Tag Archives: International security

Enhancing the Asia strategy

Enhancing the Asia strategy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Enhancing the Asia strategy

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Asia

Enhancing the Asia strategy

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council of 4 September 2001. Europe and Asia: A Strategic Framework for Enhanced Partnerships [COM(2001)469 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Taking account of the developments that have taken place since its 1994 Communication entitled ‘Towards a New Asia Strategy’, the Commission updates the mechanism established by the 1994 strategy. It sets outs a comprehensive strategic framework for relations between Asia, its regions and the European Union (EU) in the coming decade, while recognising the diversity of Asia through different forms of partnership. The Commission aims to strengthen the EU’s political and economic presence in Asia, raising it to a level commensurate with the growing global weight of the enlarged Union.

The new strategy therefore focuses on six key points:

  • strengthening the EU’s engagement with Asia in the political and security fields;
  • further strengthening mutual trade and investment flows with the region;
  • demonstrating the EU’s effectiveness as a partner in reducing poverty in Asia;
  • promoting respect for human rights, democracy, good governance and the rule of law;
  • building global alliances with key Asian partners (to address global challenges and within international organisations);
  • strengthening mutual awareness between the EU and Asia.

The Communication identifies concrete proposals aimed at strengthening EU-Asia relations in these key areas and launching actions on a broader regional scale.

As regards peace and security, the EU must play an active role in regional fora, promote conflict prevention through the sharing of experiences and strengthen EU-Asia dialogue on justice and home affairs, an area that includes, in particular, the right to asylum, immigration and arms trafficking.

Mutual trade and investment flows must benefit from better market access and investment conditions on both sides. Efforts must be made to encourage contacts between the private sector (especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)) and in particular the high technology sector, strengthen dialogue on economic and financial policy, and enhance market access for the poorest developing countries.

In order to reduce poverty, the Commission will give priority in its cooperation programmes to key issues such as education and health, economic and social governance, and the link between environment and poverty. Enhanced dialogue on social policy issues would make it possible to exchange experiences on the most appropriate method of addressing the challenges of globalisation and modernisation.

Promoting civil society and a dialogue between Asia and Europe must encourage democracy, good governance and the rule of law. As regards human rights, constructive exchanges, such as the dialogue with China on human rights, should pave the way for better cooperation.

It is also important to conclude partnerships and build alliances in addressing global issues such as the reform of the United Nations, the World Trade Organisation, the environment and other challenges, for example international crime, terrorism and the spread of AIDS.

The opening of new delegations is one of the instruments that promotes better mutual knowledge between Europe and Asia. Support should also be provided for university, cultural and scientific exchanges and for civil society contacts between the regions.

The Communication also sets out specific measures to target the EU’s initiatives concerning the different component parts of Asia (South Asia, South-East Asia, North-East Asia and Australasia, which is included for the first time in the EU-Asia strategic framework). These measures aim first and foremost to improve relations with certain countries in the region and cover bilateral issues with each country, while providing a framework for the overall relations between Europe and Asia. The Commission favours a pragmatic approach, based on a specific analysis of its relations with each country or group of countries.

At an institutional level, the EU’s relations with Asia have developed considerably in recent years. The first bilateral summit was held in 1991 with Japan. Similar summits have been organised recently with India and China as well as with East Asia as a whole under the ASEM process (Asia-Europe Meeting). At ministerial level, the EU’s dialogue with the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) on the one hand, and with Australia and New Zealand on the other, continues to make progress.

The Africa-EU partnership at work

The Africa-EU partnership at work

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The Africa-EU partnership at work

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Development > African Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

The Africa-EU partnership at work

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 17 October 2008 entitled “One year after Lisbon: the Africa-EU partnership at work” [COM(2008) 617 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Commission notes progress accomplished in the first year of implementation of the strategic partnership between the European Union (EU) and Africa. This evaluation should allow the partners’ action to be targeted and to produce early and concrete deliverables.

THE AFRICA-EU PARTNERSHIP ACTION PLAN

The Africa-EU Action Plan consists of 8 sectorial partnerships (pdf ). It will be revised in 2010 at the next summit of Heads of State and Government from the EU and African states.

Partnership on Peace and Security

Cooperation supports the role of the African Union (AU) in the area of peace and security. First deliverables will focus on planning, control, management and funding of peacekeeping operations. The African Standby Force should be rendered completely operational by the AU, and its capacity for early warning and to combat terrorism and the trafficking of firearms should be consolidated.

The second Peace Facility for Africa, with a budget of EUR 300 million for the period 2008-2010, funds peacekeeping, preventative and post-crisis operations. Its impact will be reinforced by a rapid response scheme for emergency operations.

Africa-EU Partnership on Democratic Governance and Human Rights

Projects within this framework should enhance the existing pan-African set-up, support local governance, electoral and post-electoral processes, the pluralism of the media and cultural cooperation.

A platform for dialogue on democratic governance and human rights should be established in 2009 to promote the involvement of civil society and all stakeholders.

Partnership on Trade and Regional Integration

Within the framework of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), the partnership encourages the development of trade and services offered at regional level. It supports the harmonisation of laws, regulations, norms and standards in order to remove customs barriers in Africa.

The partners should increase the funding which is allocated to the Africa-EU partnership for infrastructures (FR) with the aim of developing regional interconnections.

Partnership on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

The partners have identified the areas of food security, health and education as being priorities for the achievement of the MDGs. This is in line with the recommendations of the United Nations Secretary General (UNSG), and to ensure the coherence of national, regional and multilateral action.


EU Member States have committed to increase official development assistance (ODA) for 2010 and 2015.

Partnership on Energy

In 2008, the partners adopted a Joint Statement on the Implementation of the Africa-EU Energy Partnership. This sectorial agreement aims in particular at modernising regional infrastructures and interconnections, supporting public and private investment, and improving access to energy services and energy efficiency.

Projects within this framework are funded under the EDF and through other financial instruments particularly in the areas of energy, infrastructures and the sustainable management of resources.

Partnership on Climate Change

Political dialogue on climate change is on a multilateral level, mainly within the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA) (FR). The use of climate forecasts for development is one of the priorities of the GCCA through the ClimDev Africa programme.

The partners have strengthened their cooperation and this will come to fruition in an international post-Kyoto agreement at the Copenhagen summit in late 2009.


Partnership on Migration, Mobility and Employment

The Partnership will provide holistic responses with the objective of creating more and better jobs in Africa, advancing the Decent Work agenda and better managing migration flows. This Partnership builds upon the Tripoli Declaration, the Africa-EU Plan of Action on the trafficking of human beings and the Ouagadougou Declaration and Action Plan on Employment and Poverty Alleviation.

Amongst these priorities, the Commission supports the creation of an African Remittances Institute and a network of observatories in Sub-Saharan Africa to collect more reliable data on migration. It intends to establish a structured dialogue with representatives of the African Diaspora in Europe.

Partnership on Science, Information Society and Space

Science, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Space applications are factors for growth and socio-economic development. Africa-EU cooperation takes place in particular within the framework of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES). Satellite surveillance must be developed as an instrument for disaster prevention and the sustainable management of natural and food resources.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE AFRICA-EU STRATEGY

Following discussions between the AU and the Commission, this Communication states priorities for the implementation of the Africa-EU strategy and its Action Plan. It invites partners to:

  • renew their political and financial commitment;
  • to adopt a roadmap, and to complete mappings of cooperation initiatives and available resources;
  • consult civil society;
  • encourage continent-wide projects, policies and legal frameworks;
  • identify existing synergies between strategy and financial and technical programmes;
  • enhance coordination of partners within international organisations and in multilateral negotiations;
  • have regular and structured dialogue between the European Parliament and the Pan-African Parliament.

Related Acts

Commission Working Document of 17 October 2008 annexed to this Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 17 October 2008 entitled “One year after Lisbon: the Africa-EU partnership at work” [SEC(2008) 2603 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Nuclear non-proliferation

Nuclear non-proliferation

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Nuclear non-proliferation

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Energy > Nuclear energy

Nuclear non-proliferation

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 26 March 2009 – Communication on nuclear non-proliferation [COM(2009) 143 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Communication reports on the nuclear situation at global level and proposes solutions aimed at promoting nuclear non-proliferation.

Global context

Nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest in view of rising energy demand at global level on the one hand, and a commitment to reducing CO2 emissions on the other. Wider exploitation of nuclear energy may present risks of nuclear incidents or diversion of technology for non-peaceful uses.

In view of these risks, the international community must ensure that the principle of nuclear non-proliferation is respected – particularly the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) norms. The United Nations Convention, adopted in 2005, concerning the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism also has a role to play, as does the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

The European Commission supports the principle of nuclear non-proliferation and considers that the IAEA and Euratom should enhance their cooperation in this regard.

Instruments

The foreign and security policy (CFSP) is the main instrument available to the European Union (EU) to promote nuclear non-proliferation and in particular the European security strategy and the strategy against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Other instruments developed on the basis of treaties contribute to promoting nuclear non-proliferation in third countries such as:

  • the Instrument for Stability (IfS);
  • the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA);
  • the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation (INSC).

The Instrument for Stability aims inter alia to assist third countries in developing their capacities to prevent risks related to chemical, biological and nuclear materials. This type of aid will be extended to areas in South-East Asia, the Middle East and parts of Africa. Its aim is to develop security in the fields concerned.

The Euratom Treaty also provides a framework for nuclear non-proliferation through:

  • safeguards concerning the prevention of the diversion of fissile materials (plutonium, uranium and thorium);
  • radiation protection, physical protection and export controls. The Euratom legislation provides for authorisations and notifications dealing with the regulatory control of nuclear materials;
  • the Euratom Supply Agency which authorises the conclusion of supply contracts verifies that supply contracts are concluded for peaceful purposes and establishes export authorisation procedures;
  • research and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) which are a basis for all Community research programmes in the nuclear field.

Possible ways forward

The Commission proposes the following options as regards nuclear non-proliferation:

  • to enhance support for the treaty on non-proliferation and nuclear safeguards, by redefining the international framework, combating illicit trafficking and the introduction of appropriate sanctions in case of violation of commitments;
  • extending cooperation with key nuclear countries through Euratom agreements and the conclusion of new bilateral agreements;
  • contributing to the development of an international system of guaranteed supply of nuclear fuel by creating a nuclear fuel bank under the control of the IAEA.

Context

Nuclear power is taking a predominant place in the current global context. An increasing number of countries are seeking to implement civil nuclear energy programmes. It is therefore deemed necessary to strengthen international guarantees of non-proliferation in order to safeguard international safety and security.

Towards an EU-Mexico strategic partnership

Towards an EU-Mexico strategic partnership

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Towards an EU-Mexico strategic partnership

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External relations > Relations with third countries > Latin america

Towards an EU-Mexico strategic partnership

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 15 July 2008 – Towards an EU-Mexico Strategic Partnership Communication [COM(2008) 447 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The European Union (EU) and Mexico plan to establish a strategic partnership in order to extend the scope of their cooperation and political relationship. The two partners wish to improve their coordination on issues of common interest which have both a regional and global dimension.

Relations between the EU and Mexico are based on an agreement called the “Global Agreement”, which covers political dialogue, trade, cooperation and sectoral policies.

Political dialogue on two levels

Firstly, the new strategic framework lends additional impetus to political bilateral relations in the economic, social, human rights, security, environment, culture, education and also trade, competition, civil aviation and investment sectors.

Secondly, political dialogue is used in the context of multilateral relations, particularly within international organisations. The EU and Mexico may encourage exchanges between experts and policy-makers with a view to creating strategic alliances in the following areas:

  • political, concerning the rule of law, human rights, cultural dialogue and regional integration;
  • socioeconomic, concerning development policy, investment, innovation, intellectual property rights, social policy, migration, good governance in the area of tax, energy security and transport;
  • security, relating to the fight against terrorism, organised crime, drug and human trafficking;
  • environment, relating to climate change and natural disasters.

Bilateral discussions are taking place within institutional structures provided for by the global agreement (summits, joint councils and committees), and through thematic political dialogues (human rights, the environment, security, social cohesion, etc.).

Context

Over the last two decades, Mexico has experienced significant socio-economic modernisation. Its economic competitiveness has increased and the country has become attractive to foreign investors, despite worsening security conditions.

Mexico can and should play an increasingly significant role globally, particularly as a cultural, political and regional gateway to South America, and also as a link between the industrialised countries and the emerging countries.

International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about International Criminal Court

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Human rights > Human rights in non-EU countries

International Criminal Court

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2011/168/CFSP of 21 March 2011 on the International Criminal Court and repealing Common Position 2003/444/CFSP.

Summary

The objective of this Council Decision is to advance universal support for the statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and to preserve its integrity, independence and smooth functioning. The European Union (EU) intends to support cooperation with the ICC and the implementation of the principle of complementarity. Pursuant to this principle, the Court only prosecutes if Member States do not have the willingness or capacity to do so.

The ICC is an independent international organisation based in The Hague (Netherlands). Its task is to try the perpetrators of genocides, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The ICC is governed by a treaty, the Rome Statute, which entered into force on 1 July 2002 and has been ratified by all EU Member States.

Advancing universal support

The Union and its Member States undertake to increase participation in the Rome Statute. They may advance this process through negotiations and political dialogue with third countries or regional organisations. In addition, they may adopt initiatives to promote the values, principles and provisions of the Statute. In order to meet this objective, the EU and its Member States are to cooperate with other States, international institutions and certain non-governmental organisations.

The Member States shall share their experience with the countries in question as regards the implementation of the Rome Statute. They and the EU may contribute technical or financial assistance to such countries. The assistance provided should facilitate participation in the Statute and its implementation.

Guaranteeing independence

In order to ensure the independence of the ICC, the Union and its Member States shall:

  • encourage States Parties to pay their contribution to the budget of the Court;
  • support the development of training and assistance for judges, prosecutors, officials and counsel in work related to the ICC;
  • encourage accession to and ratification of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the Court.

Supporting efficient functioning

The Union and the Member States may enter into specific arrangements or agreements to support the efficient functioning of the ICC.

Several States Parties to the Rome Statute have concluded bilateral agreements with the United States guaranteeing that American citizens are not transferred to appear before the Court. The Council refers to its conclusions of 30 September 2002 establishing guidelines for Member States that are considering signing such agreements:

  • existing international agreements between a State Party to the Court and the United States should be taken into account;
  • in their current form, the conclusion of such agreements are inconsistent with the obligations of the Member States of the Court;
  • arrangements adopted must ensure that persons who have committed crimes falling within the jurisdiction of the Court do not enjoy impunity;
  • arrangements relating to the nationality of persons not to be surrendered should only cover persons who are not nationals of an ICC State Party;
  • State and diplomatic immunity should be respected;
  • agreements should only cover persons present in a State because they have been sent there by their country of origin;
  • agreements may be limited in time;
  • agreements must be ratified in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each Member State.

The Council also proposes to develop broader political dialogue with the United States, which would cover, in particular:

  • any returns to the United States under Court process;
  • the development of cooperation between the United States and the Court in specific cases;
  • the application of waivers of United States legislation on the protection of members of the American administration (ASPA legislation).

Context

In February 2004, the Council adopted an action plan defining a framework for Union activities aimed at supporting the International Criminal Court. Currently being re-examined, it covers three areas: the coordination of Union activities, the universal nature and integrity of the Rome Statue, and the independence and smooth functioning of the Court.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2011/168/CFSP

21.3.2011

OJ L 76, 22.3.2011

Related Acts

Agreement on cooperation and assistance between the International Criminal Court and the European Union [Official Journal L 115 of 28.4.2006].

This agreement covers the terms of cooperation and assistance between the International Criminal Court and the European Union, by means, inter alia, of consultation on issues of mutual interest and the regular exchange of information and documents of mutual interest.

Role of the European Union in the multilateral system of the UN

Role of the European Union in the multilateral system of the UN

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Role of the European Union in the multilateral system of the UN

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Development > General development framework

Role of the European Union in the multilateral system of the UN

The EU develops relationships and builds partnerships with third countries and international, regional or global organisations which share its principles and values. It promotes multilateral solutions to global problems, in particular within the framework of the United Nations (UN) (Article 21 of the Treaty on EU).

The EU therefore contributes towards strengthening the effectiveness of the multilateral system and reforming the system of governance of the UN *, for a stronger international society founded on the proper functioning of international institutions and due process of law.

In addition, the European security strategy highlights the fundamental role of the Charter of the United Nations as a framework for international relations and the vital role of the UN Security Council in maintaining peace and global security.

EU participation in the UN system

The EU has had the status of observer member within the UN since 1974. Since the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU has had legal personality and sole capacity to represent the Member States at the UN (Resolution 665/276 of the UN General Assembly). These representation duties are performed by the President of the European Council, the High Representative, the Commission and the EU delegations.

The EU also has an essential role in the development, adoption and implementation of its partner countries’ multilateral commitments.

Finally, the partnership between the EU and the UN is based on political and operational cooperation for the completion of joint programmes and projects. In this respect, the combined financial contribution of the EU and its Member States is one of the main sources of the UN’s budget.

The principal areas of cooperation are as follows:

  • maintaining peace and security in the world, through a full partnership ranging from conflict prevention to reconstruction and peacebuilding. The EU’s contribution takes the form of human and financial resources. In addition, the EU’s foreign and security policy (CFSP) allows an increase in civil and military cooperation. This partnership extends to reform of the security sector, mediation and conflict management capacity, the combating of illicit trafficking in small arms and ammunition, and the promotion of the role of women in peace processes;
  • the promotion of human rights, gender equality and democracy, by defending standards and mechanisms for the protection of human rights, within the UN and through bilateral cooperation. Action in this area concerns, in particular, the rights of women and children, electoral assistance and the strengthening of parliaments, legal systems and civil society;
  • human, economic and social development, particularly by coordinating action in the field of development assistance and humanitarian aid. The fight against poverty and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent priorities for cooperation, including through the UN’s agencies, funds and thematic programmes;
  • environmental protection and tackling climate change, particularly for the adoption of agreements and international conventions, and for the reform of international environmental governance;
  • humanitarian assistance and food aid, in particular through the UN’s special mandate and aid from the EU, which is the largest sponsor of operations undertaken worldwide. The partners are also committed to risk management, assessing the needs of third countries and reform of the humanitarian system;
  • the fight against international and regional threats to security, such as terrorism, the proliferation of small arms and light weapons, organised crime, drug trafficking and money laundering.
Key terms
  • Multilateral governance: a method of organisation of international relations, involving more than two States.
  • System of governance of the UN: a concept defined by the Commission as applying to the main bodies of the UN (the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and their subsidiary bodies, the Security Council, the Secretariat), and the programmes, funds and specialised institutions of the United Nations, including the Bretton Woods institutions (the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund).

The European Union and the United Nations: The choice of multilateralism

The European Union and the United Nations: The choice of multilateralism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The European Union and the United Nations: The choice of multilateralism

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Development > General development framework

The European Union and the United Nations: The choice of multilateralism

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 10 September 2003 – The European Union and the United Nations: the choice of multilateralism [COM(2003) 526 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Communication examines the means available to the European Union (EU) to contribute towards the continuous improvement of global governance, through the United Nations’ (UN) * governance system.

The EU therefore renews its support for the UN’s multilateral governance system * as an instrument for adopting concrete solutions at a global level, to the benefit of sustainable development, poverty reduction, peace and security, in particular.

Effectiveness of multilateral governance

The EU must increase its contribution with a view to adopting and applying multilateral policies and instruments. The EU’s influence could be a determining factor in the implementation of global commitments by its Member States and third country partners.

In addition, the EU must take a more active role in the institutional reform process of the UN in order to increase the effectiveness of the system, to adapt it to the development of multilateral reports, and to promote the international policy of development assistance.

Similarly, an improvement in coordination and cooperation at international level should facilitate the monitoring of commitments and strengthen actions for peace, security and human rights.

Lastly, European external policy supports the capacity-building of developing countries to meet their international commitments. In particular, the EU integrates the objectives of sustainable development, trade assistance, the promotion of decent working standards, and combating terrorism, drug trafficking and organised crime into its external policy programmes.

Effectiveness of collaboration

The Commission presents a set of guidelines for greater partnership between the EU and the UN, in order to:

  • increase policy dialogue, through increasing high-level meetings and cooperation with UN agencies;
  • strengthen EU representation within the UN;
  • increase financial cooperation and the EU’s financial contribution to UN operations;
  • conclude strategic partnerships with UN agencies, funds and programmes in the areas of development assistance and humanitarian aid;
  • conduct a strategic dialogue on coordinating humanitarian aid activities.

Political and technical cooperation must also be increased in the area of peace and security, whether for conflict prevention, crisis management or post-crisis reconstruction. This partnership must be systematically extended to the competent regional organisations (such as the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe).

Promoting the values and interests of the EU

The EU contributes substantially to the development of policies adopted within the UN. However, it is still necessary to improve the coordination of its Member States’ positions, to ensure that the objectives of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) are consistent with the positions of the UN Security Council, and also to increase the role of EU delegations to the UN.

In order to increase the influence of the EU within the UN governance system, the Commission recommends:

  • coordinating the Member States’ positions and participating in the decision-making process as soon as possible, particularly regarding international social policy, health, human rights, development cooperation and humanitarian aid;
  • improving coordination and the EU’s dialogue with countries or groups of countries affected by specific issues;
  • ensuring that European policies are compatible with international policies, and ensuring that effective European representation is in place with regard to the work of the UN on subjects which affect the EU.
Key terms
  • United Nations governance system: a concept defined by the Commission as applying to the main bodies of the UN (the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and their subsidiary bodies, the Security Council and the Secretariat), and the programmes, funds and specialised institutions of the United Nations, including the Bretton Woods institutions (the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund).
  • Multilateral governance: a method of organisation of international relations, involving more than two States.

A comprehensive European migration policy

A comprehensive European migration policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A comprehensive European migration policy

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Justice freedom and security > Free movement of persons asylum and immigration

A comprehensive European migration policy

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 4 May 2011 – Communication on migration [COM(2011) 248 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Arab spring revolutions in 2011 resulted in a large influx of immigrants from the Southern Mediterranean, who entered the European Union (EU) illegally via the Italian and Maltese coasts. The EU took emergency measures in order to respond to this situation. However, these events have demonstrated the limited resources of the EU in immigration matters and the need for greater solidarity between the Member States in this area.

Therefore, the Commission presents initiatives aimed at establishing a comprehensive European migration policy which is better able to meet the challenges presented by migration. This policy must respect the European tradition of asylum and protection, while preventing illegal border crossings.

Several aspects of migration are addressed:

  • Crossing the borders

The EU’s external border controls must be effective and must enable a high level of security to be maintained while also facilitating the passage of persons authorised to enter the EU. The Commission intends to strengthen the existing common rules. In particular, it envisages creating a European system of border guards. It also insists on improving cooperation between national authorities and the exchange of operational information in the case of incidents at external borders, specifically via the EUROSUR system. The operational capacities of the Frontex agency must also be strengthened.

An evaluation of Member States’ application of the Schengen rules must be undertaken at EU level, with the participation of experts from Member States and Frontex, led by the Commission. The latter also intends to establish a mechanism allowing for a decision, at European level, defining which Member States would exceptionally reintroduce border controls at internal borders.

Lastly, to prevent irregular immigration, the Commission stresses the need for a balanced and effective European return policy (returning illegal immigrants who do not need international protection to their countries). It requires that all Member States transpose into their national law the Return Directive on common standards and procedures for returning illegal immigrants, and the Directive on sanctions against the employment of person staying illegally. Lastly, it recognises the effectiveness of readmission agreements with third countries, but also believes that the latter must be considered within the framework of the EU’s overall relations with the countries concerned and accompanied by incentives that help the countries to implement them.

  • Moving and living in the Schengen area

The Commission advocates better organised mobility based on cooperation (between the European agencies Frontex and Europol, and between customs authorities and national police authorities), and on new technologies. In particular, a European entry-exit system would enable data on border crossings by third country citizens to be made available to the authorities. In addition, a registered traveller programme would enable automated border control for frequent travellers.

Visa policy is also an important instrument in terms of mobility. In order to avoid abuse of visa liberalisation systems, the Commission proposes the introduction of a safeguard clause which would enable the temporary re-introduction of visa requirements for citizens from a third country benefiting from this system.

At the same time, the Union recognises that migrants constitute an indispensible workforce for the EU, both in terms of responding to labour shortages in certain areas, and in terms of providing a highly qualified workforce. It is therefore important to recognise their qualifications and to facilitate administrative procedures. The Commission hopes to make progress on the draft single permit authorising foreigners to live and work in a Member State and calls on the EU countries to transpose into their national law the Directive on the European Blue Card which facilitates the recruitment of highly qualified persons. It has also put forward proposals on seasonal workers and intra-corporate transferees. In order to provide migrants with clear and practical information, the Commission will launch an EU immigration portal this year.

Lastly, the integration of migrants into European society must respect the balance between the rights of the migrants and the law and culture of the receiving country. It requires efforts on the part of both migrants and receiving countries. Successful integration is essential for maximising the economic, social and cultural advantages of immigration, for individuals as well as societies. In July 2011, the Commission presented a European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals.

  • Common European Asylum System

The establishment of a Common European Asylum System must be completed by 2012. It aims to reduce the divergences between EU countries in the outcomes of asylum applications, and to ensure a common set of rights and procedures, as well as compliance with the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees. The European Asylum Support Office will strengthen cooperation in this area.

The Commission insists that the resettlement of refugees (permanent resettlement in a Member State of a refugee who has obtained protection in a third country) must become an integral part of European Asylum Policy.

  • Relations with third countries

Issues relating to migration must be integrated into the EU’s overall external relations. A better balance must be found between organising legal migration, combating irregular migration and maximising the mutual benefits of migration for development. The human dimension must also be strengthened through a migrant-centred approach.

With regard to the Southern Mediterranean countries, the Union has proposed a structured dialogue on migration with the aim of establishing mobility partnerships to facilitate access by their citizens to EU territory in exchange for their collaboration in managing migration flows. The Commission will also revise its Neighbourhood Policy with these countries.

EU internal security strategy

EU internal security strategy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EU internal security strategy

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Justice freedom and security > Free movement of persons asylum and immigration

EU internal security strategy

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 22 November 2010 – The EU Internal Security Strategy in Action: Five steps towards a more secure Europe [COM(2010) 673 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The European Council endorsed the European Union (EU) Internal Security Strategyat its meeting of 25-26 March 2010. The strategy sets out the challenges, principles and guidelines for dealing with security threats relating to organised crime, terrorism and natural and man-made disasters. On the basis of the strategy, the Commission adopted this communication to propose actions for implementing the strategy during the period 2011-14.

The communication sets out five strategic objectives, with specific actions for each objective, for overcoming the most urgent challenges in order to make the EU more secure.

Disrupt international criminal networks

The disruption of criminal networks and the elimination of the financial incentives that drive these networks are necessary for combating crime. To achieve this objective, the actions proposed consist of:

  • identifying and dismantling criminal networks: legislation on the collection and use of Passenger Name Records, amendments to the anti-money laundering legislation and guidelines for the use of national bank account registers for tracing criminal finances will be proposed. A strategy for information collection and use by law enforcement and judicial authorities will be drawn up, the setting up of joint operations and joint investigation teams will be reinforced, and the implementation of the European arrest warrant will be improved;
  • protecting the economy against criminal infiltration: a proposal for monitoring and assisting EU countries’ anti-corruption efforts will be adopted, a network of national contact points will be set up, and actions to enforce intellectual property rights will be taken;
  • confiscating criminal assets: legislation to improve the legal framework on confiscation will be proposed, national Asset Recovery Offices will be set up and indicators developed for their evaluation, and best practice guidance on preventing criminals from reacquiring confiscated assets will be provided.

Prevent terrorism and address radicalisation and recruitment

Since the threat of terrorism is constantly evolving, Europe’s efforts to combat it must also evolve to stay ahead of the threat. To this end, a coherent European approach and preventive action are needed:

  • empowering communities to prevent radicalisation and recruitment: an EU radicalisation-awareness network will be created, a ministerial conference on the prevention of radicalisation and recruitment will be organised, and a handbook to support EU countries actions will be drawn up;
  • cutting off terrorists’ access to funding and material and following their transactions: a framework for freezing assets and for preventing and combating terrorism will be established, legislative and non-legislative action will be taken to implement the action plans on explosives and on chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances, and policy for the extraction and analysis of financial messaging data in the EU will be set out;
  • protecting transport: the EU regime for aviation and maritime security will be further developed.

Raise levels of security for citizens and businesses in cyberspace

Rapidly evolving information technologies also create new forms of threats. To combat cybercrime, EU countries must collaborate at EU level to take further action:

  • building capacity in law enforcement and the judiciary: an EU cybercrime centre for cooperation between EU countries and EU institutions will be established, and EU countries’ capacities for investigation and prosecution will be developed;
  • working with industry to empower and protect citizens: a system for reporting cybercrime incidents will be set up, and guidelines on cooperation for treating illegal internet content will be drawn up;
  • improving capability for dealing with cyber attacks: a network of national and EU level Computer Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) and a European Information and Alert System (EISAS) will be set up.

Strengthen security through border management

In relation to the movement of persons, the EU can treat migration management and the fight against crime as twin objectives of the integrated border management strategy. The instruments improving security in relation to the movement of goods are also complementary, and are constantly being developed to tackle the increasingly sophisticated criminal organisations. In line with this, the actions proposed consist of:

  • exploiting the full potential of EUROSUR: a proposal for the establishment of EUROSUR will be adopted, and pilot projects concerning threats related to drugs and smuggling will be carried out at the southern or south-western border of the EU;
  • enhancing the contribution of Frontex at external borders: annual reports on specific cross-border crimes will be drafted to form the basis of joint operations;
  • developing common risk management for movement of goods across external borders: EU level capabilities for risk analysis and targeting will be improved;
  • improving interagency cooperation at national level: national common risk analyses will be developed, the coordination of border checks by national authorities will be improved, and best practices for interagency cooperation will be developed.

Increase Europe’s resilience to crises and disasters

The cross-sectoral threats posed by natural and man-made crises and disasters necessitate improvements to long-standing crisis and disaster management practices in terms of efficiency and coherence. This is to be achieved through:

  • making full use of the solidarity clause: a proposal on the application of the solidarity clause will be adopted;
  • developing an all-hazards approach to threat and risk assessment: guidelines for disaster management will be drawn up, national approaches will be developed, cross-sectoral overviews of possible risks will be established together with overviews of current threats, an initiative on health security will be developed, and a risk management policy will be established;
  • linking the different situation awareness centres: links between sector-specific early warning and crisis cooperation systems will be improved, and a proposal for better coordination of classified information between EU institutions and bodies will be adopted;
  • developing a European Emergency Response Capacity for tackling disasters: the establishment of a European Emergency Response Capacity will be proposed.

EU response to fragile situations

EU response to fragile situations

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EU response to fragile situations

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

EU response to fragile situations

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 25 October 2007 – Towards an EU response to situations of fragility – engaging in difficult environments for sustainable development, stability and peace [COM(2007) 643 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Fragile situations are a major obstacle to sustainable development, regional stability and international security. They are triggered by several factors, such as structural fragility of the economy, a number of democratic governance shortcomings, environmental degradation or access to natural resources. In these situations, the State is unwilling or incapable of meeting its obligations regarding service delivery, management of resources, rule of law, security and safety of the populace and protection and promotion of citizens’ rights and freedoms.

By virtue of its position as main donor of humanitarian aid and development aid and as an important actor in international security and policy matters, the EU has special responsibilities in addressing situations of fragility.

Early warning, analytical, monitoring and assessment tools have been developed in the area of fragility prevention. Development cooperation and political instruments play an important role in the implementation of preventive measures. Development cooperation addresses the root causes of insecurity. Within this context, country strategy papers (CSPs) present a potential that needs to be enhanced. And political dialogue, an essential element of any cooperation agreement between the EU and third countries, can help to build national strategies aiming at a durable exit from fragility.

First of all, the response to fragility is ensured by long-term development cooperation, through the CSPs in particular. In cases where this is not possible due to deterioration of the situation, the EU applies political and diplomatic instruments. Finally, when situations of fragility slide into crises with humanitarian implications, humanitarian aid is provided.
Response to fragility must be adapted to the country concerned, by focusing long-term strategic response and initial response on addressing the immediate needs of the population, vulnerable groups in particular. Moreover, it is important to avoid creating “aid orphans”, by striving for complementarity in interventions through the EU Code of Conduct and, within the humanitarian aid framework, through its Forgotten Crisis Assessment methodology. Further coordination within the EU is also necessary.

Management of the post-crisis phase is ensured by the “Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development ” (LRRD) strategic framework, which aims at the creation of synergies between the withdrawal of humanitarian aid and the transition to development activities. The Commission underlines the need to improve the framework, through better integration of governance, institutional development and security in particular.

In addressing fragility, the EU must improve the use of its resources, i.e. Community instruments, the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) instruments, but also Member States’ bilateral aid. Specifically, it should encourage increased synergy between existing financial instruments, i.e.:

  • The European Development Fund (EDF), which finances flexible mechanisms for post-emergency action and transition to the development phase.
  • The Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which provide for a special emergency procedure allowing transition to development and specific measures to be implemented when stability and humanitarian aid measures cannot intervene.
  • The Instrument for Stability, which provides for support in situations of crisis or emerging crisis, initial post-crisis political stabilisation and early recovery from natural disasters.
  • The humanitarian aid instrument, used when situations of crisis have humanitarian implications, whatever the level of fragility and the causes of the crisis.
  • The thematic programme Non State Actors and Local Authorities in Development and the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR), which provide for procedures applicable to situations that are not favourable to participatory development or to respect for human rights. Specifically, the EIDHR can fund activities without approval from the governments of partner countries, which is fundamental in certain situations of fragility.
  • Budget support, which has often been used by the Commission in post-conflict cases to address urgent financial needs, consolidate key state functions and maintain social stability.

Finally, the Commission proposes a series of actions, namely:

  • Endorsement and implementation of Principles of Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations , elaborated by the OECD Development Aid Committee (DAC).
  • More systematic inclusion of issues concerning fragility in the political dialogue with fragile partner States.
  • Regular exchanges of risk analyses and relevant EU responses, at the field level and also at headquarters.
  • Mapping of bilateral and EU aid modalities with particular focus on the complementarity of CFSP/ESDP joint actions, the Instrument for Stability, the African Peace Facility and long-term cooperation instruments.
  • Review of assessment and analytical tools on governance, conflicts and disaster monitoring.
  • Improvement of the budget support mechanism, including through better coordination with international financial institutions.
  • Strengthening of the partnership with the United Nations and other multilateral organisations.

Related Acts

Council conclusions on EU response to situations of fragility. General Affairs and External Relations Council – 19 November 2007 [Not published in the Official Journal] (pdf ) (FR).

The Council approves, among other things, in the name of the EU, the “Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations” and calls on the Commission to present an implementation plan for the year 2009 based on its conclusions.


Another Normative about EU response to fragile situations

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Foreign and security policy > Conflict prevention

EU response to fragile situations

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 25 October 2007 – Towards an EU response to situations of fragility – engaging in difficult environments for sustainable development, stability and peace [COM(2007) 643 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Fragile situations are a major obstacle to sustainable development, regional stability and international security. They are triggered by several factors, such as structural fragility of the economy, a number of democratic governance shortcomings, environmental degradation or access to natural resources. In these situations, the State is unwilling or incapable of meeting its obligations regarding service delivery, management of resources, rule of law, security and safety of the populace and protection and promotion of citizens’ rights and freedoms.

By virtue of its position as main donor of humanitarian aid and development aid and as an important actor in international security and policy matters, the EU has special responsibilities in addressing situations of fragility.

Early warning, analytical, monitoring and assessment tools have been developed in the area of fragility prevention. Development cooperation and political instruments play an important role in the implementation of preventive measures. Development cooperation addresses the root causes of insecurity. Within this context, country strategy papers (CSPs) present a potential that needs to be enhanced. And political dialogue, an essential element of any cooperation agreement between the EU and third countries, can help to build national strategies aiming at a durable exit from fragility.

First of all, the response to fragility is ensured by long-term development cooperation, through the CSPs in particular. In cases where this is not possible due to deterioration of the situation, the EU applies political and diplomatic instruments. Finally, when situations of fragility slide into crises with humanitarian implications, humanitarian aid is provided.
Response to fragility must be adapted to the country concerned, by focusing long-term strategic response and initial response on addressing the immediate needs of the population, vulnerable groups in particular. Moreover, it is important to avoid creating “aid orphans”, by striving for complementarity in interventions through the EU Code of Conduct and, within the humanitarian aid framework, through its Forgotten Crisis Assessment methodology. Further coordination within the EU is also necessary.

Management of the post-crisis phase is ensured by the “Linking Relief, Rehabilitation and Development ” (LRRD) strategic framework, which aims at the creation of synergies between the withdrawal of humanitarian aid and the transition to development activities. The Commission underlines the need to improve the framework, through better integration of governance, institutional development and security in particular.

In addressing fragility, the EU must improve the use of its resources, i.e. Community instruments, the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) instruments, but also Member States’ bilateral aid. Specifically, it should encourage increased synergy between existing financial instruments, i.e.:

  • The European Development Fund (EDF), which finances flexible mechanisms for post-emergency action and transition to the development phase.
  • The Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) and European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI), which provide for a special emergency procedure allowing transition to development and specific measures to be implemented when stability and humanitarian aid measures cannot intervene.
  • The Instrument for Stability, which provides for support in situations of crisis or emerging crisis, initial post-crisis political stabilisation and early recovery from natural disasters.
  • The humanitarian aid instrument, used when situations of crisis have humanitarian implications, whatever the level of fragility and the causes of the crisis.
  • The thematic programme Non State Actors and Local Authorities in Development and the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR), which provide for procedures applicable to situations that are not favourable to participatory development or to respect for human rights. Specifically, the EIDHR can fund activities without approval from the governments of partner countries, which is fundamental in certain situations of fragility.
  • Budget support, which has often been used by the Commission in post-conflict cases to address urgent financial needs, consolidate key state functions and maintain social stability.

Finally, the Commission proposes a series of actions, namely:

  • Endorsement and implementation of Principles of Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations , elaborated by the OECD Development Aid Committee (DAC).
  • More systematic inclusion of issues concerning fragility in the political dialogue with fragile partner States.
  • Regular exchanges of risk analyses and relevant EU responses, at the field level and also at headquarters.
  • Mapping of bilateral and EU aid modalities with particular focus on the complementarity of CFSP/ESDP joint actions, the Instrument for Stability, the African Peace Facility and long-term cooperation instruments.
  • Review of assessment and analytical tools on governance, conflicts and disaster monitoring.
  • Improvement of the budget support mechanism, including through better coordination with international financial institutions.
  • Strengthening of the partnership with the United Nations and other multilateral organisations.

Related Acts

Council conclusions on EU response to situations of fragility. General Affairs and External Relations Council – 19 November 2007 [Not published in the Official Journal] (pdf ) (FR).

The Council approves, among other things, in the name of the EU, the “Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations” and calls on the Commission to present an implementation plan for the year 2009 based on its conclusions.