Tag Archives: Scientific cooperation

Scientific and technological cooperation with Egypt

Scientific and technological cooperation with Egypt

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Scientific and technological cooperation with Egypt

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research and innovation: international dimension and enlargement

Scientific and technological cooperation with Egypt

Acts

Council Decision 2008/180/EC of 25 February 2008 concerning the conclusion of the Agreement on scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Summary

This decision marks the conclusion of the Agreement on scientific and technological cooperation by the European Community (EC). This was a provisional agreement between the Community and Egypt signed on 21 June 2005.

The aim of the Agreement is to strengthen cooperation between the two parties in the fields of common interest where they are carrying out scientific and technological research and development projects.

The Agreement enables Egyptian legal entities * to participate in the framework programme of the European Community and, vice versa, legal entities in the Member States can participate in Egypt’s research programmes and projects in themes equivalent to those of the EC Framework programme. Activities undertaken include the implementation of research programmes, technological development and demonstration activities promoting cooperation with and between businesses, centres of research, universities, non-member countries and international organisations. The activities also aim to encourage training and the movement of researchers, as well as the dissemination and optimisation of the results of research activities, whilst also respecting the provisions for intellectual property rights.

The two parties shall facilitate the free movement of researchers and materials used for the activities covered in the Agreement. Grant funding can be allocated to a legal entity of Egypt participating in a Community action.

Coordination is undertaken by a joint committee called “EC-Egypt Joint Scientific and Technological Cooperation Committee”. The Committee is responsible for the evaluation and implementation of the Agreement. The remit of the Committee also includes the identification of sectors where cooperation could be developed and research priorities. The Committee shall meet at least once a year.

Context

The Agreement between the European Community and Egypt establishes a formal framework for cooperation in scientific and technological research

Key terms of the act
  • Legal entity: any natural person, or any legal person created under the national law of its place of establishment or under Community law or international law, having legal personality and being entitled to have rights and obligations of any kind in its own name.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2008/180/EC

27.2.2008

OJ L 59 of 4.3.2008

Scientific and technological cooperation with the United States

Scientific and technological cooperation with the United States

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Scientific and technological cooperation with the United States

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research and innovation: international dimension and enlargement

Scientific and technological cooperation with the United States

Acts

Council Decision 98/591/EC of 13 October 1998 concerning the conclusion of the Agreement for scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and the Government of the United States of America.

Council Decision 2009/306/EC of 30 March 2009 concerning the extension and amendment of the Agreement for scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and the Government of the United States of America.

Summary

Decision 2009/306/EC aims to extend the Agreement for scientific and technological cooperation concluded between the European Community (EC) and the United States on 5 December 1997 in Washington for a period of five years.

Its objective is to reinforce cooperation between the two parties in common priority areas in which they carry out scientific and technological research and development activities. Areas of cooperative activities are as follows:

  • environment,
  • biomedicine and health,
  • agriculture,
  • fisheries science,
  • engineering research,
  • non-nuclear energy,
  • natural resources,
  • materials sciences (including nanotechnology) and metrology,
  • information and communication technologies (ICTs),
  • telematics,
  • biotechnology,
  • marine sciences and technologies,
  • social sciences research,
  • transportation,
  • security research,
  • space research,
  • science and technology policy, management, training and mobility of scientists.

The Agreement allows American legal entities * to participate in the European Community Framework Programme. Reciprocally, legal entities from Member States can participate in American programmes on themes that are equivalent to those of the EC Framework Programme. Actions carried out concern the implementation of research programmes, technological development and demonstration by promoting cooperation with and between enterprises, research centres, universities, third countries and international organisations. They also aim to encourage the training and mobility of scientists, as well as the dissemination and optimisation of the results of research activities, whilst complying with the provisions for intellectual property.

The two parties will facilitate the free circulation of scientists and equipment used for activities covered by this Agreement. Funding may be granted to an American legal entity participating in a Community action.

Coordination will be carried out by a Joint Consultative Group (JCG) who will meet once a year. This group is composed of a limited and equal number of representatives from each party. It is responsible for evaluating and monitoring the implementation of the Agreement. Its remit also includes determining the sectors where cooperation could be reinforced and to define research priorities.

Context

The Agreement between the European Community and the United States of America establishes an official cooperation framework with regard to scientific and technological research. It was concluded on 5 December 1997 for an initial period of five years. It can be extended with possible amendments for additional periods of five years.

Key terms of the Act
  • Legal entity: a natural or legal person created in accordance with national law in the place of its establishment or with Community or international law, with a legal personality and being able to hold rights and obligations of any nature in its own name.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 98/591/EC

13.10.1998

OJ L 284 of 22.10.1998

Decision 2009/306/EC

30.3.2009

OJ L 90 of 2.4.2009

Scientific and technological cooperation with Jordan

Scientific and technological cooperation with Jordan

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Scientific and technological cooperation with Jordan

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research and innovation: international dimension and enlargement

Scientific and technological cooperation with Jordan

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2011/348/EC of 10 November 2009 on the signing, on behalf of the Community, and provisional application of the Agreement between the European Community and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on Scientific and Technological Cooperation.

Agreement between the European Community and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on Scientific and Technological Cooperation.

Summary

The European Union (EU) and Jordan undertake to develop their cooperation in the field of science and technology.

Their cooperation is based, in particular, on the principles of mutual benefit and promotion of knowledge as a factor in economic and social development.

The implementation of the Agreement is managed by a joint cooperation committee.

Functioning of the cooperation

Cooperation activities may be undertaken by natural or legal persons. In this respect, the EU and Jordan must facilitate the free movement and residence of research workers in their respective territories, and the movement of goods intended for use in cooperation.

Participants established in Jordan may participate in indirect actions under the EU’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities. The European authorities are authorised to perform controls and audits on contracts and grant agreements awarded to Jordanian participants, with the support of the country’s authorities.

Participants established in the EU may participate in research, development and demonstration programmes and projects in Jordan. They shall carry out their actions with due regard to national rules and be treated equitably compared with Jordanian participants.

Cooperation activities may take the following forms in particular:

  • regular political dialogue in the area of research;
  • exchanges of scientific and technological information;
  • exchanges of research workers, engineers and technicians;
  • exchanges of equipment, materials and testing services;
  • research and technological development training.

In addition, the Jordanian authorities and the Commission shall exchange information on current programmes and on new cooperation opportunities.

Intellectual property rights

Rules concerning the protection of intellectual property rights and the dissemination of knowledge are laid down in Annex II to the Agreement. These rules are compatible with national and international regulations. They apply to knowledge generated in the course of cooperation activities, to scientific literary works and to confidential information.

Satellite navigation applications

Satellite navigation applications

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Satellite navigation applications

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Intelligent transport and navigation by satellite

Satellite navigation applications

Document or Iniciative

Green Paper of 12 December 2006 on Satellite Navigation Applications [COM(2006) 769 final – Not published in the Official Journal]

Summary

The market in products and services generated by the introduction of satellite navigation is forecast to reach 400 billion by 2025. Galileo, a flagship programme of European space policy, together with Egnos, is part of the GNSS (global navigation satellite system) providing a range of positioning, navigation and timing services.

The Green Paper also underscores the Commission’s aim of fostering innovation in the wider context of the Lisbon strategy, under which the public sector should promote the EU’s competitiveness at world level.

The Green Paper outlines the sectors set to benefit from the introduction of the Galileo system as a result of the large number of applications that it will be possible to develop. The areas of application for satellite navigation include:

  • location-based services and emergency calls: through the integration of the Galileo system’s receivers in a large number of devices such as mobile phones, location-based services and personal mobility are the main markets for satellite navigation. Customers will be able to access specific “vicinity” information (the nearest hospital or the best way to a restaurant, etc.);
  • road transport: this area also covers a wide range of applications, from navigation devices to automatic toll systems, safety applications and pay-per-use insurance. Galileo thus ties in with the eSafety initiative, which includes a wide range of applications that could make use of accurate vehicle positioning;
  • rail transport: railway infrastructure includes signalling and train location systems, mainly installed at track side. These are gradually being replaced by the ERTMS/ETCS systems. Galileo will help to improve the safety of train speed control and operating systems;
  • maritime, inland waterway and fisheries navigation: the efficiency, safety and optimisation of marine transportation can benefit from satellite navigation. Galileo should provide benefits for safety applications, safety improvements and automatic identification systems (AISs). It can also be used for port approaches. Directive 2005/44/EC recommends the use of satellite positioning technologies for vessel tracking and tracing in inland waterway transport;
  • air transport: satellite navigation opens up highly interesting prospects in this field. The analyses point to strong growth in air traffic up to 2025. The accuracy and integrity of the Galileo system will enable the use of existing airports to be optimised. The SESAR joint undertaking, which implements the legal framework laid down in the single European sky regulations, will also rely on satellite navigation;
  • civil protection, emergency management and humanitarian aid: helping people after earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and other natural or man-made disasters requires the location of people, assets and resources. Satellite navigation should shorten the response times of rescue services and optimise their deployment;
  • dangerous goods: the legal framework will need to be updated to take account of the many options that Galileo will offer. In the event of problems, satellite navigation can also improve emergency response;
  • livestock transport: every year millions of animals are transported in the European Union. Traceability of livestock is of paramount importance to prevent sanitary fraud, ensure food safety and protect animal welfare. Regulation (EC) No 1/2005, which lays down the requirements for the transport of animals, requires the use of satellite navigation systems in all new trucks for long journeys;
  • agriculture, parcel measurement, geodesy and cadastral survey: 11 million farmers grow crops on 110 million hectares of land in the EU. The location and size of parcels are key data for use in information exchange, whether for commercial purposes or applying for subsidies. Monitoring payments under the common agricultural policy requires increasingly detailed information. Farmers also make use of satellite navigation to optimise crops, reduce fertiliser and pesticide inputs and ensure effective use of land and water. Satellite navigation systems can also simplify and improve the quality of data collection in geodesy and cadastral surveys;
  • energy, oil and gas: industry makes extensive use of satellite navigation systems for exploration and exploitation. The safety and security of oil and gas transport can also benefit from the positioning functions offered by Galileo. It can also improve the synchronisation of electricity distribution networks;
  • search and rescue services: by allowing near real-time reception of distress messages from anywhere on Earth with precise location information and contact between rescue centres and people in distress, Galileo will facilitate rescue operations and reduce the rate of false alarms. This also has implications for the fight against illegal immigration and the ability to rescue migrants in distress at sea;
  • a wide range of other applications: these include logistics, the environment, science and the maintenance of public order: satellite navigation systems can also benefit the logistics sector and facilitate multimodality. Other sectors could not be covered in this Green Paper: public transport, public works and civil engineering, immigration and border control, police, monitoring of prisoners, biomass production and feedstock management, environmental management, medical applications and people with disabilities, scientific research, hunting, sports, tourism, waste disposal, etc.

Ethical and privacy issues

What impact will the development of satellite navigation systems have on privacy? The Green Paper points out that all the Member States of the European Union are signatories to the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees respect for “private and family life, home and correspondence”. Directive 2002/58/EC governs the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector.

The range of public action

The public authorities are encouraging the development of satellite navigation technologies. Measures have been taken in a number of areas including support for research and the adoption of the right regulatory framework. The areas of action are:

  • research and innovation;
  • cooperation between SMEs and the European business networks;
  • international cooperation;
  • standardisation, certification and liability;
  • safeguarding the radioelectrical frequency spectrum and promoting the allocation of new frequency bands;
  • protecting intellectual property rights;
  • adapting legislation to new technologies and innovation.

The Green Paper also contains a questionnaire as part of a consultation procedure. The replies will serve as a basis for drawing up recommendations to the Council and Parliament.

Research Executive Agency

Research Executive Agency

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Research Executive Agency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > The institutions bodies and agencies of the union

Research Executive Agency

Document or Iniciative

Commission Decision 2008/46/EC of 14 December 2007 setting up the ‘Research Executive Agency’ for the management of certain areas of the specific Community programmes People, Capacities and Cooperation in the field of research in application of Council Regulation (EC) No 58/2003.

Summary

This Decision establishes the ‘Research Executive Agency’ for the period 1 January 2008 – 31 December 2017. The Agency, governed by Council Regulation (EC) No 58/2003, is responsible for managing some Community activities in the field of research. The tasks of the Agency fall within the scope of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007 to 2013). In particular, they correspond to specific projects implementing the People Specific Programme, the Research for the Benefit of SMEs part of the Capacities Specific Programme, and the Space and Security themes of the Cooperation Specific Programme.

The Agency’s tasks consist of the following:

  • management of parts of the specific programmes listed above;
  • execution of the relevant parts of the budget;
  • collection, analysis and communication of information to guide programme implementation;
  • provision of logistical and administrative support.

The Commission may also entrust the Agency with similar tasks for additional areas of FP7.

The Agency is managed by a Steering Committee and a Director. Both are appointed by the Commission, the first for two years and the latter for four years. The appointments may be renewed.

Financing and supervision

The Agency is financed from funds of the People, Capacities and Cooperation Specific Programmes of FP7. For any additional tasks entrusted under FP7, the financing will come from corresponding funds. The financial regulations are established by the Commission Regulation (EC) No 1653/2004.

The Commission has supervisory authority over the Agency, which is obliged to provide regular progress reports on the implementation of its programmes.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2008/46/EC

14.12.2007 – 31.12.2017

OJ L 11 of 15.1.2008