Tag Archives: Science

European Research Area and European Space Policy

European Research Area and European Space Policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European Research Area and European Space Policy


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Lisbon Treaty: a comprehensive guide

European Research Area and European Space Policy

The Treaty of Lisbon strengthens European Union (EU) action in the field of research. It sets the objective of creating a genuine European Research Area. In addition, the Treaty of Lisbon creates a legal basis enabling the EU to conduct a European Space Policy.

The field of research has particular importance in the EU. It was already at the heart of the Lisbon Strategy (2000). The new Europe 2020 strategy continues in this vein and sets the objective of making the EU a smart economy based on the development of knowledge and innovation. Research and technological development are essential fields in achieving this objective.


The Treaty of Lisbon introduces a legal basis for the creation of a European Research Area. Such an area is intended to permit, in particular, the free movement of researchers, scientific knowledge and technologies. To this end, the EU encourages the removal of fiscal and legal obstacles to cooperation in the field of research.

The Treaty of Lisbon also authorises the Council and the Parliament to take all measures necessary for the creation of the European Research Area. The two institutions adopt these measures in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure.

The Council and the Parliament must therefore adopt a multiannual framework programme for the funding of all European projects in the field of research. This framework programme is adopted in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure. The budget for the Seventh Framework Programme (2007-2013) is EUR 50.5 billion, attesting to the importance attached to research in the EU. Moreover, it is the world’s largest international research programme.

Finally, in the field of research there is a special distribution of competences between the EU and Member States. According to Article 4 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU, the EU and the Member States have shared competence in the field of research and space. However, and contrary to the basic rule governing shared competence, the exercise of the EU’s competence does not limit the competence of Member States, which may therefore take action on their own account.


The Treaty of Lisbon introduces a new article permitting a European space policy (Article 189 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU) to be drawn up. The main objectives of the space policy are to promote scientific and technical progress and industrial competitiveness.

The European space policy therefore includes activities in the areas of research, technological development, and the exploration and exploitation of space. In accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, the Council and the European Parliament may establish a space programme covering the measures taken in these areas.

Moreover, the European space policy is broadly linked with the activities of the . This Agency is an international organisation which is completely independent of the EU. Its main mission is to draw up and implement common programmes in order to develop cooperation between EU Member States in the field of space.

The Treaty of Lisbon therefore confirms the cooperation between the EU and the European Space Agency. This cooperation is based on a framework agreement which entered into force in May 2004. This framework agreement led in particular to the creation of a Space Council bringing together representatives of the Council of the EU and the Council of the European Space Agency.



Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Cedefop


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Cedefop (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training)

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EEC) No 337/75 of 10 February 1975 establishing a European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training [See amending acts].


The purpose of the Centre is to support the Commission in promoting vocational education and training (VET), and in developing and implementing a common VET policy through its scientific and technical activities. Cedefop raises awareness and understanding of VET’s role in lifelong learning and of its contribution to other policies. It enjoys the broadest legal status in all Member States. The non-profit Centre is based in Thessaloniki (Greece), and its tasks are to:

  • compile documentation on developments in VET, and contribute to the development of VET research, providing evidence from research, statistical data and policy analysis to support VET policy-making;
  • disseminate all useful documentation and information through its website, publications, networks, study visits, conferences and seminars;
  • encourage and support a concerted approach to strengthening European cooperation in VET policy development, and to stimulate interest in the changing nature of occupations and vocational qualifications;
  • provide a forum that brings together diverse VET interests. This includes coordinating, on behalf of the Commission, the consolidated study visits for experts and officials, heads of education and training institutions, guidance and experience accreditation services, and social partners in the lifelong learning programme in line with the Decision on the lifelong learning programme 2008-13.

To attain its objectives, the Centre sets mid-term priorities and annual work programmes. Under its mid-term priorities for 2009-11, the Centre’s strategic objective is to “contribute to excellence in VET and strengthen European cooperation in developing, implementing and evaluating European VET policy”. This strategic objective is supported by four priorities, namely:

  • informing European VET policies;
  • interpreting European trends in and challenges for skills, competences and learning;
  • assessing the benefits of VET;
  • raising the profile of VET.

The outcomes of the Centre’s work are aimed at decision-makers in European institutions and Member States, and the social partners who are, uniquely, present at all levels of VET policy and practice. The Centre’s added value is the high quality of its analyses, and expertise and information to support European cooperation in VET, providing:

  • an independent scientific European perspective through comparative analyses of developments that raise awareness and understanding of VET issues across the EU;
  • insights into complex issues to identify common European approaches and principles to improve VET and achieve common aims;
  • a unique forum that brings together the diverse VET interests of policy-makers, social partners, researchers and practitioners to debate proposals for policy and research;
  • increased awareness of how VET is evolving, of its role in lifelong learning and how it contributes to other policies.

The Centre’s Governing Board adopts all strategic decisions, such as the mid-term priorities, the annual work programme and Cedefop’s estimate of revenue and expenditure. In doing so, it takes account of the needs indicated by Community institutions. The Board comprises 89 members (4 without voting rights) who represent the Commission (3), three distinct groups – governments (28 (rota system for Belgium)), employers’ organisations (27) and employees’ organisations (27) from each Member State – and the coordinators of the employees’ and the employers’ groups at European level. Norway and Iceland are also represented and have observer status. It meets once a year.

The Bureau monitors the implementation of the Governing Board’s decisions and the management of the Centre between Board meetings, as delegated by the Governing Board and in line with the Founding Regulation. It comprises the Chair of the Governing Board, its three Vice-Chairs, another Commission representative and a coordinator appointed by each of the three groups making up the Board.

The Director, who is appointed by the Commission from a list of candidates submitted by the Governing Board, carries out the decisions of the Governing Board and is responsible for the management of the Centre. He/she is the Centre’s legal representative and organises the meetings of the Governing Board and the Bureau. He/she draws up the final accounts and forwards them to the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers, the Commission and the Court of Auditors, together with the Governing Board’s opinion, and implements the Centre’s budget.

The Governing Board is required to send the Commission an estimate of revenue and expenditure for the following financial year by 31 March at the latest each year. This estimate is forwarded by the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council with the preliminary draft budget of the EU. The budgetary authority determines the appropriations available for the Centre.

The budgetary and financial rules applicable to Cedefop are in line with the general Financial Regulation as last amended. All expenditure and revenue of the Centre is checked by the Commission’s accounting officer, who draws up an annual report on budgetary and financial management and sends it to the Court of Auditors, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers.

The Centre’s staff is subject to the staff regulations of the European Communities. Cedefop documents are available to all EU citizens and natural or legal persons without their having to justify their interest. This access is provided for in Regulation (EC) No 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2001.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EEC) No 337/75


OJ L of 39 13.2.1975

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EEC) No 1946/93


OJ L 181 of 23.7.1993

Regulation (EC) No 1131/94


OJ L 127 of 19.5.1994

Regulation (EC) No 251/95


OJ L 30 of 9.2.1995

Regulation (EC) No 354/95


OJ L 41 of 23.2.1995

Regulation (EC) No 1655/2003


OJ L 245 of 29.9.2003

Regulation (EC) No 2051/2004


OJ L335 of 1.12.2004

Related Acts

Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 13 June 2008 on the external evaluation of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training [COM(2008) 356 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Centre underwent an external evaluationto assess its relevance, added value, impact, effectiveness and efficiency during the period 2001-07 (original scope 2001-06). The evaluation report submitted by the Commission to the European Parliament was very positive.

Cedefop’s work was found to be relevant, with the Centre not only responding to the emerging EU VET policy agenda, but also helping influence its development at the highest levels. Since its foundation, the Centre has provided information for the VET community at large, acquiring a strong reputation and visibility in European VET. The Centre was also found to have a very distinct added value. No other organisation has such a dedicated focus and Europe-wide pool of experience and competence in VET. The evaluation noted key strengths where Cedefop clearly has a positive impact and brings added value: supporting the Education and Training 2010 work programme, analysing progress in the Copenhagen process to enhance European cooperation in VET and producing reports for ministerial meetings; bringing together relevant VET research to interpret current trends in Member States and filling knowledge gaps by providing much-needed analysis of current and future skills needs in Europe; providing a space where people in VET can come together to discuss key aspects, and promoting understanding and peer learning.

Iceland – Research and new technologies

Iceland – Research and new technologies

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Iceland – Research and new technologies


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research and innovation: international dimension and enlargement

Iceland – Research and new technologies

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1202 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Overall the situation presented by the 2011 Report is positive given that Iceland participates in the European Economic Area (EEA), the European Research Area and the 7th European Framework Research and Development Programme.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

Due to its specificity, the acquis in the field of science and research does not require any transposition in the national legal order. Implementation capacity does not relate to the application and enforcement of legal provisions but rather to the existence of the necessary conditions for effective participation in the framework programmes. In order to ensure the successful implementation of the acquis in this domain, notably successful association to the framework programmes, Turkey will need to create the necessary implementing capacities in the field of research and technological development including an increase of the personnel assigned to framework programme activities.

The acquis in the field of telecommunications is aimed at the elimination of obstacles to the effective operation of the single market in telecommunications services and networks, and the deployment of universally available modern services. A new regulatory framework on electronic communications was adopted by the European Union (EU) in 2002. As regards postal services, the objective is to implement the single market by opening up the sector to competition in a gradual and controlled way, within a regulatory framework which assures a universal service.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

In general, the country has achieved significant political and legislative alignment in the fields of science and research. It participates actively in the 7th European Research and Development Framework Programme. In addition, due to its involvement in the activities of the European Research Area (ERA), Iceland is close to achieving the objectives of the ERA and the Innovation Union.