning area handbook;
  • cooperation between universities, research institutes, public and private observatories, tourism education and transnational training;
  • the creation of alliances between different types of destinations, the strengthening or the creation of platforms;
  • the organisation of the annual European Tourism Forum;
  • the use of the annual reports from Member States;
  • the collection and provision of statistical and geographic data and the activity of observatories;
  • the sharing of best practice with international organisations.

Promoting destinations of excellence

The Commission will continue to implement the “European Destinations of Excellence” (EDEN) initiative. It will also continue to promote Europe as a sustainable, quality destination. It will work towards this with the European Travel Commission and the national tourism organisations, and will lend greater support to the European Destination Tourism Portal.

Mobilising EU financial instruments

Tourism projects may receive funding from several Community funds, including:

  • the Cohesion Fund (in particular the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund);
  • the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development;
  • the European Fisheries Fund;
  • the 7th Framework Programme for Research;
  • the Leonardo da Vinci Programme;
  • the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme.

Mainstreaming sustainability and competitiveness in Commission policies

Several Community policies can have an effect on tourism and its sustainability: environment, transport, employment or research. These policies have different impacts depending on the region. The Commission will take into account the specific needs of the areas, whether coastal areas, mountainous areas, rural areas or urban areas.

Towards a stronger partnership for European Tourism

Towards a stronger partnership for European Tourism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Towards a stronger partnership for European Tourism


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enterprise > Industry

Towards a stronger partnership for European Tourism

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 17 March 2006 on “A renewed EU Tourism Policy – Towards a stronger partnership for European Tourism” [COM(2006) 134 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


As a factor in growth and job creation, the tourism industry plays a key role in the Lisbon Strategy.

The rapid growth of the tourist industry has been driven by globalisation, demographic changes and the evolution in transport. The job creation rate in tourism is above average compared to other sectors, and tourism creates in particular highly diverse jobs, often part-time, thus contributing to the employment of women, young and less-skilled persons. Sustainable tourism also plays a major role in the preservation and enhancement of the cultural and natural heritage, and contributes to local development in an increasing number of less-favoured regions. It also contributes to a better understanding among peoples.

A renewed European tourism policy

The European Union is proposing a new tourism policy to meet the challenges facing this sector and fully exploit its potential. Changing demography, global competition, concern for sustainability and the demand for specific forms of tourism are all challenges which Europe is faced with today.

In light of the above, coordination, dialogue and partnership amongst tourism stakeholders will be essential, as tourism is an activity involving a wide variety of stakeholders. The public authorities at European, national, regional and local levels will need to cooperate with the private sector, the sectoral social partners and stakeholders. The Commission will continue its efforts to keep the members of the Advisory Committee on Tourism informed, in an efficient and transparent way, of the tourism-related initiatives included in its Work Programme.

Mainstreaming measures

The objective of the first set of measures is better regulation. The Commission wants to ensure that the impact assessments for new proposals related to tourism take the competitiveness of the industry into account. It also plans to screen pending legislative proposals and simplify existing European legislation. The Member States are also called upon to carry out exercises of this kind in order to avoid a cumulative administrative burden which could damage the industry’s competitiveness.

In addition, many Community actions, not only in the area of enterprise policy but also in other European policy areas, have nevertheless also had a direct or indirect impact on the competitiveness of European tourism. For this reason, Europe also needs to use other policy instruments to promote competitiveness.

Greater use needs to be made of existing European financial instruments in order to promote tourism:

The Structural Funds, the ERDF and the ESF will support the development of tourism businesses and services, professional mobility, educational programmes and training.

The Cohesion Fund will support environment and transport infrastructures.

The future Leonardo Da Vinci programme includes a new mobility programme for apprentices, for which tourism has been identified as a possible pilot sector.

The EAFRD will provide support to improve the countryside and the quality of agricultural production, and to upgrade the cultural heritage with a view to developing rural tourism and diversifying the rural economy, particularly in the new Member States and the candidate countries.

The EFF proposes eco-tourism as a new area which could absorb the fishermen affected by the restructuring of the fisheries sector. Small-scale fisheries and tourism infrastructure will also be supported.

The proposed “Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme” will support the competitiveness of enterprises, especially SMEs, in the tourism sector.

The proposed 7th EC Framework Programme for Research may result in benefits for the tourism sector, thanks to research on information and communication technologies, satellite applications, cultural heritage and land use.

Promoting sustainable tourism

Based on the 2003 Communication on “Basic orientations for the sustainability of European tourism” and the work of the expert group known as the Tourism Sustainability Group, the Commission plans to present a proposal on a European Agenda 21 for tourism in 2007.

The specific actions which the Commission intends to take to support the sustainability of tourism include:

  • the exchange of good practice at national and international levels to support SMEs and in the area of ‘tourism for all’;
  • evaluation of the economic impact of better accessibility in the tourism sector;
  • publication of a handbook on ‘How to set up Learning Areas in the Tourism sector’;
  • the study of employment trends in coastal and sea-related tourism sectors;
  • assessment of the implications of e-business on the tourism industry;
  • tackling at all levels the sexual exploitation of children by tourists.

Improving understanding of tourism

Up-to-date, detailed, relevant and comparable statistics on tourism are essential in order to make effective decisions. The collection of statistics in the area of tourism must be improved at European and national levels (Eurostat and Tourism Satellite Accounts).

Improving the visibility of tourism

The Commission wishes to promote European tourist destinations via a portal providing practical information for tourists travelling in Europe (transportation, places to visit, activities and when they can be done, weather, etc.) but also drawing attention to the impact which cultural and sporting events organised by European cities and regions can have on SMEs.

The Annual European Tourism Forum, which began in 2002, is hosted by a different Member State every year in collaboration with the Commission. It highlights the complexity of tourism as a phenomenon which affects many parts of the economic and social fabric. The Commission encourages dialogue within this Forum. The fact that a number of Council Presidencies have organised ministerial meetings and conferences has also helped raise the profile of European tourism.


This Communication was published one year after the Communication “Working together for growth and jobs – A new start for the Lisbon Strategy”. The tourism industry is important for the Lisbon Strategy in terms of sustainable growth and job creation, but it must nevertheless address particular challenges.

The development of this collaboration can be reviewed regularly during the European Tourism Forums.


New political framework for European tourism

New political framework for European tourism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about New political framework for European tourism


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enterprise > Industry

New political framework for European tourism

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – “Europe, the world’s No 1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in Europe” [COM(2010) 352 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


In accordance with the new European Union (EU) priorities set out in the ‘Europe 2020’ strategy, and to keep Europe as the world’s top tourist destination, the Commission proposes a new framework for coordinated tourism actions at EU level to increase the competitiveness and capacity for sustainable growth of European tourism.

Tourism represents the third largest socioeconomic activity in the EU and is estimated to generate over 10 % of the EU’s GDP, providing approximately 12 % of all jobs. It is therefore an important sector for both EU citizens and industry, with a positive effect on economic growth and employment within the EU.

The Treaty of Lisbon recognised the importance of tourism, granting the EU the power to support, coordinate and complement actions of the EU countries in this sector. The definition and clarification of the EU’s competencies in this field enables the establishment of a comprehensible framework for action. According to the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU’s specific measures in the tourism sector should be aimed at:

  • encouraging the creation of a favourable environment for the development of undertakings in this sector;
  • promoting cooperation between EU countries, particularly by the exchange of good practice.

Challenges and opportunities facing the European tourism industry

European tourism has faced a difficult economic situation due to the financial and economic crisis of 2008 which had a significant impact on the demand for tourism services. The situation was worsened by the interruption of air traffic due to volcanic ash clouds following the Ejyafjöll volcano eruption in 2010, resulting in an important number of cancelled tourist arrivals and consequently a considerable loss to the air transport sector, as well as to the hotel sector and other tourist-related activities.

New framework for action in European tourism

In line with the ‘Europe 2020’ economic strategy, the framework for tourism actions at EU level can be built around the following four priorities:

  • Stimulate competitiveness in the European tourism sector by:

    • developing innovation in tourism by, for example, facilitating the adaptation of the sector and its businesses to market developments in the field of information and communication technology and innovation;
    • improving professional skills in the sector through promotion of opportunities offered by various EU programmes, such as Leonardo or the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme with its “Erasmus for Young Entrepreneurs” and “E-skills for Innovations” strands;
    • attempting to overcome the seasonal nature of demand by, for example, facilitating voluntary tourism exchanges between EU countries, especially during the low season and for specific target groups of the society, and encouraging the development of a voluntary online information exchange to improve the coordination of school holidays in EU countries;
    • promoting diversification of the supply of tourist services in particular by better focusing on and promoting Europe’s common heritage, as well as by integrating ‘natural’ heritage into tourism strategies;
    • contributing towards a better coordination of tourism-related research activities and consolidating the socioeconomic data on tourism at European level.
  • Promote the development of sustainable, responsible and high-quality tourism by:

    • developing a system of indicators for the sustainable management of destinations which could contribute towards developing a label for promoting sustainable tourist destinations;
    • organising awareness-raising campaigns better informing European tourists about destinations, including information about transport and relationships with the local population;
    • developing a European brand for tourism quality, based on national experiences, to increase consumer security and confidence;
    • facilitating the identification of climate change risks to protect the European tourism industry from making the wrong investments and exploring alternative tourism services;
    • proposing a charter for sustainable and responsible tourism;
    • proposing a strategy for sustainable coastal and marine tourism;
    • establishing or strengthening the EU’s cooperation with emerging countries and with Mediterranean countries to promote sustainable and responsible tourism development models and the exchange of best practice.
  • Consolidate the image and profile of Europe as a collection of sustainable and high-quality destinations by:

    • supporting the creation of a ‘Europe brand’, in close cooperation with EU countries and complementary to their promotional efforts, so as to enable European destinations to better stand out when compared to other international tourist destinations;
    • promoting Europe as a sustainable and high-quality tourist destination through the ‘visiteurope.com’ website and at major international events or large-scale tourism fairs and exhibitions;
    • strengthening EU participation in international bodies.
  • Maximise the potential of EU policies and financial instruments for developing tourism by:

    • better integrating and coordinating tourism with other EU policies, such as transport, competition, internal market, taxation, consumer protection, environment, employment and training, regional and rural development policy which all have a direct or indirect impact on tourism;
    • promoting and mobilising Community support instruments and programmes in favour of tourism, such as the European Regional Development Fund, the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development, and the European Fisheries Fund.

Fire safety in existing hotels

Fire safety in existing hotels

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Fire safety in existing hotels


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Single Market for Goods > Construction

Fire safety in existing hotels

Document or Iniciative

Council Recommendation 86/666/EEC of 22 December 1986 on fire safety in existing hotels.


Member States are recommended to take action to ensure that hotels are subject to provisions based on the principles set out in the Recommendation, in particular:

  • safe escape routes should be available, unobstructed and clearly marked;
  • buildings should be stable at least as long as necessary to allow safe evacuation of occupants;
  • warning systems should be installed and in full working order;
  • staff should be given suitable instructions and training.

The annex to the Recommendation contains technical guidelines in particular for the construction of hotel buildings.

Member States are recommended to inspect hotels periodically.

Member States must inform the Commission of the national regulations which they intend to introduce in the next five years to ensure that hotels meet the requirements of the Recommendation.

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Recommendation 86/666/EEC

OJ L 384 of 31.12.1986

Related Acts

Report from the Commission on application of the Council Recommendation of 22 December 1986 on fire safety in existing hotels (86/666/EEC) [COM(2001) 348 final – Not published in the Official Journal]
On 27 June 2001 the Commission presented a report on the application of the Council Recommendation of 22 December 1986 on fire safety in existing hotels. The Commission points out that the impact of this Recommendation in the different Member States depends on the level of protection already in place and on how national law has been transposed. The national laws already include or even go beyond the Recommendation’s technical guidelines or minimum requirements. In certain Member States the Recommendation has only been partially implemented, being applied only to the construction of new hotels or work in existing establishments.

Council Resolution of 4.5.1997 on fire safety in hotels [Official Journal C 205 of 25.7.1994].