Tag Archives: Mobility

European Youth Pact

European Youth Pact

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European Youth Pact

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

European Youth Pact

Document or Iniciative

Commission Communication of 30 May 2005 on European policies concerning youth: Addressing the concerns of young people in Europe – implementing the European Youth Pact and promoting active citizenship [COM(2005) 206 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Communication draws attention to the three strands of the Pact adopted by the European Council in March 2005:

  • employment, integration and social advancement;
  • education, training and mobility;
  • reconciliation of family life and working life.

The measures to be taken in these three areas will have to be fully incorporated into the revised Lisbon Strategy, the European Employment Strategy, the Social Inclusion Strategy and the ” Education and Training 2010 ” work programme.

For the purpose of implementing the different measures, the Member States will draw on the “integrated guidelines for growth and employment”, within the framework of the Lisbon Strategy.

The Commission’s text highlights the aspects of the integrated guidelines and the Community Lisbon programme that are relevant to the Pact.

Measures for the employment, integration and social advancement of young people

The following guidelines have the most relevance for young people:

  • promotion of a life-cycle approach to work (entailing, inter alia, renewed efforts to build employment pathways for young people and to reduce youth unemployment, in tandem with resolute action to eliminate gender gaps in employment, unemployment and pay);
  • creation of inclusive labour markets for job-seekers and disadvantaged people;
  • improvement in the matching of labour market needs;
  • expansion of investment in human capital;
  • adjustment of education and training systems in response to new skills requirements.

The Member States will receive financial assistance from the European Social Fund and the European Investment Bank for implementing the necessary measures. The Commission wants the Member States to devise tailor-made action plans providing job search assistance, guidance services and training. The Communication also proposes that:

  • the Commission and the Member States give priority to young people in the mutual learning programme on employment in 2005;
  • the Commission and the Member States, through the Social Inclusion Strategy, improve the situation of the most vulnerable young people;
  • the Commission launch a study on the social integration of highly disadvantaged young people in 2005.

Measures for education, training and mobility

The priorities are:

  • reducing the number of early school leavers;
  • widening access to vocational, secondary and higher education, including apprenticeships and entrepreneurship training;
  • defining common frameworks to make qualification systems more transparent;
  • tackling the validation of non-formal and informal learning;
  • implementing the Europass decision;
  • developing a “Youthpass”.

The Commission intends, during 2005 and 2006, to:

  • adopt a Communication on entrepreneurship education;
  • propose a European Qualifications Framework;
  • adopt a Recommendation on key competences.

The Communication looks at ways of enhancing young people’s mobility, highlighting a number of initiatives:

  • in 2006, the European Year of Worker Mobility, specific initiatives will be taken for the benefit of young people entering the job market;
  • from 2007, there will be follow-up to the 2002-05 action plan of the Commission and the Member States for skills and mobility;
  • the Member States will be asked to boost implementation of the Recommendation on the mobility of students, persons undergoing training, volunteers, teachers and trainers;
  • the Commission will adapt tools such as EURES and PLOTEUS with a view to enhancing the opportunities for young people to work and study abroad;
  • the Commission will, in 2005, make recommendations on a mobility card for young people in Europe;
  • the Commission will think about extending the “Working holidays” initiative;
  • the Commission and the Member States will, in 2007, implement new forms of European Voluntary Service.

Measures for reconciling family life and working life

The Communication makes it clear that a better balance is needed between work and family life in order to tackle the problems associated with demographic ageing and a low birth rate. With a view to better reconciling family and working life, the Commission will encourage:

  • the Member States to make provision for quality accessible and affordable childcare facilities and care for other dependants;
  • the Member States, assisted by the Commission, to develop new forms of work organisation, such as flexitime, tele-working, maternity and parental leave.

Following on from the Green Paper on Europe’s changing demographics, the Commission has launched a process of consultation with the aim of identifying policies to be pursued or reinforced at European and national levels.

THE ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP OF YOUNG PEOPLE

The citizenship of young people is a focal point of the open method of coordination. With a view to improving participation, information, voluntary activities and knowledge of youth issues, the Council adopted 14 common objectives in 2003 and 2004. In its Communication of October 2004 [COM(2004) 694 final], the Commission gave a positive evaluation of the activities conducted at European level, while stressing the need for suitable measures at national level to consolidate the common objectives.

The Pact and associated actions ought to give rise to better understanding and greater knowledge of youth in the areas concerned, namely:

  • employment;
  • integration and inclusion;
  • entrepreneurship;
  • mobility;
  • recognition of youth work.

THE YOUTH DIMENSION IN OTHER POLICIES

The Communication draws attention to other policies which are relevant to young people:

  • since 2005, the European campaign “For Diversity – Against Discrimination” has been extended to young people;
  • a European initiative for the health of children and young people is planned for 2006;
  • studies focusing specifically on youth will be undertaken as part of the Sixth Research Framework Programme;
  • the Seventh Research Framework Programme will include youth-related research, which could focus on the impact of young people’s participation in representative democracy and voluntary activities;
  • the Commission will launch, in 2005, a public consultation on sport.

SUPPORT PROGRAMME

Policy actions targeting young people should be accompanied by programmes supporting projects that encourage young people to become active citizens. Various European programmes support such projects:

  • European Social Fund;
  • European Regional Development Fund;
  • Rural Development Fund;
  • ” Youth ” and “Youth in Action”;
  • Integrated Lifelong Learning Programme;
  • ” Citizens for Europe “;
  • Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme;
  • Marie Curie Programme;
  • European Science Education Initiative.

INVOLVEMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE

As far as the Pact itself is concerned, the European Council has emphasised the need to consult young people and their organisations both on the development of national reform programmes for the Lisbon Strategy and on follow-up action. National youth councils should, in any event, be among those consulted.

The Commission also intends to consult young people and the European Youth Forum on youth policy. This consultation process will culminate in the holding of a Youth Assembly in 2005. In addition, the Commission hopes that this assembly will be a precursor of “annual encounters” between young people and Commissioners.

BACKGROUND

This Communication builds on the European Youth Pact adopted by the Heads of State or Government during the European Council of March 2005.

Adoption of the Pact coincides with the completion of the first cycle of implementing the White Paper on a new impetus for European youth, published in 2001.

Related Acts

Resolution of the Council of 24 November 2005 on addressing the concerns of young people in Europe — implementing the European Pact for Youth and promoting active citizenship[Official Journal C 292/5 of 24.11.2005]
The Council invites the Member States to develop structured dialogue with young people and their organisations at national, regional and local level on policy actions affecting them, with the involvement of researchers in the youth field. It calls on the Member States and the Commission to:

  • encourage the recognition of non-formal and informal learning, for example through developing a “Youthpass” and considering its inclusion in Europass, and consider the validation of such learning;
  • identify obstacles to and exchange, develop and apply good practice concerning young people’s mobility in order to make it easier for them to work, volunteer, train and study throughout the European Union and further afield;
  • evaluate the framework for European cooperation in the youth field in 2009.

Conclusions of the Council Presidency at the end of the European Council meeting on 22 and 23 March 2005

The European Council called on the Member states, within the framework of the European Employment Strategy and the Social Inclusion Strategy, to improve the education, training, mobility, vocational integration and social inclusion of young people, while facilitating the reconciliation of working life and family life.

The Pact should ensure the overall consistency of initiatives to be taken in these different areas. Its success depends on the involvement of all parties concerned, first and foremost youth organisations.

Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility and passenger rights

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Mobility and passenger rights

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility for all is a key requirement in order to join the European Economic Area. Transport has a social and cohesive dimension, reducing regional inequalities, providing access to remote regions and increasing access for disabled persons. A policy to protect passengers’ rights, particularly in air and rail transport has been put in place in order to achieve the goal of mobility for all Passengers must enjoy the same rights throughout the European Union, without discrimination, regardless of their nationality and that of their transport operator.

SUSTAINABLE MOBILTY

  • Action Plan on Urban Mobility
  • Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility
  • Developing the Citizens’ Network
  • Cohesion and transport
  • Freight transport logistics in Europe

PASSENGER RIGHTS

  • Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union
  • Rights of passengers travelling by sea and inland waterway
  • Rights of passengers in bus and coach transport
  • New rights for rail passengers
  • Informing passengers of the carrier’s identity and the blacklist of high-risk companies
  • Rights of people with reduced mobility in air transport
  • Computerised reservation systems
  • Denied-boarding compensation system
  • Protection of air passengers

European health insurance card

European health insurance card

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European health insurance card

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Social protection

European health insurance card

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 189 of 18 June 2003 aimed at introducing a European health insurance card to replace the forms necessary for the application of Council Regulations (EEC) No 1408/71 and (EEC) No 574/72 as regards access to health care during a temporary stay in a Member State other than the competent State or the State of residence [Official Journal L 276 of 27.10.2003].

Decision No 190 of 18 June 2003 concerning the technical specifications of the European health insurance card [Official Journal L 276 of 27.10.2003].

Decision No 191 of 18 June 2003 concerning the replacement of forms E 111 and E 111 B by the European health insurance card [Official Journal L 276 of 27.10.2003].

Summary

Following the adoption by the Barcelona European Council in March 2002 of the Skills and Mobility Action Plan and the Communication from the Commission on the introduction of a European health insurance card, the Administrative Commission on Social Security for Migrant Workers (CASSTM) approved three decisions designed to introduce a European health insurance card.

The European health insurance card will be issued by the institution of the competent State or the State of residence. So that the European card can be easily recognised by healthcare professionals and health insurance companies in the participating States, it has been designed according to a uniform model and technical specifications. Hence, two variants of the model have been defined:

  • one variant for the front of the card, the back being left to the choice of the Member State issuing the card. Besides, the card may include a chip or magnetic stripe;
  • one variant for the back of the card, if the Member State issuing the card wished to place it on the back of an existing national or regional card.

Each Member State is responsible for producing and distributing the European health insurance card in its territory, the duration of its validity being determined by the institution which issues it.

Background

The introduction of the European health insurance card, within the framework of Regulation (EEC) No 1408/71, has been based on decisions of the Administrative Commission on Social Security for Migrant Workers (CASSTM), which is made up of representatives of the Member States and is responsible primarily for promoting and developing cooperation between the Member States with a view to modernising information exchange between institutions and speeding up the provision and reimbursement of benefits.

Mobility for students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers

Mobility for students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Mobility for students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

Mobility for students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers

acquis in the field of free movement.

Document or Iniciative

Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 July 2001 on mobility within the Community for students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers [Official Journal L 215 of 9.8.2001].

Summary

Free movement of persons, which is one of the basic principles of the Treaty on European Union (EU), is not confined to workers. As the idea of European citizenship gains credence within the Union, arrangements need to be made to ensure that people who do not yet work can take advantage of it. Despite the existence of a legislative framework concerning freedom of movement for workers and recognition of vocational qualifications, and the existence of numerous European exchange programmes, obstacles still exist to the effective mobility of students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers.

Obstacles to be overcome

The remaining obstacles to freedom of movement must be removed in order to ensure that educational and vocational training programmes have a European dimension.

The Recommendation indicates a series of conditions that need to be fulfilled by the Member States in order to ensure effective freedom of movement of students, persons undergoing training, young volunteers, teachers and trainers within the EU. These include:

  • recognition of vocational qualifications and experience acquired in the host Member State;
  • harmonisation of the status accorded by Member States to students, persons undergoing training, teachers and trainers, particularly with regard to right of residence, employment law, social security and taxation;
  • effective elimination of double taxation.

Measures recommended

Appropriate measures to encourage the mobility of persons covered by the Recommendation should complement measures already implemented in the European programmes in the fields of education, training and youth, such as the Lifelong Learning Programme and Youth in Action.

Member States are called on to take the measures they consider appropriate in order to:

  • remove the legal and administrative obstacles to the mobility of persons;
  • reduce linguistic and cultural obstacles;
  • promote the development of the various forms of financial support for mobility, facilitate the portability of scholarships, national aids and other support arrangements;
  • extend to persons participating in mobility schemes the benefits (other than social security benefits) available to the same categories of persons in the host State, such as fare reductions for public transport, financial assistance with accommodation and meals, etc.;
  • encourage the creation of a European qualification area;
  • facilitate access to all useful information.

Measures proposed by the Recommendation which specifically concern students include:

  • facilitate the recognition in the home Member State of the period of study undertaken in the host Member State. To this end, use of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), which guarantees the recognition of academic experience as a result of a contract drawn up in advance between the student and the home and host establishments, should be encouraged;
  • ensure that the decisions of the competent authorities responsible for academic recognition are made within reasonable timescales, are justified and are open to administrative and/or legal appeal;
  • encourage educational establishments to issue a European supplement as an administrative annexe to the diploma, describing the studies undertaken, in order to facilitate their recognition;
  • take appropriate measures to make it easier for students on mobility schemes to prove that they have the health cover or insurance needed in order to obtain a residence permit.

Measures proposed by the Recommendation which specifically concern persons undergoing training include:

  • facilitate the recognition of the training undertaken in another country, particularly using the Europass Training document;
  • encourage the use of more transparent models for vocational training certificates. For example, official national certificates should be accompanied by a translation of the certificate and/or a European certificate supplement;
  • take appropriate measures to make it easier for persons undergoing training to prove that they have the financial resources needed in order to obtain a residence permit.

Measures proposed by the Recommendation which specifically concern young volunteers include:

  • ensure that the specific nature of voluntary activity is taken into account in national legal and administrative measures;
  • promote the introduction of a certificate of participation for persons who have taken part in voluntary activity projects (such as Youthpass), with a view to bringing about a common European format for curricula vitae;
  • avoid any discrimination against volunteers on transnational mobility schemes in terms of entitlement to social protection measures.

Measures proposed by the Recommendation which specifically concern teachers and trainers include:

  • promote the European mobility of teachers and trainers by making arrangements for the temporary replacement of teachers and introducing European training periods;
  • encourage the introduction of a European dimension in training programmes for teachers and trainers by encouraging contacts between establishments within Europe which train teachers and trainers;
  • promote inclusion of European mobility experience as a component of the careers of teachers and trainers.

The Commission is specifically called on to:

  • set up a group of experts in order to permit exchanges of information and experience concerning the implementation of the Recommendation and of the Action Plan for Mobility;
  • submit every two years an analytical summary of the national reports on the implementation of the Rrecommendation;
  • study the procedures for introducing a pass for schoolchildren/students/trainees/volunteers within the EU, giving holders entitlement to various concessions during their period of mobility;
  • draw up proposals designed to promote the transparency of professional qualifications and the exchange of information on opportunities for studying, performing voluntary work or teaching in other Member States.

Related Acts


Council Recommendation

of 28 June 2011 – ‘Youth on the move’ – promoting the learning mobility of young people [OJ C 199 of 7.7.2011].

Recommendation (EC) No 2006/961 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on transnational mobility within the Community for education and training purposes: European Quality Charter for Mobility [Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006].

The Charter concentrates on the quality aspects of mobility. It constitutes a reference document for stays abroad in order to ensure a positive experience for participants, young people and adults.

Report on the follow-up to the Recommendation of the European Parliament and the Council of 10 July 2001 on mobility within the Community of students, persons undergoing training, volunteers and teachers and trainers [COM(2004) 21 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Specific programme People

Specific programme People

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Specific programme People

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > General framework

Specific programme “People”

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2006/973/EC of 19 December 2006 concerning the specific programme People implementing the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007 to 2013) [Official Journal L 400 of 30.12.06].

Summary

“People” is a specific programme within the 7th Framework Programme and its basic objectives are to improve, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the professional opportunities available to researchers in Europe. To put it another way, the “People” programme aims to adapt the European employment market so that it is more able to meet the training, mobility and career development needs of researchers. This will give researchers incentives to build their futures in Europe.

This programme mobilises extensive financial resources and draws on experience gained through the Marie Curie actions.

More specifically, the focus will be on the following three areas:

  • generating benefits and structuring effects, for example by introducing co-funding for regional, national and international programmes;
  • improving conditions for training and career development in the private sector;
  • strengthening the international dimension.

The budget required for executing this specific programme is estimated at EUR 4 750 million for the period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013.

CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The overall objective of this specific programme is to improve, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the human research and technological development potential in Europe. In order to achieve this, various initiatives need to be taken to:

  • encourage people to embark on a career in research;
  • encourage European researchers to stay in Europe;
  • attract researchers to Europe from throughout the world;
  • do more to share knowledge between countries, sectors, organisations and disciplines;
  • foster the participation of women in research and technological development.

This specific programme provides added value in a number of respects. First of all, it will undoubtedly improve the mobility of researchers at both the intersectoral and transnational levels. It will also have structuring effects on:

  • the organisation, performance and quality of training given to researchers;
  • their career development;
  • the sharing of knowledge between research sectors and organizations; and
  • the participation of women.

TheFramework Programme including the various specific programmes and the research activities they give rise to, should respect fundamental ethical principles and give consideration to social, legal, socio-economic, cultural and gender mainstreaming aspects.

ACTIVITIES

The various objectives of this specific programme will be achieved by implementing a series of “Marie Curie” actions focusing on skills and competence development at all stages of a researcher’s career. Mobility (both transnational and intersectoral), the recognition of experience acquired in different sectors and countries, and optimum working conditions are all key elements of these actions, which will address:

  • initial training for researchers;
  • life-long training and career development;
  • industry-academia partnerships and pathways;
  • the international dimension.

The programme also provides for more specialised accompanying actions, promotion actions (Marie Curie Awards, for example) and support actions.

Initial training of researchers

Initial research training will normally take place during the first four years of a researcher’s career; an additional year can be added if necessary.

This type of training should open up new career opportunities for researchers and make scientific careers more attractive by optimising the way in which training is structured in Member States and associated countries, in both the public and private sectors.

This action encourages the networking of organisations from different sectors engaged in the training of researchers. These networks will be built around joint multi-disciplinary training programmes covering not only scientific and technological knowledge but also skills in diverse disciplines such as management, finance, law, entrepreneurship, ethics, communication and societal outreach. In more concrete terms, Community support should be directed at:

  • recruiting and training researchers at the start of their careers;
  • setting up academic chairs or equivalent teaching positions for experienced researchers;
  • organising short training events (conferences, summer schools, specialised training courses, etc.) open both to trainees of the network and to researchers from outside the network.

Life-long training and career development

This action is directed at experienced researchers who have at least four years’ experience in full-time research or a doctorate. Essentially, it will help them to diversify their skills portfolio by acquiring multi- or interdisciplinary qualifications and intersectoral experience. The aim here is twofold:

  • to give researchers support in attaining the independent positions of responsibility they desire and/or strengthening their standing in such positions;
  • to help researchers who are resuming their career after a break by enabling them to (re)integrate quickly into a scientific career in a Member State or associated country, including in their own country of origin, after a mobility experience.

This action will be implemented through:

  • support for individual transnational, intra-European fellowships;
  • co-funding of regional, national or international programmes – applicants for co-funding may come from either the public or private sector, but they must play a key part in building up human resource capacity for research in their respective fields.

Industry-academia partnerships and pathways

This action seeks to establish links between public research organisations and private commercial enterprises (and in particular SMEs). It will involve long-term (intersectoral and transnational) cooperation programmes which will not only increase knowledge-sharing but also improve mutual understanding of the different cultural settings and skills requirements of both sectors.

Community support will focus on human resources, and take one or more of the following forms:

  • staff secondments between both sectors in the partnership;
  • temporary hosting of researchers recruited from outside the partnership;
  • the organisation of workshops and conferences;
  • a contribution to equipment for participating in the cooperation initiative (for SMEs only).

The international dimension

The international dimension of human resources in European research and development can be divided into two separate areas:

  • career development for researchers from EU Member States and associated countries;
  • international cooperation through researchers.

Actions in both these areas will be supported by international fellowships (“incoming” and “outgoing” fellowships), grants, partnerships, exchanges, organised events (conferences, etc.) and a systematic sharing of good practices.

Background

Since 1984, the research and technological development policy of the European Union has been founded on multiannual framework programmes. The 7th Framework Programme is the second to be adopted since the Lisbon strategy was launched in 2000 and will play a crucial role in stimulating growth and jobs in Europe in the coming years. The Commission wishes to advance the “knowledge triangle” of research, education and innovation so that knowledge is used to promote economic dynamism as well as social and environmental progress.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2006/973/EC

1.1.7 – 31.12.13

OJ L 400 of 30.12.06

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 29 April 2009 to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the progress made under the Seventh European Framework Programme for Research [COM(2009) 209 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The “Marie Curie” grants proposed by the “People” programme remain a great success. They contribute towards a balanced “brain circulation” both at European and global levels and to the creation of a high-quality and mobile European R&D workforce. The use of industry-academia fellowships could be improved by better communicating opportunities to industries and SMEs.

Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-13

Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-13

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-13

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-13

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2006 establishing an action programme in the field of lifelong learning [See amending act(s)].

Summary

The objective of the action programme in the field of lifelong learning 2007-13 is to develop and foster interchange, cooperation and mobility, so that education and training systems become a world quality reference in accordance with the Lisbon strategy. It thus contributes to the development of the Community as an advanced knowledge-based society, with sustainable economic development, more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.

To realise this general objective, the programme pursues specific objectives concerning lifelong learning in the European Union (EU), which aim to:

  • contribute to the development of quality lifelong learning and to promote high performance, innovation and the European dimension in systems and practices;
  • support the realisation of a European area of lifelong learning;
  • help improve the quality, attractiveness and accessibility of the opportunities for lifelong learning;
  • reinforce their contribution to social cohesion, active citizenship, intercultural dialogue, gender equality and personal fulfilment;
  • help promote creativity, competitiveness, employability and the growth of an entrepreneurial spirit;
  • contribute to increased participation in lifelong learning by people of all ages, including those with special needs and disadvantaged groups;
  • promote language learning and linguistic diversity;
  • support the development of ICT-based resources;
  • reinforce their role in creating a sense of European citizenship based on respect for European values, as well as tolerance and respect for other peoples and cultures;
  • promote co-operation in quality assurance in all sectors of education and training;
  • improve their quality by encouraging the best use of results, innovative products and processes, as well as the exchange of good practice.

In this respect, consistency and complementarity with EU policies condition the implementation of the action programme. It should thus help achieve the EU’s horizontal policies by making provisions for learners with special needs and helping to promote their integration into mainstream education and training. It should also promote equality between men and women, as well as awareness of cultural and linguistic diversity and multiculturalism as a means of combating racism, prejudice and xenophobia.

Implementation of the programme should ensure consistency and complementarity with the Education and Training 2010 work programme, the integrated guidelines for jobs and growth under the partnership for growth and employment and other policies, such as those in the field of culture, youth or enterprise. The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the Advisory Committee on Vocational Training may also be involved and/or informed according to their respective areas of competence.

In order to achieve these objectives, the programme supports the following actions:

  • mobility of people in lifelong learning;
  • bilateral and multilateral partnerships;
  • unilateral, national or multinational projects, including those that are designed to promote quality in education and training systems through the transnational transfer of innovation;
  • multilateral networks;
  • studies and reviews of policies and systems in the field of lifelong learning and their components;
  • operating grants to support certain operational and administrative costs borne by institutions or associations;
  • accompanying measures, i.e. other initiatives to promote the objectives of the programme;
  • preparatory activities for these actions;
  • the organisation of events (seminars, colloquia, meetings) to facilitate the implementation of the programme, the information, publication, awareness-raising and dissemination actions, as well as programme monitoring and evaluation.

Participation in the programme is open not just to the Member States, but also to the EFTA (European Free Trade Association) countries that are members of the European Economic Area (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway), to the Swiss Confederation and to the EU candidate and potential candidate countries of the western Balkans in accordance with the rules and agreements governing their participation in Community programmes.

In addition, the Commission may also organise cooperation with third countries and international organisations, such as the Council of Europe or the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco).

The beneficiaries of the programme are:

  • pupils, students, trainees and adult learners;
  • all categories of education personnel;
  • people in the labour market;
  • institutions and organisations providing learning opportunities within the programme;
  • persons and bodies responsible for systems and policies at local, regional and national level;
  • enterprises, social partners and their organisations at all levels, including trade organisations and chambers of commerce and industry;
  • bodies providing guidance, counselling and information services;
  • participants’, parents’ and teachers’ associations;
  • research centres and bodies;
  • non-profit organisations, voluntary bodies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

The management of the programme is shared between the Commission and the national agencies. In this respect, the national agencies may be responsible for selecting certain types of projects, the mobility of individuals, bilateral and multilateral partnerships or unilateral and national projects.

For the implementation of the programme, the Commission is assisted by a management committee made up of representatives from the EU Member States. The implementation measures must be adopted in comitology, in accordance with the management procedure. Only decisions concerning the awarding of certain specific grants are taken without the assistance of the committee. In the context of social dialogue at Community level and involving the social partners more closely in the implementation of the action programme, the latter may participate in the work of the committee as observers on matters relating to vocational education and training.

The indicative financial envelope for the programme is set at EUR 6.97 billion for its duration. The minimum amounts to be allocated to the sectoral programmes (see below) are 13 % to Comenius, 40 % to Erasmus, 25 % to Leonardo da Vinci and 4 % to Grundtvig.

The Commission shall regularly monitor and assess the integrated programme in cooperation with the Member States. The latter shall submit reports to the Commission: one on the implementation of the programme by 30 June 2010 at the latest, and another on its effects by 30 June 2015.

The Commission, for its part, will present an interim evaluation report on the results achieved and on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of implementation by 31 March 2011 at the latest, a communication on the continuation of the programme by 31 December 2011 and an ex-post evaluation report by 31 March 2016.

SECTORAL PROGRAMMES

The action programme is divided into six sub-programmes, four of which are sectoral. They are all structured in the same way and address the teaching and learning needs of all participants, as well as of the institutions and organisations providing or facilitating education and training in each respective sector. All the actions incorporate mobility, language and new technology.

Comenius

The programme covers pre-school and school education up to the end of upper secondary education, as well as the institutions and organisations providing such education.

Its two specific objectives are to:

  • develop understanding and appreciation among young people and educational staff of the diversity of European cultures;
  • help young people acquire the basic life-skills and competences necessary for their personal development, for future employment and for active European citizenship.

In this context, the programme pursues the following operational objectives:

  • better mobility, especially in terms of quality and volume;
  • better partnerships between schools in different Member States, especially the quality and volume thereof, so as to involve at least 3 million pupils during the period of the programme;
  • encouragement for learning foreign languages;
  • the development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices;
  • better teacher training in terms of quality and the European dimension;
  • support in improving pedagogical approaches and school management.

The following actions may be supported by the Comenius programme:

  • mobility, such as exchanges of pupils and staff, school mobility, training courses for teachers, etc.;
  • partnerships, such as “Comenius school partnerships” of schools for joint learning projects or “Comenius-Regio partnerships” of organisations responsible for school education, with a view to fostering inter-regional and particularly border region cooperation;
  • multilateral projects on disseminating and promoting best practices, exchanging experience or developing new courses or course content;
  • multilateral networks aimed at developing education, disseminating good practice and innovation, supporting partnerships and projects, as well as developing needs analysis;
  • accompanying measures.

The mobility and partnership actions account for at least 80 % of the Comenius budget.

Erasmus

The Erasmus programme addresses formal higher education and vocational education and training at tertiary level, whatever the length of the course or qualification may be and including doctoral studies. Unlike the previous programmes, vocational education and training at tertiary level now falls under Erasmus instead of Leonardo da Vinci.

The two specific objectives are to:

  • support the achievement of a European Area of Higher Education;
  • reinforce the contribution of higher education and advanced vocational education to the process of innovation.

To this end, the programme pursues operational objectives that should endeavour to improve, strengthen and develop:

  • mobility (including quality), by reaching 3 million individuals by 2012;
  • the volume of cooperation (including quality) among higher education institutions and between higher education institutions and enterprises;
  • the transparency and compatibility of acquired qualifications;
  • innovative practices and their transfer between countries;
  • innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices.

The following actions may be supported by the Erasmus programme:

  • mobility of students (studies, training, placements), teaching staff, other staff in higher education institutions and staff of enterprises for the purposes of training or teaching, Erasmus intensive programmes organised on a multilateral basis, as well as support to the home and host institutions to ensure the quality of the mobility arrangements. Mobility actions account for at least 80 % of the budget for this programme;
  • multilateral projects focusing on innovation, experimentation and the exchange of good practices;
  • multilateral networks, such as “Erasmus thematic networks” run by consortia of higher education institutions and representing a discipline or a cross-disciplinary field;
  • accompanying measures.

Leonardo da Vinci

The Leonardo da Vinci programme addresses vocational education and training other than that at tertiary level.

Its specific objectives are to:

  • support participants in training to acquire and use knowledge, skills and qualifications to facilitate personal development, employability and participation in the European labour market;
  • improve quality and innovation;
  • enhance the attractiveness of vocational education and training and mobility.

To this end, the programme pursues operational objectives that seek to develop and strengthen:

  • mobility (including quality) in this field and that of continuous training, including placements in enterprises, so that they number 80 000 per year by the end of the programme;
  • the volume of cooperation (including quality) between the different actors;
  • innovative practices and their transfer between countries;
  • the transparency and recognition of qualifications and competences, including those acquired through non-formal and informal learning;
  • language learning;
  • innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices.

The following actions may be supported by the Leonardo da Vinci programme:

  • mobility, including the preparation thereof;
  • partnerships focusing on themes of mutual interest;
  • multilateral projects, in particular those aimed at improving training systems through the transfer and development of innovation and good practice in order to adapt to national needs;
  • thematic networks of experts and organisations working on specific issues related to vocational education and training;
  • accompanying measures.

The mobility and partnership actions account for at least 60 % of the budget for this programme.

Grundtvig

The Grundtvig programme addresses all forms of adult education.

It aims to:

  • respond to the educational challenge of an ageing population in Europe;
  • help provide adults with pathways to improving their knowledge and competences.

Its operational objectives are as follows:

  • improve the quality and accessibility of mobility with a view to supporting 7 000 individuals per year by the end of the programme;
  • improve cooperation (quality and volume);
  • support and find alternatives for underprivileged and vulnerable persons, such as older people and those who have left education without basic qualifications;
  • support the development of innovative practices and their transfer between countries;
  • support the development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices;
  • improve pedagogical approaches and the management of adult education organisations.

The following actions may be supported by the Grundtvig programme:

  • mobility of individuals, including adequate preparation, supervision and support;
  • “Grundtvig learning partnerships” focusing on themes of mutual interest;
  • multilateral projects aimed at improving adult education systems through the development and transfer of innovation and good practice;
  • “Grundtvig networks”, thematic networks of experts and organisations;
  • accompanying measures.

The mobility and partnership actions account for at least 55 % of the budget for the Grundtvig programme.

The transversal programme

The transversal programme mainly addresses activities that extend beyond the limits of the sectoral programmes.

It covers four key activities in the field of lifelong learning, i.e.:

  • policy cooperation and innovation;
  • the promotion of language learning;
  • the development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices;
  • the dissemination and exploitation of results of actions supported under the programme or previous programmes, and exchange of good practice.

The specific objectives are to:

  • promote European cooperation in fields covering two or more sectoral programmes;
  • promote the quality and transparency of Member States’ education and training systems.

Its operational objectives are to:

  • support policy development and cooperation at European level in lifelong learning in the context of the Lisbon process, the Education and Training 2010 work programme, the Bologna and Copenhagen processes and their successors;
  • ensure a supply of comparable data, statistics and analyses to underpin policy development, as well as to monitor progress towards objectives and targets, and to identify areas for particular attention;
  • promote language learning and support linguistic diversity in the Member States;
  • support the development of innovative ICT-based content, services, pedagogies and practices;
  • ensure that the results of the programme are advertised, disseminated and taken into consideration.

The programme actions apply to the key activities in the transversal programme. For example, under the key activity entitled “policy cooperation and innovation”, the actions may deal in particular with supporting the observation and analysis of policies and systems such as the Eurydice network or the transparency of qualifications and competences, information and guidance for mobility purposes and cooperation in quality assurance such as Euroguidance, and National Academic Recognition Information Centres (NARIC), Ploteus or the Europass initiative.

The Jean Monnet programme:

The Jean Monnet programme targets specific issues of European integration in the academic world and the support needed for institutions and associations active in education and training at European level.

This programme covers three key activities:

  • the Jean Monnet action, in which institutions from third countries can also participate, accounts for at least 16 % of the budget for this programme;
  • operating grants to designated institutions that pursue objectives of European interest. These institutions are the College of Europe, the European University Institute in Florence, the European Institute of Public Administration (EIPA) in Maastricht, the Academy of European Law (ERA) in Trier, the European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education in Middelfart, and the International Centre for European Training (CIFE) in Nice. These grants account for at least 65 % of the budget;
  • operating subsidies to other European institutions and associations in the field of education and training that account for at least 19 % of the budget.

The specific objectives are to:

  • stimulate teaching, research and reflection activities in the field of European integration studies;
  • support an appropriate range of institutions and associations focusing on issues relating to European integration and on education and training from a European perspective.

Its operational objectives are therefore to stimulate excellence, enhance knowledge and awareness of European integration, as well as support European institutions working on European integration and high-quality European institutions and associations.

The actions cover unilateral and national projects, such as Jean Monnet chairs, centres of excellence and teaching modules or support young researchers, as well as multilateral projects and networks.

BACKGROUND

The lifelong learning programme 2007-13 encompasses all the European programmes in the field of lifelong learning. It is therefore based on the previous programmes for the period 2000-06: Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci, eLearning and the Jean Monnet action.

A single Community support programme in the field of education and training is more rational, coherent and effective. It should thus lead to greater interaction between the different areas, to better visibility, particularly with regard to the capacity to respond to developments in this field, and to better cooperation.

Thus, it should also help achieve the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy, including the environmental dimension, and of the European Area of Higher Education (the Bologna process), particularly the objective of making education and training a global quality benchmark by 2010 and of focusing on learning foreign languages in line with the conclusions of the Barcelona European Council of 2002. It also falls within the framework of the specific future objectives for education systems in the Education and Training 2010 work programme, the action plan for skills and mobility and the action plan promoting language learning and linguistic diversity.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision No 1720/2006/EC

1.1.2007 – 31.12.2013

OJ L 327 of 24.11.2006

Amending act(s) Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision No 1357/2008/EC

31.12.2008 – 31.12.2013

OJ L 350 of 30.12.2008

The Bologna process: setting up the European Higher Education Area

The Bologna process: setting up the European Higher Education Area

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The Bologna process: setting up the European Higher Education Area

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Lifelong learning

The Bologna process: setting up the European Higher Education Area

inter alia, to help diverse higher education systems converge towards more transparent systems, based on three cycles: Degree/Bachelor – Master – Doctorate.

Document or Iniciative

The Bologna Declarationof 19 June 1999 – Joint declaration of the European Ministers of Education [Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Bologna Declaration initiated the Bologna process. This process is designed to introduce a system of academic degrees that are easily recognisable and comparable, promote the mobility of students, teachers and researchers, ensure high quality teaching and incorporate the European dimension into higher education.

Making academic degrees comparable and promoting mobility

The Bologna Declaration involves six actions relating to:

  • a system of academic degrees that are easy to recognise and compare. It includes the introduction of a shared diploma supplement to improve transparency;
  • a system based essentially on two cycles: a first cycle geared to the labour market and lasting at least three years, and a second cycle (Master) conditional on the completion of the first cycle;
  • a system of accumulation and transfer of credits of the ECTS type used in the Erasmus exchange scheme;
  • mobility of students, teachers and researchers: elimination of all obstacles to freedom of movement;
  • cooperation with regard to quality assurance;
  • the European dimension in higher education: increase the number of modules and teaching and study areas where the content, guidance or organisation has a European dimension.

Reform of higher education systems in Europe

The Bologna Declaration is a voluntary undertaking by each signatory country to reform its own education system; this reform is not imposed on the national governments or universities. As for Member States of the European Union (EU), Article 165 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union states that the Union “shall contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, by supporting and supplementing their action”.

Nevertheless, Member States remain fully responsible for the content of teaching and the organisation of their education systems as well as their cultural and linguistic diversity. Union action is aimed at:

  • developing the European dimension in education, particularly through the teaching and dissemination of the languages of Member States;
  • encouraging mobility of students and teachers, by encouraging inter alia, the academic recognition of diplomas and periods of study;
  • promoting cooperation between educational establishments;
  • exchanges of information and experience on issues common to the education systems of Member States.

Prague Communiquéof 19 May 2001 – Towards the European Higher Education Area

The Prague Communiqué added the following actions to the Bologna process:

  • lifelong learning, an essential element of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), to increase economic competitiveness;
  • the involvement of higher education institutions and students; the ministers underline the importance of involving universities, other higher education establishments and students to create a constructive EHEA;
  • promote the attractiveness of the EHEA among students in Europe and in other parts of the world.

Berlin Communiquéof 19 September 2003 – “Realising the European Higher Education Area”

At the 2003 Berlin conference, the ministers responsible for higher education adopted a communiqué that included doctorate studies and synergies between the EHEA and the European Research Area (ERA) in the Bologna process. They underlined the importance of research, research training and the promotion of interdisciplinary research to maintain and improve the quality of higher education and strengthen its competitiveness. They called for increased mobility at doctorate and post-doctorate level and encouraged the institutions in question to enhance their cooperation in the spheres of doctorate studies and training of young researchers.

Bergen Communiquéof 19-20 May 2005 – The European Higher Education Area – Achieving the Goals

The Bergen Communiqué noted that significant progress had been made concerning the objectives of the Bologna process. By 2007, the ministers would like to have made progress in the following areas:

  • implementing references and guidelines to guarantee quality, as proposed in the ENQA report (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education);
  • introducing national qualification frameworks;
  • awarding and recognising joint degrees, including at doctorate level;
  • creating opportunities for flexible pathways for training in higher education, including the existence of provisions for the validation of experience.

London Communiquéof 18 May 2007 – Towards the European Higher Education Area: responding to challenges in a globalised world

The period between 2005 and 2007 saw good overall progress towards the EHEA. Nevertheless, many challenges still remain. Focus should now be on:

  • promoting the mobility of students and staff, as well as developing measures for evaluating this mobility;
  • evaluating the effectiveness of national strategies on the social dimension in education;
  • developing indicators and data for measuring progress regarding mobility and the social dimension;
  • examining ways to improve employability linked to the three-cycle degree system and lifelong learning;
  • improving the dissemination of information about the EHEA and its recognition throughout the world;
  • continuing to take stock of progress towards the EHEA and developing the qualitative analysis in this stocktaking.

Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communiquéof 28-29 April 2009 – The Bologna Process 2020 – The European Higher Education Area in the new decade

This communiqué noted that progress has been achieved on the Bologna process and that the EHEA has been well developed since the Bologna Declaration of 1999. However, certain targets needed to still be realised in full and properly applied at European, national and institutional levels. Consequently, the communiqué noted that the Bologna process will continue beyond 2010 with the following priorities having been set for the new decade:

  • providing equal opportunities to quality education – participation in higher education should be widened; in particular, students from underrepresented groups should be given the necessary conditions to participate;
  • increasing participation in lifelong learning – the accessibility and quality of, as well as transparency of information on, lifelong learning must be ensured. The related policies should be implemented together with national qualifications frameworks and through strong partnerships between all stakeholders;
  • promoting employability – stakeholders should cooperate to raise initial qualifications and renew a skilled workforce, as well as to improve the provision, accessibility and quality of guidance on careers and employment. In addition, work placements included in study programmes and on-the-job learning should be further encouraged;
  • developing student-centred learning outcomes and teaching missions – this should include the development of international reference points for different subject areas and enhancing of the teaching quality of study programmes;
  • intertwining education, research and innovation – the acquisition of research competences should be increased, research should be better integrated within doctoral programmes and the career development of early stage researchers should be made more attractive;
  • opening higher education institutions to the international fora – European institutions should further internationalise their activities and collaborate at the global stage;
  • increasing opportunities for and quality of mobility – by 2020, 20% of graduates should have spent a study or training period abroad;
  • improving data collection – data should be collected in order to monitor and evaluate progress made on the objectives of the Bologna process;
  • developing multidimensional transparency tools – to acquire detailed information about higher education institutions and their programmes, transparency tools should be developed together with key stakeholders. These tools should be based on comparable data and proper indicators, as well as take on board the quality assurance and recognition principles of the Bologna process;
  • guaranteeing funding – new and diverse funding solutions should be found to complement public funding.

Budapest-Vienna Declarationof 12 March 2010 on the European Higher Education Area

This declaration marked the end of the first decade of the Bologna Process and officially launched the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), as envisaged in the Bologna Declaration of 1999. With this declaration, the ministers:

  • welcomed Kazakhstan as the 47th participating country of the European Higher Education Area;
  • underlined the specific nature of the Bologna Process, i.e. a unique partnership between public authorities, higher education institutions, students and staff, together with employers, quality assurance agencies, international organisations and European institutions;
  • stressed that the Bologna Process and the resulting European Higher Education Area, being unprecedented examples of regional, cross-border cooperation in higher education, had raised considerable interest in other parts of the world and made European higher education more visible on the global map. The ministers also declared to look forward to intensifying their policy dialogue and cooperation with partners across the world;
  • acknowledged the findings of various reports, which indicate that some of the Bologna action lines had been implemented to varying degrees and that recent protests in some countries showed the Bologna aims and reforms had not been properly implemented and explained. The ministers promised to listen to the critical voices raised among staff and students;
  • reiterated their commitment to the full and proper implementation of the agreed objectives and the agenda for the next decade set by the Leuven/ Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué.

Moreover, the ministers highlighted the following issues:

  • academic freedom as well as autonomy and accountability of higher education institutions as principles of the European Higher Education Area;
  • the key role of the academic community – institutional leaders, teachers, researchers, administrative staff and students – in making the European Higher Education Area a reality;
  • higher education as a public responsibility, i.e. higher education institutions should be given the necessary resources within a framework established and overseen by public authorities;
  • the need for increased efforts on the social dimension in order to provide equal opportunities to quality education, paying particular attention to underrepresented groups.

The ministers responsible for higher education agreed to meet again in Bucharest on 26-27 April 2012.

Background

On 18 September 1988, to mark the 900 years since the founding of the University of Bologna, the university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum . They considered that “at the approaching end of this millennium the future of mankind depends largely on cultural, scientific and technical development”. Universities shape this knowledge.

To celebrate the 800 years of the University of Paris, the ministers responsible for higher education in Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom adopted the Sorbonne Declaration on 25 May 1998. This declaration aimed to harmonise the architecture of the European higher education system. The ministers stressed that “the Europe we are building is not only that of the euro, the banks and the economy, it must be a Europe of knowledge as well”.

The Bologna Declaration of 19 June 1999 has been signed by 30 European countries, including the then 15 Member States of the EU (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the United Kingdom) as well as the 10 countries that joined the EU on 1 May 2004 (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia). Iceland, Norway and the Swiss Confederation are also signatories to the declaration, as are Bulgaria and Romania, who became members of the EU on 1 January 2007. Kazakhstan joined the Bologna process in March 2010.

Today, 47 countries participate in the Bologna process after having fulfilled the accession conditions and procedures . The countries subscribing to the European Cultural Convention, signed on 19 December 1954 under the aegis of the Council of Europe, are eligible for membership of the EHEA, provided that they declare their intention to incorporate the objectives of the Bologna process into their own higher education system. Their membership applications must include information on the way in which they will implement the principles and objectives.

The Bologna process is in line with the objectives of Education and Training 2020 and Europe 2020.

Admission and residence of researchers from third countries

Admission and residence of researchers from third countries

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Admission and residence of researchers from third countries

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Admission and residence of researchers from third countries

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2005/71/EC of 12 October 2005 on a specific procedure for admitting third-country nationals for the purpose of scientific research [Official Journal L 289 of 3 November 2005].

Summary

The Human Resources and Mobility part of the Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme of research earmarks EUR 1.6 billion for support for the training, mobility and career development of researchers. The European Union needs at least 700 000 additional researchers by 2010 if it is to achieve the objective set by the Barcelona European Council of spending 3% of the Member States’ GDP (gross domestic product) on research and technological development.

The purpose of the Directive is to introduce a special procedure governing the entry and residence of third-country nationals coming to carry out a research project in the European Community for a period of more than three months. The aim is to facilitate the admission and mobility of researchers by relieving the immigration authorities in the Member States of the task of checking whether the research project is credible and whether the researcher has the necessary skills to see it through.

Scope

The Directive applies to third-country nationals, except where more favourable provisions apply under bilateral or multilateral agreements concluded between the Community, or the Community and its Member States, and one or more non-member countries.

However, it does not apply to:

  • applicants for asylum or subsidiary protection or under temporary protection schemes;
  • doctoral students conducting research relating to their theses as students (as they are covered by Directive 2004/114/EC on the conditions of entry and residence of third country nationals for the purposes of studies, vocational training or voluntary service);
  • third-country nationals whose expulsion has been suspended for reasons of fact or law;
  • researchers seconded by a research organisation to another research organisation in a different Member State.

Research organisations

Any research organisation wishing to host a researcher must first be approved by the Member State in which it is located.

To make it easier to access information, lists of approved research organisations must be published each year in the Member States. Unless there are exceptional circumstances, authorisations granted to a research organisation will be valid for a minimum of five years.

The Member States may require a written commitment from the research organisation, stating that if the researcher resides unlawfully in the territory of the Member State concerned, the organisation will be responsible for reimbursing the cost of the researcher’s subsistence or return paid out of public funds. The research organisation’s financial responsibility will end six months after the end of the hosting agreement at the latest.

A research organisation wishing to host a researcher must sign a hosting agreement with the latter, i.e. a legal contract whereby the researcher undertakes to complete the research project and the organisation undertakes to host the researcher subject to the researcher being issued with a residence permit.

Research organisations may sign hosting agreements only if:

  • the research project has been accepted by the relevant authorities in the organisation after examination of the purpose and duration of the research, the availability of the necessary financial resources and the researcher’s qualifications;
  • the researcher will have sufficient monthly resources during his or her stay, including all-risk sickness insurance, to avoid having recourse to the host State’s social welfare system. No minimum amount is set in the proposal, as the decision will be taken by the individual Member States;
  • the hosting agreement specifies the legal relationship of researchers and their working conditions.

The hosting agreement will automatically end if the researcher is not admitted or once the legal relationship between the researcher and the research organisation comes to an end.

Research organisations will promptly inform the authority designated for the purpose by the Member States of any occurrence likely to prevent implementation of the hosting agreement.

Admission of researchers

Member States must admit researchers if they:

  • present a valid passport or equivalent travel documents;
  • present a hosting agreement signed with a research organisation;
  • present a statement of financial responsibility issued by the research organisation;
  • are not considered to pose a threat to public policy, public security or public health.

Member States must issue a residence permit for one year or more and renew it annually. If the research project is scheduled to last less than one year, the residence permit must be issued for the duration of the project. Member States may withdraw or refuse to renew a residence permit for reasons of public policy, public security or public health.

Member States may decide to award a residence permit to a researcher’s family members, whose permit will last for the same length of time as the researcher’s (provided that their travel documents are valid).

Member States may withdraw or refuse to renew a previously issued residence permit if the latter was acquired fraudulently or if it transpires that the holder of the permit did not meet or no longer meets the entry and residency conditions stipulated, or if he or she is residing in the country for reasons other than those authorised.

Member States may withdraw or refuse to renew a residence permit for reasons of public policy, public security or public health.

Researchers’ rights

Researchers have the right to enter and reside on the territory of the Member State which has admitted them and to conduct the research project there. Holders of a residence permit will be entitled to equal treatment with nationals as regards:

  • recognition of diplomas, certificates and other professional qualifications;
  • working conditions, including pay and dismissal;
  • social insurance as defined by national legislation;
  • tax concessions;
  • access to goods and services and the supply of goods and services made available to the public.

This new residence permit must also allow sufficient mobility for part of the research project to be conducted on the territory of another Member State.

Procedure and transparency

Member States must determine whether applications for residence permits are to be made by the researcher or by the research organisation concerned. Applications must be submitted:

  • either in the researcher’s country of residence via the diplomatic or consular authorities of the Member State where he/she wishes to conduct the research; or
  • directly on the territory of the Community, if the researcher is lawfully present there.

The relevant authorities in the Member State must notify the applicant in writing of their decision regarding his/her application for admission or for the renewal of his/her residence permit as soon as possible. Reasons must be given for any decision refusing, amending, refusing to renew or withdrawing a residence permit. Third-country nationals have the right to appeal to the courts of the Member State concerned against any decision.

Transposition

Member States are required to transpose the Directive by 31 December 2006. By virtue of Articles 1 and 2 of the Protocols on the positions of Denmark and of the United Kingdom and Ireland, annexed to the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, the Directive will not apply to those countries.

Reports

Periodically, and for the first time no later than three years after the entry into force of this Directive, the Commission must report to the European Parliament and the Council on the application of this Directive in the Member States and shall propose such amendments as may appear necessary.

Pursuant to the principle of subsidiarity, Member States have to settle matters such as what financial resources researchers must have in order to be admitted, the length of the residence permit and the option of adopting more favourable arrangements and extending the benefits of the admission procedure.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2005/71/EC 23.11.2005 12.10.2007 OJ L 289, 3.11.2005.

Related Acts


Council Directive 2004/114/EC

on the conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service.

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Researchers in the European Research Area: one profession, multiple careers [COM(2003) 436 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission: the role of the universities in the Europe of knowledge [COM(2003) 58 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: the Commission’s Action Plan for skills and mobility [COM(2002) 72 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission: Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality [COM(2001) 678 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Recommendation on the European Charter for Researchers and on a Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers [COM(2005) 576 final – not published in the Official Journal].

 

Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > European health strategy

Green Paper on the European Workforce for Health

Document or Iniciative

Green Paper from the Commission of 10 December 2008 on the health workforce [COM(2008) 725 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Green Paper examines the challenges that the European Union (EU) must tackle at present with regard to its health workforce, and suggests some adapted solutions with a view to public consultation on this subject.

Legal framework and basis for action at Community level

Although Member States are responsible for the organisation and provision of health services and medical care, the Treaty establishing the European Community (EC Treaty) provides for a certain level of coordination at Community level. Moreover, secondary legislation defines the rules that are applicable at national level, including some applying to the health workforce, and in particular in terms of labour law.

Challenges faced by the health workforce

Medical staff and all the professions which contribute to organising and providing health care are considered by the Green Paper. The designation of health workforce includes, for example, public health specialists, social workers, trainers and alternative medicine.

Demography, a sustainable health workforce and public health capacity

European citizens are living longer and it is essential to guarantee their good health throughout their lifespan.

An ageing population implies an increase in the number of chronic conditions. The demand for health care is therefore increasing, whilst a considerable portion of the workforce required to meet these needs is approaching retirement age. Indeed, there is a lack of new health professionals able to replace them.

Moreover, inequalities in access to care, health promotion, and health and safety at work are determinants of public health, to which this workforce should pay increasing attention.

Training and information

If health needs multiply and the replacement of health staff is not guaranteed, more universities, training schools and teachers will be needed. It will also be important to plan which specialised skills will be the most necessary.

There is little comparable data or updated information about the health workforce and its mobility.

Mobility and migration of the health workforce

Mobility of health professionals has a dual effect. A positive effect because it can allow supply to be adapted to demand. Professionals can indeed go where they are most needed. This free circulation can also have negative effects in that it can create imbalances and inequalities in terms of availability of health staff.

A major problem is the phenomenon of the brain drain from third countries to the European Union. For this reason circular migration should be put in place.

To this end, in 2008, the European Social Dialogue Committee in the Hospital sector, composed of HOSPEEM (European Hospital and Healthcare Employers’ Association) and the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), adopted a ‘code of conduct and follow up on Ethical Cross-Border Recruitment and Retention’. This measure aims to promote ethical practices when recruiting health workers.

New technologies and entrepreneurship

In the future, new technologies such as telemedicine may be able to counteract some deficiencies of the present health system. The introduction of new technologies represents certain challenges which the Green Paper proposes to meet by inviting Member States to:

  • guarantee training in the use of these new technologies;
  • encourage the use of new information technologies.

Some health workers run their own practices and employ staff. The European Union encourages this type of activity, all the more so since the creation of small and medium-sized enterprises contributes to the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy.

Some proposals made by the Green Paper

The Green Paper proposes several ways forward, pending the results of the public consultation on the health workforce. They include:

  • strengthening capacity for screening, health promotion and disease prevention;
  • making numerusclausus more flexible in application to health workers;
  • exchanging good practice on their mobility;
  • reconsidering the principles of recruiting staff from third countries;
  • collecting comparable information about health workers;
  • guaranteeing training for these workers in the use of these new technologies, amongst other skills;
  • further encouraging entrepreneurs to enter the health sector.

Context

This Green Paper aims to initiate a debate on the health workforce in the European Union. This debate could identify how to best promote and train the workforce and enable it to meet the current demographic, technological and migratory challenges. A public consultation was held between December 2008 and March 2009.

Programme for cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training with the United States

Programme for cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training with the United States

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Programme for cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training with the United States

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Industrialised countries

Programme for cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training with the United States

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2006/910/EC of 4 December 2006 concerning the conclusion of an Agreement between the European Community and the United States of America renewing a programme of cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training.

Summary

This agreement is set against the dual background of the European Union’s action to support higher education, and EU/US relations. The EU’s action is intended to make European higher education a world reference for relevance and excellence, while bilateral relations call for greater cooperation in education.

The programme will support some 274 projects over an eight year period. Approximately 6000 EU and US citizens will participate in mobility activities over the duration of the programme.

OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAMME

The programme for cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training pursues a number of objectives.

As general objectives, it aims to promote mutual understanding between the two partners, including through language, culture and institutions, and to improve the quality of human resource development in order to meet the challenges of the global knowledge-based economy.

It also has the following specific objectives:

  • enhancing cooperation between the European Community and the United States;
  • contributing to the development of higher education and vocational training institutions;
  • contributing to individual participants’ personal development for their own sake and as a way to achieve its general objectives;
  • fostering transatlantic exchanges between the citizens of the two partners.

Its operational objectives are to:

  • support higher education and vocational training institutions with a view to promoting joint study programmes and mobility;
  • improve the quality of transatlantic student mobility through transparency, mutual recognition of qualifications, periods of study and training, and portability of academic credits;
  • support collaboration between public and private organisations active in the field of higher education and vocational training with a view to encouraging discussion and exchange of experience;
  • support transatlantic mobility of professionals with a view to improving mutual understanding of issues between the two partners.

LINES OF ACTION

The agreement sets out five lines of action to achieve the programme’s objectives.

Action 1: Consortia projects

Action on consortia projects is aimed at higher education and vocational training institutions and organisations, and their staff, students and trainees.

Joint consortia projects should normally involve transatlantic mobility of students in joint study programmes. Flows in each direction should be equal and they should plan for the language and cultural preparation which will be needed.

This type of project provides support for double or joint degrees set up and run by multilateral consortia of EU and US higher education institutions, including scholarships for students, academic and administrative staff.

Action 2: Excellence mobility projects

The support provided by the programme is intended mainly for consortia projects run by higher education and vocational training institutions with a proven record of excellence, including those funded under the previous agreements.

Action 3: Policy-oriented measures

This action is targeted at organisations dealing with higher education and vocational training. Activities under this category include study sessions, conferences, seminars, working groups and benchmarking exercises.

Action 4: “Schuman-Fulbright” individual mobility grants

This action is intended for professionals (including professionals in training) who wish to study or train in areas of specific relevance to EU/US relations. The professionals it is aimed at include, in particular, decision makers, representatives of the social partners and journalists.

Action 5: Alumni Association

Action by the programme in this area is aimed at alumni associations whose members participated in exchanges supported by the programme.

PROGRAMME ADMINISTRATION

A Joint Committee has been established. It consists of an equal number of representatives from each party. Decisions are reached by consensus. Its role is to:

  • review the cooperation activities envisaged under this agreement;
  • provide an annual report to the parties on the level, status and effectiveness of cooperation undertaken under this agreement.

Activities under this programme will be financed on an equal basis. The proposed programme would cost a maximum of 46 million over the period 2006-2013, provided that matching funds are made available by the US.

BACKGROUND

On 18 May 2005 the Commission adopted a communication on a stronger EU-US partnership, which, in line with the Lisbon strategy, identified cooperation in education and training as an important tool for stimulating knowledge and innovation, and called for the renewal and reinforcement of the current agreement on higher education and vocational training.

This agreement renews the cooperation programme for 2000-2005 originally established under the 1995 Agreement between the European Community and the United States of America.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2006/910/EC

The first day of the month following notification

OJ L 346 of 09.12.2006

Related Acts

Agreement between the European Community and the United States renewing a cooperation programme in higher education and vocational education and training [Official Journal L 346 of 9.12.2006].

Communication from th Commission of 27 June 2005 on the evaluation of the cooperation programmes between the European Community and the United States of America in the field of higher education and vocational education and training and between the European Community and Canada in the field of higher education and training [COM (2005) 0274 – Not published in the Official Journal].

This is the Commission’s interim report on implementation of the EU-US cooperation programme. On the basis of positive external evaluations, the Commission states that the programme has widely succeeded in establishing long-term transatlantic partnerships in higher education and vocational training. Almost all the projects established exchanges of students based on joint programmes of study or programmes drawn up together. The report notes that the programmes achieved the objectives of improving the quality of education and training systems.
The Commission presents the suggestions made by the experts with a view to improving certain aspects of the programmes, but emphasises the absence of major shortcomings. It also mentions that some of the potential has remained unexploited for want of sufficient budgetary resources.

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee of 18 May 2005: A stronger EU-US Partnership and a more open market for the 21st century [COM (2005) 196 final – Not published in the Official Journal].