Tag Archives: Regional integration

Sectoral development policies

Sectoral development policies

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Sectoral development policies

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > Sectoral development policies

Sectoral development policies

Within the framework of development cooperation the Union places the emphasis on a number of areas where solutions have been tailored to the needs of developing countries on the basis of the relevant comparative advantage, which involve not only economic and social development and governance but also the environment food security, agriculture and infrastructure.

This thematic, cross-sectoral approach, particularly highlighted in the “European Consensus on Development”, also aims to ensure cohesion between European policies and the development priorities which might be affected by those policies.

GOVERNANCE, HUMAN RIGHTS, RULE OF LAW AND DEMOCRACY

Governance

  • Governance in the consensus on development
  • Governance and development
  • Tax governance in developing countries

Human Rights

  • A financing instrument for the promotion of democracy and human rights in the world (2007 – 2013)

Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO) and civil society

  • Local authorities and development assistance
  • Non-state Actors and Local Authorities
  • Cooperation with indigenous peoples

HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Education and training

  • Investing in people
  • Education and training in the context of poverty reduction

Equality between men and women

  • Strategy for gender equality in development policy

Children

  • Children in EU external action

Health

  • The EU Role in Global Health
  • Health: health and poverty reduction
  • Programme for Action to combat lack of personnel in the health sector (2007-2013)
  • Compulsory licensing system for the production and export of generic medicinal products to developing countries
  • Programme for Action to Confront HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis (2007-2011)
  • Update on the EC Programme for Action – Accelerated action on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis
  • Health: programme for accelerated action on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis (2001-2006)
  • Essential medicines for developing countries (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria)
  • Health: global fund to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

  • Global partnership for sustainable development
  • Integrating sustainable development into Community cooperation policy
  • Strategy for sustainable development

ENVIRONMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

General

  • Environment and sustainable management of natural resources, including energy
  • United Nations Convention to combat desertification in countries seriously affected by drought

Climate change

  • Global climate change alliance
  • Climate change in the context of development cooperation

Biodiversity

  • Biodiversity Action Plan for Economic and Development Co-operation
  • The Rio de Janeiro Convention on biological diversity

Water

  • Water: water management in developing countries
  • Guidelines for cooperation towards development in the area of water resources
  • European Water Facility for the ACP countries

Energy

  • The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
  • Cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries on nuclear safety
  • Energy cooperation with the developing countries
  • ACP-EU Energy Facility

Forests

  • FLEGT Licensing scheme
  • Fight against illegal logging
  • Combating deforestation

Fisheries

  • Partnership agreements with Non-EU Member Countries
  • Fisheries: fisheries and poverty reduction

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

  • Agricultural commodities, dependence and poverty
  • Fighting rural poverty
  • Advancing African agriculture
  • Land policy in developing countries
  • Partnership with Africa for the development of the cotton industry
  • The International Coffee Agreement 2007

FOOD SECURITY

  • Strategic framework for food security in developing countries
  • Facility for rapid response to soaring food prices
  • Combating hunger: strategy for food security
  • Food Aid Convention

ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  • Supporting developing countries in coping with the crisis

Trade

  • Scheme of preferences from 2006 to 2015 – Guidelines
  • A scheme of generalised tariff preferences 2009-2011
  • Generalised System of Preferences 2006 – 2008
  • Aid for Trade in developing countries
  • Towards an EU Aid for Trade strategy
  • Assisting developing countries to benefit from trade
  • Fair Trade and non-governmental trade-related sustainability assurance schemes
  • Fair trade

Businesses

  • International investments: towards a comprehensive European policy
  • EU support for business sector development in third countries
  • The reform of state-owned enterprises in developing countries

INFRASTRUCTURE

  • Euro-African Partnership for infrastructure

Transport

  • Transport: guidelines
  • Promoting sustainable transport

Communication and information

  • Information and communication Technologies

Tourism

  • Development of sustainable tourism

MIGRATION

  • Migration and development: some concrete orientations
  • Cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in the areas of migration and asylum

OTHER SECTORAL PROVISIONS

  • Mine Action Strategy 2005-2007

Strategy for Iraq 2011-2013

Strategy for Iraq 2011-2013

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategy for Iraq 2011-2013

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Middle east

Strategy for Iraq 2011-2013

Document or Iniciative

European Commission – Iraq Country Strategy Paper 2007-2013 .

Summary

The Commission presents the Strategy Paper and the National Indicative Programme which define the priorities for cooperation between the European Union and Iraq.

The cooperation between the partners aims to:

  • develop a secure and stable democracy where fundamental rights and freedoms are respected;
  • establish a market economy and open society with resources to promote equitable economic and social development;
  • promote the country’s political and economic integration into the wider region and the international economic system.

The strategy also supports the country in its progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Strategy 2007-2013

The joint action programming focuses on three interdependent priority areas:

  • strengthening institutions and good governance;
  • socio-economic recovery, through education and strengthening institutional capacity;
  • water management and agriculture.

In addition, the cooperation actions must take account of the following cross-cutting issues:

  • human capital and competence building;
  • human rights, gender equality and the protection of vulnerable groups;
  • environmental protection.

Implementation

The level of political stability and security in Iraq remains insufficient. Furthermore, the implementation of cooperation actions requires flexible methods to be established.

Funding for the strategy is provided by the financing instrument for development cooperation. Funding from thematic programmes may also be applied for, specifically for the protection of human rights, non-state actors and local authorities, migration, food security and the environment.

Lastly, actions must be carried out in coordination with the Commission, the Member States, and the international organisations involved in the reconstruction and development of the country.

Sweden and Italy play a particular role in the implementation of the strategy given the importance and complementarity of their bilateral cooperation with Iraq. The two States shall continue their action under the framework of this European strategy.

Context

The EU and Iraq are progressing towards the conclusion of a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement. This Agreement will provide a complete political and legal framework for promoting the development of the country, its stability and integration into the international community.

In 2010, the partners adopted a Memorandum of Understanding on Energy in order to provide a framework for cooperation on matters of energy security, renewable energy and energy efficiency, and of scientific, technological and industrial cooperation.

Renewed partnership with Latin America

Renewed partnership with Latin America

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Renewed partnership with Latin America

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Latin america

Renewed partnership with Latin America

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 30 September 2009 – The European Union and Latin America: Global Players in Partnership [COM(2009) 495 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Commission presents a new strategy for deepening cooperation between the European Union and the countries of Latin America. The priorities of the previous stronger partnership must be renewed in view of the regional and global issues facing the continent.

These issues include the effects of the international economic crisis, fluctuations in food prices, climate change and the fight against crime. This new commitment also aims to increase the partners’ membership of international organisations.

The Commission presents a series of recommendations to be considered during the 2010 EU-Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) Summit.

Bi-regional dialogue

Dialogue with LAC countries must be further strengthened, at strategic, political and sectoral levels. To this end, the Commission’s recommendations are to:

  • adopt policy action priorities during the LAC Summits, ensuring they are consistent with those defined during the Ministerial Meetings;
  • step up political dialogue on global issues, such as economic questions, security, human rights, the environment, climate change, energy, research and innovation;
  • develop cooperation and dialogue on combating drugs and managing migration;
  • open up the dialogue to all stakeholders involved in the fields of knowledge and innovation.

Regional integration and interconnectivity

The strategy supports the regional integration of the countries of Latin America, as a factor for sustainable development and growth. This can be achieved through:

  • sub-regional integration processes, as in the case of the countries of Central America and the Andean Community;
  • institutional initiatives at continent level such as the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR (ES)).

In addition, the creation of the Latin America Investment Facility (LAIF) shall enable interconnections and infrastructures to be developed. This financing should also support the development of businesses and the social and environmental sectors.

Bilateral dialogue and cooperation

The strategy also provides for a deepening of relations between the EU and each country in Latin America, particularly in areas of common interest. The Commission’s recommendations are to:

  • harness the potential of existing cooperation agreements;
  • conclude free trade agreements, specifically as part of trade negotiations with Chile and Mexico;
  • support regional groupings between countries in Latin America.

Cooperation programmes

Cooperation actions are partly carried out under European development policies. Tackling poverty and sustainable development remain priority objectives. The strategy also encourages different types of cooperation.

In this regard, the Commission’s recommendations are to:

  • carry out actions which promote low-carbon, sustainable growth, employment and better income distribution and to mitigate the effects of the crisis;
  • assess the potential of cooperation instruments, such as the Financing Instrument for Development Cooperation (DCI) or the financing instrument for cooperation with industrialised and other high-income countries and territories (ICI);
  • encourage cooperation in the field of social cohesion, particularly through the EUROsociAL Programme, and in the fields of justice, freedom and security.

Related Acts

Madrid Declaration , Sixth EU-LAC Summit, Madrid, Spain, 18 May 2010.

Strategy for Venezuela 2007-2013

Strategy for Venezuela 2007-2013

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategy for Venezuela 2007-2013

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Latin america

Strategy for Venezuela 2007-2013

Document or Iniciative

European Commission – Venezuela Country Strategy Paper 2007-2013 .

Summary

The Commission presents the priorities for cooperation and dialogue aimed at strengthening the existing relationship between the European Union (EU) and Venezuela.

The relationship between the partners is conducted at the regional level, specifically to increase integration and social cohesion between Venezuela and its neighbouring States, and at a bilateral level in order to support the public reforms of the country.

Cross-cutting priorities are also identified in order to ensure that environmental protection, human rights and the equal treatment of men and women are taken into account.

However, in order to respond to the most immediate development needs of the country, the partners also detail specific areas for cooperation.

Modernisation of the State

As a priority, bilateral cooperation shall support measures which aim to improve the functioning of public services, the judicial system and the rule of law. In addition, the EU shall support general modernisation of the public administration, good management of public expenditure and the participation of civil society in public life.

Economic reform

The strategy supports Venezuela’s efforts for economic diversification, the effects of which are favourable for business competitiveness and for the integration of the country in regional and international trade.

Furthermore, in order to promote equitable growth in the long term, several aspects of economic life still need to be improved, specifically:

  • training and skills development for employees;
  • the legal environment, favourable to foreign investment and to trade development.

Regional strategy for CAN 2007-2013

Regional strategy for CAN 2007-2013

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Regional strategy for CAN 2007-2013

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Latin america

Regional strategy for CAN 2007-2013

Document or Iniciative

European Community – Andean Community Regional Strategy Paper 2007-2013 .

Summary

The regional strategy paper (RSP) defines the objectives and priorities for cooperation between the European Union (EU) and the Andean Community (CAN) for the period 2007-2013. It aims at responding to the challenges faced by CAN countries. Essentially, these challenges include the strengthening of democracy, political stability, respect for human rights and the rule of law, social cohesion, economic development, the fight against drugs and the protection of the environment. In this respect, it supplements the country strategy papers (CSPs) produced for each of the countries in the region.

Within this context, regional cooperation constitutes an added value based on cooperation between the countries. However, the willingness of the partner countries, i.e. Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, to cooperate and to embrace this cooperation is fundamental for the implementation of the RSP.

EU response strategy

In order to promote regional integration, the RSP has identified priority action areas according to their comparative advantage. These priorities are specified in the regional indicative programme (RIP) for the period 2007-2010.

Regional economic integration is essential for the creation of the Andean common market. It also offers a perspective for facilitating negotiations between the EU and CAN towards an association and free trade agreement. Actions in the area include the following:

  • harmonisation or mutual recognition of legislation;
  • trade in goods and services and tightening of trade relations between the two regions;
  • promotion of customs and trade facilitation and acceptance of international standards in this area;
  • rendering CAN more attractive for foreign investors.

Social and economic cohesion benefits the fight against poverty, inequality, unemployment and exclusion. The specific objectives in this area include the following:

  • stimulate further development of a comprehensive CAN social policy by an integrated approach to social and economic cohesion;
  • encourage field projects and cross-border and cross-national contacts;
  • create synergies between social cohesion and the protection of the environment by integrating sustainable natural resource management into projects.

The fight against drugs and crime is a priority area for the region, which is the main producer of cocaine in the world. Effective measures can also limit their destabilising effect on democratic institutions and the social tissue. Objectives in this area include the following:

  • a global approach to the anti-drug policies of CAN countries, ranging from suppression to prevention, and with due consideration being given to reintegration;
  • promotion of complementary policies at regional and national level.

Within this context, the strengthening of the institutional capacities of CAN countries and the region’s integration in the world economy constitute essential elements of the strategy.

Moreover, in order to strengthen the impact of actions carried out, projects implemented under these priorities integrate cross-cutting themes, i.e. energy, transport, employment, gender equality, indigenous peoples’ rights, consumers’ rights, good governance and environmental viability. Civil society is also involved in implementation.

Implementation details

The indicative budget for the RSP for 2007-2013 under the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) amounts to 50 million. Two thirds of this budget covers the period 2007-2010 (RIP I) and one third the period 2011-2013 (RIP II). The funds will then be allocated to the various priority areas. The latter will be reviewed in 2010.

RIP also offers a perspective of expected results for the various priorities, such as:

  • an increase in trade and investment within the framework of an integrated market;
  • complementarity in regional and national social and economic cohesion policies;
  • close coordination in the fight against drugs.

Background

Cooperation between the EU and CAN, derived from the 1969 Andean Agreement, is included in the development cooperation framework (Article 177 of the Treaty establishing the European Community). It pursues the objectives defined by both the Development Consensus and the reinforced partnership with Latin America. In this respect, the RSP for 2007-2013 pursues the objectives of the previous RSP (2002-2006), from which it has drawn experience.

Enhancing the EU's policy on Mercosur

Enhancing the EU’s policy on Mercosur

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Enhancing the EU’s policy on Mercosur

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Latin america

Enhancing the EU’s policy on Mercosur

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 19 October 1994. “The European Community and Mercosur – An enhanced policy” [COM(94)428 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This communication follows on from the conclusions of the Corfu European Council of June 1994, which confirmed the European Union’s intention to strengthen its relations with Mercosur. The Commission analyses the strategic dimensions of relations between the European Union and Mercosur, evaluates the development of Mercosur and its current relations with the EU and proposes concluding, in the short term, a framework agreement on economic and trade cooperation with a view to establishing, in the longer term, an interregional association between the European Union and Mercosur.

The Commission envisages strengthening the EU’s relations with the various regional groupings in Latin America and particularly Mercosur as a complement to the relations established with Latin America at regional and bilateral level.

Mercosur, a common market set up in 1991 with the signature of the Treaty of Asuncíon by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, aims to improve the competitiveness of its members by establishing a customs union, a progress begun in 1995. It also covers many other fields, particularly the fiscal, monetary, industrial and agricultural policies. It has proven to be of great interest for other Latin American countries.

The European Union is Mercosur’s largest trading partner and the largest foreign investor in the region. The Commission stresses that Mercosur is a new growth area at global level and a key strategic region for Europe.

In this context, and after reviewing the various options for developing trade between the two regions, the Commission proposes a strategy to enhance the European Union’s relations with Mercosur. It is a dynamic strategy divided into two stages, and progress is determined by the development of Mercosur itself.

The first stage is an intermediate stage involving the conclusion of an Interregional Framework Agreement on trade and economic cooperation that would cover the following areas:

  • preparations for trade liberalisation, as envisaged in the long term by the association;
  • support for the integration of Mercosur in three areas: commercial, especially as regards harmonisation; economic, through technical assistance for the establishment of the internal market; and regional, through technical, industrial and financial support for major regional projects;
  • enhancing dialogue and consultations between the European Union and Mercosur at ministerial level on policy and cooperation issues of common interest.

The second stage involves the creation of an interregional association between the European Union and Mercosur, which is the long-term objective. This association would be based on a balanced and mutual partnership at political, economic and commercial level aimed at:

  • promoting an increase in interregional trade of mutual benefit, particularly in the context of the implementation of the Uruguay Round conclusions;
  • promoting strategic investment for companies;
  • strengthening political cooperation at international level, in particular by adopting common positions in international bodies on issues of mutual interest;
  • ensuring more effective external action by the European Union by establishing a new framework for relations between similar partners.

The central aspects of this association could be:

  • flexible and gradual establishment of a free trade area for industry and reciprocal and gradual liberalisation of agricultural trade;
  • cooperation and dialogue on trade issues;
  • liberalisation of movements of services and capital;
  • joint financing instruments for regional projects;
  • cooperation on information, communication and culture;
  • interinstitutional cooperation;
  • political cooperation and coordination on international issues;
  • cooperation on the information society, information technology and telecommunications, together with industrial cooperation.

Related Acts

The negotiating directives for the conclusion of an Interregional Association Agreement between the EU and Mercosur were adopted by the Council on 17 September 1999 on the basis of the Interregional Framework Cooperation Agreement signed on 15 December 1995. Formal negotiations began in April 2000 in Buenos Aires.

Substantial progress has been made with political dialogue and cooperation since April 2000. As regards trade, the EU and Mercosur have exchanged tariff offers and negotiating texts on goods and services. An action plan for business facilitation was also adopted at the Madrid summit in 2002.

The last EU-Mercosur ministerial meeting for political dialogue in Vouliagmeni (Athens, 27 March 2003) covered such subjects as development and the process of regional integration between the EU and Mercosur, evaluation of the EU-Mercosur negotiations, enhancing political cooperation between the EU and Mercosur in international bodies, and new challenges in the international situation.

Since May 2004 negotiations have been conducted through informal technical meetings between Mercosur and the EU.

At a ministerial-level meeting in October 2004 in Lisbon, Mercosur and EU ministers reiterated the importance they attached to negotiating an inter-regional association agreement, which would be an important factor in developing closer political, economic and trade links between the EU and Mercosur.

Recently in Luxembourg the ministers recalled the commitments made in the Lisbon declaration of 20 October 2004 to continue negotiations and call a ministerial-level meeting for this purpose supported by prior technical preparation. This meeting will be held in the second half of 2005.

On 25 September 2002 the Commission adopted a regional indicative programme of EUR 48 million for EU-Mercosur cooperation in the period 2002-2006. Its priorities are consolidating the Mercosur internal market, stepping up Mercosur regional integration and supporting civil society.

The Commission is now preparing a second regional indicative programme for EU-Mercosur cooperation in the period 2007-2013.