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Online learning: eLearning Programme

Online learning: eLearning Programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Online learning: eLearning Programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Information society > Digital Strategy i2010 Strategy eEurope Action Plan Digital Strategy Programmes

Online learning: eLearning Programme (2004-06)

The eLearning programme was aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of European education and training systems through the effective use of information and communication technologies.

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 2318/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 adopting a multiannual programme (2004 to 2006) for the effective integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and training systems in Europe (eLearning Programme).

Summary

Aims

The general objective of the programme was to encourage the efficient use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in European education and training. The aim was to promote quality education and to adapt education and training systems to the needs of a knowledge-based society and the European social cohesion model.

The specific objectives of the programme were to:

  • explore and promote ways and means of using e-learning to strengthen social cohesion and personal development, foster intercultural dialogue and counteract the digital divide;
  • promote and develop the use of e-learning in enabling lifelong learning in Europe;
  • exploit the potential of e-learning for enhancing the European dimension in education;
  • encourage better-structured cooperation in the field of e-learning between the various Community programmes and instruments and the activities organised by Member States;
  • provide mechanisms for improving the quality of products and services and for ensuring their effective dissemination and the exchange of good practice.

Actions

Actions taken under the eLearning programme covered:

  • Promotion of digital literacy. Actions in this area related to the contribution of ICT to learning, particularly for people who could not benefit from conventional education and training, owing to their geographical location, social situation or special needs. The aim was to identify good examples and build synergies between the many national and European projects for these target groups. A number of studies and a high-level expert group were to produce recommendations in this field.
  • Creation of European virtual campuses. Actions in this area aimed to improve integration of the virtual dimension in higher education. The objective was to encourage the development of new organisational models for European virtual universities (virtual campuses) and for exchanging resources and sharing projects (virtual mobility) by building on existing European cooperation arrangements (Erasmus programme, Bologna process) and adding an e-learning dimension to their operational tools (European Credit Transfer System, European Masters, quality assurance, mobility).
  • Development of e-twinning of primary and secondary schools and promotion of teacher training. Launched on 14 January 2005, action in this area aimed to strengthen and further develop school networking, more specifically through a European school twinning project designed to allow all schools in Europe to set up pedagogical partnerships with counterparts elsewhere in Europe, thus promoting language learning and intercultural dialogue and enhancing awareness of the model of a multilingual and multicultural model of European society.
  • Transversal actions and monitoring of e-learning. Actions in this area were dedicated to the promotion of e-learning in Europe by building on the monitoring of the eLearning action plan. The objectives were to disseminate, promote and adopt good practices and the results of the many projects and programmes financed at European level or by Member States, as well as to reinforce cooperation between the various actors involved, in particular by fostering partnerships between the public and private sectors.

Implementation of the programme also included activities to ensure the dissemination of results (provision of information on the internet, showcasing projects and other events, etc.).

Participating countries

The programme was open to the then 25 Member States of the European Community, the EEA-EFTA countries and the candidate countries for accession to the European Union (EU).

Implementation of the programme

The Commission ensured that the eLearning programme was implemented. It established synergies with other Community programmes and actions and encouraged cooperation with international organisations. The Commission worked together with a committee of representatives of Member States to draw up the annual work plan and budget, as well as all other measures necessary for the implementation of the programme.

The Member States, for their part, had the task of identifying appropriate correspondents to cooperate closely with the Commission as regards relevant information about e-learning use.

Budget

The financial framework for the period from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2006 was EUR 44 million. This budget was allocated as follows:

  • 10 % to e-learning for promoting digital literacy;
  • 30 % to European virtual campuses;
  • around 45 % to e-twinning of schools in Europe and the promotion of teacher training;
  • a maximum of 7.5 % to transversal actions and monitoring of the eLearning action plan;
  • a maximum of 7.5 % to technical and administrative assistance.

Funding was granted following invitations to tender and calls for proposals.

Monitoring and evaluation

The Commission ensured regular monitoring of the programme in cooperation with Member States. In order to assess the general impact of the programme and the relevance and effectiveness of the different actions, the eLearning programme was the subject of an external evaluation.

Background

At the Lisbon European Council of 23 and 24 March 2000, the Heads of State and Government set a new objective for the EU: “to become the world’s most competitive and dynamic knowledge economy by 2010”. Since then, Europe has already made substantial progress in introducing ICT, but much remains to be done in order to develop its educational uses. The eLearning programme aimed to plug these gaps by intensifying the efforts already undertaken.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision No 2318/2003/EC

20.1.2004 – 31.12.2006

OJ L 345 of 31.12.2003

Related Acts

Report from the European Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 6 April 2009 – Final Report on the implementation and impact of the second phase (2000-2006) of the Community action programmes in the field of education (Socrates) and vocational training (Leonardo da Vinci) and the multiannual programme (2004-2006) for the effective integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and training systems in Europe (eLearning) [COM(2009) 159 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The eLearning programme, together with Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci, was integrated into the new lifelong learning programme 2007-13. Consequently, the final evaluation of the programme for the period 2004-06 was produced jointly with the other two programmes. This report is based on that external evaluation, including an analysis of reports from participating countries.
The positive impact of the eLearning programme was apparent in:

  • short-term results;
  • the transnational cooperation between institutions;
  • the quality of teaching, learning and curricula;
  • the development of digital literacy.

Overall, the programme provided a significant impact on education and training, contributing to the creation of a European education area. The impact was both quantitative and qualitative, influencing the individual, institutional and policy-making levels. In particular, the eLearning programme provided an added value in tackling socio-economic disparities and in establishing a culture of cooperation among European institutions.
Throughout its duration, the programme funded the following activities:

  • eTwinning projects involving 7 813 schools (23 812 schools registered for participation);
  • 21 projects on virtual campuses;
  • 25 projects on digital literacy;
  • 16 projects on transversal actions.

Decision No 1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2006 establishing an action programme in the field of lifelong learning [Official Journal L 327 of 24.11.2006].

The eLearning programme has not been renewed as a sectoral programme, but its objectives have been integrated into the lifelong learning programme (2007-13).
The general aim of this programme is to foster interchange, cooperation and mobility between European education and training systems, so that they become a world quality reference. The development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices is one of the key elements of the programme.


Another Normative about Online learning: eLearning Programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Education training youth sport > Education and training: general framework

Online learning: eLearning Programme (2004-06)

The eLearning programme was aimed at improving the quality and accessibility of European education and training systems through the effective use of information and communication technologies.

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 2318/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 December 2003 adopting a multiannual programme (2004 to 2006) for the effective integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and training systems in Europe (eLearning Programme).

Summary

Aims

The general objective of the programme was to encourage the efficient use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in European education and training. The aim was to promote quality education and to adapt education and training systems to the needs of a knowledge-based society and the European social cohesion model.

The specific objectives of the programme were to:

  • explore and promote ways and means of using e-learning to strengthen social cohesion and personal development, foster intercultural dialogue and counteract the digital divide;
  • promote and develop the use of e-learning in enabling lifelong learning in Europe;
  • exploit the potential of e-learning for enhancing the European dimension in education;
  • encourage better-structured cooperation in the field of e-learning between the various Community programmes and instruments and the activities organised by Member States;
  • provide mechanisms for improving the quality of products and services and for ensuring their effective dissemination and the exchange of good practice.

Actions

Actions taken under the eLearning programme covered:

  • Promotion of digital literacy. Actions in this area related to the contribution of ICT to learning, particularly for people who could not benefit from conventional education and training, owing to their geographical location, social situation or special needs. The aim was to identify good examples and build synergies between the many national and European projects for these target groups. A number of studies and a high-level expert group were to produce recommendations in this field.
  • Creation of European virtual campuses. Actions in this area aimed to improve integration of the virtual dimension in higher education. The objective was to encourage the development of new organisational models for European virtual universities (virtual campuses) and for exchanging resources and sharing projects (virtual mobility) by building on existing European cooperation arrangements (Erasmus programme, Bologna process) and adding an e-learning dimension to their operational tools (European Credit Transfer System, European Masters, quality assurance, mobility).
  • Development of e-twinning of primary and secondary schools and promotion of teacher training. Launched on 14 January 2005, action in this area aimed to strengthen and further develop school networking, more specifically through a European school twinning project designed to allow all schools in Europe to set up pedagogical partnerships with counterparts elsewhere in Europe, thus promoting language learning and intercultural dialogue and enhancing awareness of the model of a multilingual and multicultural model of European society.
  • Transversal actions and monitoring of e-learning. Actions in this area were dedicated to the promotion of e-learning in Europe by building on the monitoring of the eLearning action plan. The objectives were to disseminate, promote and adopt good practices and the results of the many projects and programmes financed at European level or by Member States, as well as to reinforce cooperation between the various actors involved, in particular by fostering partnerships between the public and private sectors.

Implementation of the programme also included activities to ensure the dissemination of results (provision of information on the internet, showcasing projects and other events, etc.).

Participating countries

The programme was open to the then 25 Member States of the European Community, the EEA-EFTA countries and the candidate countries for accession to the European Union (EU).

Implementation of the programme

The Commission ensured that the eLearning programme was implemented. It established synergies with other Community programmes and actions and encouraged cooperation with international organisations. The Commission worked together with a committee of representatives of Member States to draw up the annual work plan and budget, as well as all other measures necessary for the implementation of the programme.

The Member States, for their part, had the task of identifying appropriate correspondents to cooperate closely with the Commission as regards relevant information about e-learning use.

Budget

The financial framework for the period from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2006 was EUR 44 million. This budget was allocated as follows:

  • 10 % to e-learning for promoting digital literacy;
  • 30 % to European virtual campuses;
  • around 45 % to e-twinning of schools in Europe and the promotion of teacher training;
  • a maximum of 7.5 % to transversal actions and monitoring of the eLearning action plan;
  • a maximum of 7.5 % to technical and administrative assistance.

Funding was granted following invitations to tender and calls for proposals.

Monitoring and evaluation

The Commission ensured regular monitoring of the programme in cooperation with Member States. In order to assess the general impact of the programme and the relevance and effectiveness of the different actions, the eLearning programme was the subject of an external evaluation.

Background

At the Lisbon European Council of 23 and 24 March 2000, the Heads of State and Government set a new objective for the EU: “to become the world’s most competitive and dynamic knowledge economy by 2010”. Since then, Europe has already made substantial progress in introducing ICT, but much remains to be done in order to develop its educational uses. The eLearning programme aimed to plug these gaps by intensifying the efforts already undertaken.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision No 2318/2003/EC

20.1.2004 – 31.12.2006

OJ L 345 of 31.12.2003

Related Acts

Report from the European Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 6 April 2009 – Final Report on the implementation and impact of the second phase (2000-2006) of the Community action programmes in the field of education (Socrates) and vocational training (Leonardo da Vinci) and the multiannual programme (2004-2006) for the effective integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education and training systems in Europe (eLearning) [COM(2009) 159 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The eLearning programme, together with Socrates and Leonardo da Vinci, was integrated into the new lifelong learning programme 2007-13. Consequently, the final evaluation of the programme for the period 2004-06 was produced jointly with the other two programmes. This report is based on that external evaluation, including an analysis of reports from participating countries.
The positive impact of the eLearning programme was apparent in:

  • short-term results;
  • the transnational cooperation between institutions;
  • the quality of teaching, learning and curricula;
  • the development of digital literacy.

Overall, the programme provided a significant impact on education and training, contributing to the creation of a European education area. The impact was both quantitative and qualitative, influencing the individual, institutional and policy-making levels. In particular, the eLearning programme provided an added value in tackling socio-economic disparities and in establishing a culture of cooperation among European institutions.
Throughout its duration, the programme funded the following activities:

  • eTwinning projects involving 7 813 schools (23 812 schools registered for participation);
  • 21 projects on virtual campuses;
  • 25 projects on digital literacy;
  • 16 projects on transversal actions.

Decision No 1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2006 establishing an action programme in the field of lifelong learning [Official Journal L 327 of 24.11.2006].

The eLearning programme has not been renewed as a sectoral programme, but its objectives have been integrated into the lifelong learning programme (2007-13).
The general aim of this programme is to foster interchange, cooperation and mobility between European education and training systems, so that they become a world quality reference. The development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices is one of the key elements of the programme.

Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > European health strategy

Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Document or Iniciative

Green Paper from the Commission of 10 December 2008 on the health workforce [COM(2008) 725 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Green Paper examines the challenges that the European Union (EU) must tackle at present with regard to its health workforce, and suggests some adapted solutions with a view to public consultation on this subject.

Legal framework and basis for action at Community level

Although Member States are responsible for the organisation and provision of health services and medical care, the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) provides for a certain level of coordination at Community level. Moreover, secondary legislation defines the rules that are applicable at national level, including some applying to the health workforce, and in particular in terms of labour law.

Challenges faced by the health workforce

Medical staff and all the professions which contribute to organising and providing health care are considered by the Green Paper. The designation of health workforce includes, for example, public health specialists, social workers, trainers and alternative medicine.

Demography, a sustainable health workforce and public health capacity

European citizens are living longer and it is essential to guarantee their good health throughout their lifespan.

An ageing population implies an increase in the number of chronic conditions. The demand for health care is therefore increasing, whilst a considerable portion of the workforce required to meet these needs is approaching retirement age. Indeed, there is a lack of new health professionals able to replace them.

Moreover, inequalities in access to care, health promotion, and health and safety at work are determinants of public health, to which this workforce should pay increasing attention.

Training and information

If health needs multiply and the replacement of health staff is not guaranteed, more universities, training schools and teachers will be needed. It will also be important to plan which specialised skills will be the most necessary.

There is little comparable data or updated information about the health workforce and its mobility.

Mobility and migration of the health workforce

Mobility of health professionals has a dual effect. A positive effect because it can allow supply to be adapted to demand. Professionals can indeed go where they are most needed. This free circulation can also have negative effects in that it can create imbalances and inequalities in terms of availability of health staff.

A major problem is the phenomenon of the brain drain from third countries to the European Union. For this reason circular migration should be put in place.

To this end, in 2008, the European Social Dialogue Committee in the Hospital sector, composed of HOSPEEM (European Hospital and Healthcare Employers’ Association) and the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), adopted a ‘code of conduct and follow up on Ethical Cross-Border Recruitment and Retention’. This measure aims to promote ethical practices when recruiting health workers.

New technologies and entrepreneurship

In the future, new technologies such as telemedicine may be able to counteract some deficiencies of the present health system. The introduction of new technologies represents certain challenges which the Green Paper proposes to meet by inviting Member States to:

  • guarantee training in the use of these new technologies;
  • encourage the use of new information technologies.

Some health workers run their own practices and employ staff. The European Union encourages this type of activity, all the more so since the creation of small and medium-sized enterprises contributes to the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy.

Some proposals made by the Green Paper

The Green Paper proposes several ways forward, pending the results of the public consultation on the health workforce. They include:

  • strengthening capacity for screening, health promotion and disease prevention;
  • making numerusclausus more flexible in application to health workers;
  • exchanging good practice on their mobility;
  • reconsidering the principles of recruiting staff from third countries;
  • collecting comparable information about health workers;
  • guaranteeing training for these workers in the use of these new technologies, amongst other skills;
  • further encouraging entrepreneurs to enter the health sector.

Context

This Green Paper aims to initiate a debate on the health workforce in the European Union. This debate could identify how to best promote and train the workforce and enable it to meet the current demographic, technological and migratory challenges. A public consultation was held between December 2008 and March 2009.