Tag Archives: Swine

The protection of pigs

The protection of pigs

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The protection of pigs

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal welfare

The protection of pigs

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs.

Summary

This Directive lays down minimum standards for the protection of pigs. The text provides a framework in particular for painful operations: castration, caudal amputation, the elimination of corner teeth, etc.

Scope

Minimum standards apply to all categories of pigs kept for rearing and fattening: piglets (from birth to weaning), weaned piglets (from weaning to 10 weeks old), fatteners (more than 10 weeks old), sows and gilts *, boars *, etc.

These animals are, apart from some exceptions (farrowing sows, boar), to be raised in groups. Farmers must implement measures aimed at fulfilling basic needs and preventing aggression within the group. In particular, pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of enrichment material in order to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities.

Sows and gilts

Pregnant sows and gilts must, if necessary, be treated against external and internal parasites. Tethering sows and gilts has been prohibited since 1 January 2006.

One week before farrowing, sows and gilts can be isolated. An unobstructed area must be available for natural or assisted farrowing. Boxes must be equipped with piglet protection systems.

Piglets (unweaned)

No piglets shall be weaned from the sow at less than 28 days of age unless the welfare or health of the dam or the piglet would otherwise be adversely affected.

Weaned piglets and rearing pigs

Measures shall be taken to ensure that the animals do not fight. Pigs are to be kept in groups and must not be mixed (except if necessary before weaning or during the week following weaning). Aggressive animals are to be kept away from the group (as are injured animals). Tranquilising medicaments are only to be used to facilitate mixing in exceptional conditions and after consultation with a veterinarian.

Painful operations on animals

A veterinarian or “carer”, trained in aspects relating to animal welfare is authorised to carry out the following:

  • reduction of piglets’ corner teeth,
  • docking of tails (before the seventh day of life or after this age if carried out by a veterinarian and under anaesthesia and with additional prolonged analgesia),
  • castration of males (before the seventh day of life or after this age if carried out by a veterinarian and under anaesthesia and with additional prolonged analgesia),
  • nose-ringing in outdoor husbandry systems.

Neither tail-docking nor reduction of corner teeth must be carried out routinely but only where there is evidence that injuries to sows’ teats or to other pigs’ ears or tails have occurred. Before carrying out these procedures, other measures shall be taken to prevent tail-biting and other vices, taking into account environment and stocking densities. For this reason inadequate environmental conditions or management systems must be changed.

Health

Sick or injured pigs are to be placed in individual enclosures.

Feed

The Directive also provides for standards concerning feeding in “sufficient quality” and “permanent” access to drinking water. All pigs must have access to food at the same time as other animals in the group. Animals must be fed at least once a day.

Accommodation

Standards concerning floor area are set according to the weight of the animal: between 0.15 m2 for pigs weighing less than 10 kg and 1 m2 per animal over 110 kg, 1.64 m2 per gilt, 2.25 m2 per sow, 6 m2 for a boar (10 m2 if the boar is used for natural service).

Some accommodation standards will only apply after 1 January 2013 (for buildings constructed before 2003 or after the date of accession to the EU).

Floors must be smooth but not slippery so as to prevent injury to the animals.

The lying area must be comfortable, clean and dry.

Environment

Continuous noise as loud as 85 dB is to be avoided. Light intensity is to be at least 40 lux for eight hours.

Inspections

Member States must carry out inspections each year on a statistically representative sample.

The Commission may send veterinary experts to make on-the-spot checks in the farms with the assistance of national inspectors.

Specific provisions

Member States may apply stricter provisions on their own territory than those laid down in this Directive. In this case, they shall inform the Commission of any such measures beforehand.

Context

This Directive codifies and replaces Directive 91/630/EEC and its subsequent amendments.

Key terms of the Act
  • Gilt: a female pig after puberty and before farrowing.
  • Boar: a male pig after puberty, intended for breeding.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2008/120/EC

10.3.2009

1.1.2008

OJ L 47 of 18.2.2009

African swine fever

African swine fever

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about African swine fever

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

African swine fever

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [See amending acts].

Summary

The Directive lays down the minimum control measures where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed.

Any suspected or confirmed case of the disease must be notified to the competent authority. The Member State concerned informs the Commission and the other Member States of cases of swine fever, outbreaks of the disease and the results of epidemiological inquiries.

Suspected cases of African swine fever on a holding

Where a case is suspected, the Member State must immediately open an official investigation to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease. If the presence of African swine fever on a holding cannot be ruled out, the holding must be placed under official surveillance and restrictions must be placed on the movement of pigs, carcasses, and products that might spread the disease, as well as the movement of persons and vehicles to and from the holding.

An epidemiological inquiry must be carried out.

Confirmation of African swine fever on a holding

If the presence of African swine fever is officially confirmed, all the pigs on the holding are to be killed and their carcasses processed. All material (meat, semen, ova) or waste that might be contaminated must be destroyed, processed or treated to ensure destruction of the virus.

In the case of holdings consisting of two or more separate production units, derogations may be granted for healthy production units on specific, strict conditions.

In addition, all premises, vehicles and equipment that might be contaminated must be cleaned and disinfected under official supervision.

The competent authority must also establish around the outbreak site:

  • a protection zone with a radius of at least three kilometres, itself included in a
  • surveillance zone of a radius of at least 10 kilometres.

Special security measures must be implemented in these zones, in particular a census of all the holdings, a ban on the movement and transport of pigs and cleansing and disinfection measures. The competent authority may authorise, on strict conditions, the removal of pigs from a holding in the surveillance or protection zones within no less than 30 and 40 days respectively after the completion of the preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and, if necessary, disinsectisation of the infected holding.

Where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed in a slaughterhouse or means of transport

Where there is a suspicion of the disease, it must be officially confirmed or ruled out.

Where the presence of the disease is confirmed, all susceptible pigs must be killed and all material (carcases, offal and waste) from animals that might be contaminated must be processed to ensure that the virus is destroyed.

Cleansing, disinfection and, if necessary, disinsectisation of buildings and equipment, including vehicles, must take place under official supervision.

An epidemiological inquiry is carried out. The measures provided for in suspected cases are carried out on contact holdings *. The measures provided for in confirmed cases are applied on the holding of origin of the infected pigs.

Pigs may not be introduced into a holding, slaughterhouse or vehicle that has been affected by the disease until after a minimum period.

Where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed in feral pigs

Where the disease is suspected in feral pigs, the Member State must take all appropriate measures to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease.

Where African swine fever is confirmed in feral pigs, the competent authority of the Member State concerned must establish an expert group to provide assistance, which then defines the infected area and establishes the measures to be applied.

The Member State must immediately place pig holdings in the defined area under official surveillance and order that an official census be carried out of all categories of pigs on all holdings, all pigs on holdings be kept isolated from feral pigs and no pigs enter or leave holdings, except where authorised.

Within 90 days of confirmation of a case of African swine fever, Member States must submit to the Commission a plan of the measures to be taken to eradicate the disease in the infected area. When they have been approved by the Commission, these measures replace those laid down previously. 18. Every six months, the Member State concerned must send the Commission and the other Member States a report concerning the results of the eradication plan and the epidemiological situation in the defined area.

Diagnostic procedures

A diagnostic manual sets out all obligations, criteria and procedures to be applied to diagnostic tests and clinical examinations. These operations must take place exclusively in approved national laboratories.

Each Member State shall designate a national laboratory and then communicate the contact details for their laboratory to the other Member States and to the public. This laboratory is responsible for coordinating the standards and methods of diagnosis aiming at detecting the presence of African swine fever. All national laboratories shall work in cooperation with the Community Reference Laboratories located in Valdeolmos (Spain).

Vectors and vaccines

To prevent any risk of propagation, investigations and measures to eradicate the vectors of the disease (ticks) must be carried out on holdings on which it is confirmed.

The use of African swine fever vaccines is prohibited in the territory of the European Union.

Contingency plans

Each Member State must draw up a contingency plan specifying the national measures to be implemented in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever. The plan is to be drawn up in accordance with the criteria and requirements set out in the Directive.

Member States must ensure that a fully functional national disease control centre can be immediately set up in the event of any outbreaks of African swine fever.

Context

This Directive fills a gap in the control of the most dangerous animal diseases. It is based on the rules on classical swine fever adopted in 2001.

Key Terms of the Act
  • Contact holding: a holding where African swine fever may have been introduced, whether as a result of the location, movement of persons, pigs or vehicles or in any other way.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2002/60/EC

9.8.2002

30.6.2003

OJ L 192 of 20.7.2002

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2002/60/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2003/422/CE of 26 May 2003 approving an African swine fever diagnostic manual [notified under number C(2003) 1696] [Official Journal L 143 of 11.6.2003].

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Veterinary checks animal health rules food hygiene

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 64/432/EEC of 26 June 1964 on animal health problems affecting intra-Community trade in bovine animals and swine [See amending act(s)].

Summary

The Directives apply to intra-Community trade in bovine animals or swine for breeding, production or slaughter.

The transport of bovine animals and swine to another Member State is only authorised if the animals:

  • do not display any clinical sign of disease;
  • have not been obtained from a holding subject to prohibition for animal health reasons;
  • are identified in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2008/71/EC for swine and in accordance with the provisions of Regulation (EC) No 1760/2000 for bovine animals;
  • are accompanied by a health certificate (see Annex F) during transport to the country of destination;
  • come from a bovine herd officially free of tuberculosis, brucellosis or enzootic bovine leukosis (this condition only affects bovine animals).

During transport the animals must not come into contact with other animals which do not conform to the same health conditions.

Furthermore, the vehicles used to transport animals must guarantee their well-being and meet the following additional conditions. They must:

  • be designed in such a way as to prevent the dispersal of droppings, litter or fodder;
  • be cleaned and disinfected after each transportation of animals, in line with the methods and procedures approved by the competent authority;
  • hold a register including information on the location, date and time of the loading and delivery of animals, the type and quantity of animals transported, the length of the journey, the date and location of when the vehicle was disinfected, etc. This information must be kept for at least three years.

In accordance with animal health requirements, animals for slaughter, which have been transported directly to an abattoir on their arrival in the destination country, must be slaughtered within the 72 hours following their arrival. If the animals are transported directly to an approved assembly centre on their arrival in the destination country before being transported to the abattoir, their slaughter must take place within the three working days following their arrival in the assembly centre.

A Member State which has a national control programme for one of the contagious diseases not referred to in Annex E for the whole or part of its territory may submit the said programme to the Commission.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal
Directive 64/432/EEC

30.06.1964

30.06.1965

 L 121 of 29.07.1964

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal

Directive 80/1098/EEC

20.11.1980

1.7.1981

OJ L 325 of 1.12.1980

Directive 80/1274/EEC

31.12.1980

1.1.1981

OJ L 375 of 31.12.1980

Directive 81/476/EEC

1.7.1981

OJ L 186 of 8.07.1981

Directive 82/61/EEC

10.2.1982

1.1.1982

OJ L 29 of 6.02.1982

Directive 82/893/EEC

29.12.1982

1.1.1983

OJ L 378 of 31.12.1982

Directive 83/336/EEC

30.6.1984

OJ L 177 of 4.7.1984

Directive 84/643/EEC

30.06.1984

30.09.1985 (Ireland – United Kingdom)

OJ L 339 of 27.12.1984

Directive 84/644/EEC

30.09.1985

OJ L 339 of 27.12.1984

Directive 85/586/EEC

24.12.1985

01.01.1986

OJ L 372 of 31.12.1985

Directive 87/231/EEC

10.04.1987

OJ L 99 of 11.04.1987

Directive 87/489/EEC

30.10.1987

31.12.1988

OJ L 280 of 03.10.1987

Directive 89/662/EEC

22.12.1989

31.12.1991

31.12.1992 (for Greece)

OJ L 395 of 30.12.1989

Directive 90/423/EEC

26.7.1990

1.1.1992

OJ L 224 of 18.08.1990

Directive 90/425/EEC

26.7.1990

1.7.1992

OJ L 224 of 18.08.1990

Directive 91/687/EEC

19.11.1992

1.1.1992 (for Article 1 point 3 and Article 2 point 1)

1.7.1992 (for all other articles)

OJL 377 of 31.12.1991

Directive 92/65/EEC

29.7.1992

1.1.1994

OJ L 268 of 14.9.1992

Directive 92/102/EEC

08.12.1992

1.2.1993 (registration of bovine animals according to national measures)
1.10.1993 (Community system of registering bovine animals)
1.1.1994 (swine)
1.1.1995 (ovine and caprine)

OJ L 355 of 5.12.1992

Directive 97/12/EC

25.4.1997

30.6.1998

OJ L 109 of 25.4.1997

Directive 98/46/EC

15.7.1998

30.6.1999

OJ L 198 of 15.7.1998

Directive 98/99/EC

31.12.1998

1.1.1999 (Article 2)

1.7.1999 (Article 1)

OJ L 358 of 31.12.1998

Directive 2000/15/EC

3.5.2000

OJ L 105 of 3.5.2000

Directive 2000/20/EC

4.7.2000

1.12.1999

OJ L 163 of 4.7.2000

Regulation (EC) No 535/2002

13.4.2002

OJ L 80 of 23.3.2002

Regulation (EC) No 1226/2002

29.7.2002

OJ L 179 of 9.7.2002

Regulation (EC) No 21/2004

29.1.2004

OJ L 5 of 9.1.2004

Regulation (EC) No 1/2005

25.1.2005

OJ L 3 of 5.1.2005

Decision 2006/911/EC

29.12.2006

OJ L 346 of 9.12.2006

Directive 2006/104/EC

1.1.2007

OJ L 363 of 20.12.2006

Decision 2007/729/EC

OJ L 294 of 13.11.2007

Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.10.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 64/432/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purpose only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2008/185/EC of 21 February 2008 on additional guarantees in intra-Community trade of pigs relating to Aujeszky’s disease and criteria to provide information on this disease [Official Journal L 59 of 4.3.2008].
See consolidated version

Commission Decision 2004/558/ECOfficial Journal L 249 of 23.07.2004 of 15 July 2004 implementing Council Directive 64/432/EEC as regards additional guarantees for intra-Community trade in bovine animals relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the approval of the eradication programmes presented by certain Member States.
See consolidated version

Commission Decision 2003/467/EC of 23 June 2003 establishing the official tuberculosis, brucellosis, and enzootic-bovine-leukosis-free status of certain Member States and regions of Member States as regards bovine herds [Official Journal L 156 of 25.6.2003].
See consolidated version