Tag Archives: Innovation

Media Mundus audiovisual cooperation programme with professionals from third countries 2011-2013

Media Mundus audiovisual cooperation programme with professionals from third countries 2011-2013

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Media Mundus audiovisual cooperation programme with professionals from third countries 2011-2013


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Audiovisual and media

Media Mundus audiovisual cooperation programme with professionals from third countries 2011-2013

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 1041/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing an audiovisual cooperation programme with professionals from third countries (MEDIA Mundus).


This Decision aims at establishing the programme MEDIA Mundus for the funding of projects for international cooperation with professionals from third countries in the audiovisual sector during the period 2011-2013.


The programme is intended for professionals worldwide. However, the project coordinator must be resident in one of the following countries:

  • Member States;
  • EFTA States that are members of the EEA;
  • countries which declare a willingness to be members of the programme and pay a contribution calculated on the same basis as their contribution to the MEDIA 2007 programme.

What are the conditions for participation in the programme?

Projects proposed must fulfil the following conditions:

  • be carried out jointly by European and third-country professionals;
  • have a minimum of three partners with a view to creating an international network;
  • be coordinated by a European professional and include at least one partner from a third country.

What are the objectives of the programme?

The programme aims to increase the diversity and competitiveness of the European audiovisual industry and to promote Europe’s role in culture.

Information exchange, training and market intelligence

Under the programme, European and third-country professionals meet in order to enhance their understanding of their respective audiovisual markets, particularly in terms of operating conditions, legal frameworks, financing systems and possibilities for cooperation.

It involves establishing professional training on:

  • the conditions of production, co-production, distribution and the exhibition and dissemination of audiovisual works internationally;
  • the inclusion of new technologies throughout the value chain (production, post-production, distribution, marketing and archiving).

Competitiveness and distribution

The introduction of the programme should facilitate the search for foreign partners for European audiovisual works, whilst supporting the organisation of co-production markets.

Moreover, the programme should promote international sales of audiovisual works.


At this level, the programme should:

  • improve the programming and exhibition conditions of audiovisual works in European and third-country cinemas;
  • improve broadcasting and distribution conditions for third countries’ audiovisual works on European distribution channels and European works on international distribution channels;
  • facilitate the organisation of events and initiatives, in particular aimed at young audiences.

What is the programme budget?

The financial allocation for implementing the programme throughout the 2011-2013 period is EUR 15 million (of which 13.5 million is dedicated to supporting projects).


Prompted by the effects of the digital revolution on the conditions of production and dissemination of works, the audiovisual sector has changed significantly over the last 20 years, in particular from a technical standpoint. Furthermore, its international role is increasing with regard to the protection of cultural diversity. In this context, the public consultation on MEDIA Mundus demonstrated a willingness among European professionals and their third-country counterparts to cooperate so as to better promote the circulation of audiovisual works and film literacy.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision No 1041/2009/EC


OJ L 288 of 4.11.2009

Related Acts

Council Decision 2010/478/EU of 26 July 2010 concerning the conclusion of an Agreement between the European Community and the Swiss Confederation in the audiovisual field, establishing the terms and conditions for the participation of the Swiss Confederation in the Community programme MEDIA 2007, and a Final Act [OJ L 234, 4.9.2010].

Research in support of other policies

Research in support of other policies

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Research in support of other policies


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Research in support of other policies

Intelligent vehicles to save lives, fusion energy to counter energy dependence, gene therapy to cure serious diseases, biotechnology to safeguard our quality of life while respecting the environment: these are just some of the many applications offered by research in response to the questions and challenges facing society. The activities of the European Union are geared towards combining the forces of all public and private stakeholders across the board.


  • European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)
  • Admission and residence of researchers from third countries
  • The integration of women in research



  • SET-Plan for the development of low carbon technologies
  • Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy
  • Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan)


  • Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) (2007-2013)
  • Standardization as a catalyst for innovation
  • A single market for 21st century Europe
  • Implementation of the partnership for growth and jobs (first report)
  • Promoting corporate social responsibility

Environment, health and safety

  • A European strategy for marine and maritime research
  • European Security Research and Innovation Agenda
  • Security Research
  • European Earth monitoring programme (GMES)
  • Clean Sky
  • IMI Joint Undertaking
  • Résistance aux antimicrobiens : plan d’action

Space and transport

  • A European space policy
  • European space policy

New technologies

  • A strategy for research on future and emerging technologies in Europe
  • A European strategy for nanotechnology
  • European strategy for the development of key enabling technologies

Information society

  • Internet of Things
  • Ageing well in the information society: The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Programme

Clean Sky

Clean Sky

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Clean Sky


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Air pollution

Clean Sky

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 71/2008 of 18 December 2007 setting up the Clean Sky Joint Undertaking.


The “Clean Sky” joint technology initiative (JTI) is part of the “Cooperation” specific programme (7th framework programme for research and technological development).


Created to run until 31 December 2017, Clean Sky aims principally to:

  • accelerate the development of clean air transport technologies;
  • guarantee effective coordination of aeronautics research on a European scale;
  • set up an innovative and competitive air transport system;
  • improve knowledge generation and use of research findings.

In terms of figures, “Clean Sky” aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 50 %, NOx by 80 % and noise pollution by 50 % by 2020.

“Integrated Technology Demonstrators” (ITD)

Six technical domains, covering all aspects of aircraft technology and known as “integrated technology demonstrators” form the structure of “Clean Sky”. They provide a framework for research operations from the experimental phase to in-flight demonstrations.

Specifically, the six ITD are:

  • the Smart Fixed Wing ITD targeting wing technologies;
  • the Green Regional Aircraft ITD (engines, energy management and new silent configurations);
  • the Green Rotorcraft ITD targeting installation of innovative blades and engines which are quieter, reduce drag, are more fuel-efficient and use environmentally-friendly flight paths;
  • the Systems for Green Operations ITD targeting equipment, architecture and thermal management;
  • the Sustainable and Green Engines ITD integrating technologies for quiet, low weight, low pressure systems and reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx);
  • the Eco-Design ITD, which will focus on the full life cycles of materials and components (design, manufacture, maintenance and destruction/recycling).

An independent technical evaluator will assess and monitor the results of research carried out in these various sectors in order to optimise the impact of the programme in terms of achieving its environmental objectives.

Members and bodies

Its founding members are:

  • the European Union (EU) represented by the Commission;
  • twelve ITD leaders and associates;
  • any public or private entity (industry, company, SME, research centre, university, etc.) established in a Member State or in a country associated with the 7th Framework Programme which, under certain conditions and subject to the consent of the governing board, may request membership.

Its bodies are:

  • the Governing Board;
  • the Executive Director;
  • the ITD Steering Committees;
  • the Technology Evaluator Steering Committee;
  • the General Forum.

A National States Representative Group will act as an external advisory body to the undertaking.


The maximum Community contribution will be EUR 800 million paid from the budget appropriation allocated to the “Transport” theme of the “Cooperation” Specific Programme. Added to this is a contribution which is at least equivalent from the other members of the undertaking, giving a total budget of EUR 1.6 billion.

General information

As a Community body, “Clean Sky” has legal status.

Further information on the objectives and activities of the “Clean Sky” JTI, its status and operation, the role and tasks of its members and bodies, and its funding, are available in the annex to the Regulation.


In addition to “Clean Sky”, five other initiatives of this type are planned in the areas of miniaturisation (ENIAC), invisible information systems (ARTEMIS), innovative medicine, hydrogen and fuel cells and global monitoring for environment and security (GMES).


Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 71/2008

7.2.2008 – 31.12.2017

OJ L 30 of 4.2.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 71/2008 have been integrated into the original text. This consolidated versionis for reference only.

Legal framework for mobile TV

Legal framework for mobile TV

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Legal framework for mobile TV


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Audiovisual and media

Legal framework for mobile TV

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 10 December 2008 – Legal Framework for Mobile TV Networks and Services: Best Practice for Authorisation – The EU Model [COM(2008) 845 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


This communication follows on from that of 2007 on the strengthening of the internal market for mobile TV, which highlighted the importance of the regulatory environment in the take-up of such services. It provides examples of best practice on national regulatory approaches to mobile TV networks and services.

Since launching its mobile TV initiative, the Commission has published overviews of the existing regulatory landscape in Europe with regular updates. This fact-finding exercise showed that Member States have taken very differing approaches to mobile TV. Consequently, the Telecommunications Council of November 2007 requested that the Commission take a more active role and proceed with identifying best practice on authorisation regimes for mobile TV and guiding the national adoption thereof.

When the Commission launched its mobile TV initiative in July 2007, only a few Member States had started addressing regulatory issues. To date, some Member States have still not established a regulatory framework for mobile TV networks and services, while others intend to extend the application of the general broadcasting regime to mobile TV broadcasting. In any case, the Commission is stressing the importance of avoiding situations of regulatory uncertainty. Furthermore, due to the wireless nature of mobile TV and hence the possible cross-border characteristic that it may acquire in the future, the authorisation regimes should also consider the internal market dimension. It is essential that the national regulatory approaches be as consistent as possible, without dismissing the local specificities.

Currently, the European mobile TV market is characterised by three main regulatory models that define the licensed operator’s rights as well as obligations:

  • extension of existing Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) rules; however, this might not suffice eventually;
  • the “plain wholesale model”, where spectrum is assigned to a single operator may raise concerns under the competition directive, in particular if the assignment is made without an open and fair procedure under non-discriminatory rules;
  • the “integrated approach”, which in the Commission’s opinion seems to best suit the launch of the mobile TV service since it will involve all relevant market players.

The regulatory regime for mobile TV services should be conceived in such a way that any undue impediments or delays are avoided. The role of regulation should be to provide minimum standards, which will guarantee the efficient use of frequencies. The central elements to consider in the regulatory regime are the:

  • general framework, which should be clear, transparent and adaptable to new developments. The authorisation procedures should be efficient and open to all market players so that a level playing field is guaranteed. Similarly, a timely legislative process needs to be ensured. In order to tailor regulation to the needs of the market, Member States should put in place public consultation mechanisms. At the same time, regular reporting by public authorities on market developments is considered best practice, so that appropriate propositions can be made if the existing rules need to be adapted accordingly.
  • authorisation regimes, which should be clear and transparent. To this end, the relationship between e-communications, spectrum and content rules should be clearly defined. Furthermore, the granting of authorisations should be centralised through a “one-stop-shop” to provide for a simplified and coordinated procedure.
  • award procedures that should be public, transparent and well defined, and for which a clear schedule should be put in place ahead of the commercial trials of mobile TV services. The award criteria should insist on quality of service, optimal use of spectrum and collaboration among the market players. The criteria should be applied in an objective, transparent and non-discriminatory manner, with due consideration given to competition rules.
  • specific aspects, which should not impose any unnecessary burdens on operators. For example, “must-carry” rules are not appropriate at this stage of mobile TV service development; however, Member States should organise discussions on “must offer” rules. At the same time, network infrastructure sharing and co-location should be encouraged, while the issues concerning interoperability and roaming should also be taken into consideration.

To further guarantee the effectiveness of the regulatory practices relating to mobile TV, the Commission aims to continue promoting the exchange of best practice between national administrators and the relevant market players.

Strengthening the internal market for mobile TV

Strengthening the internal market for mobile TV

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strengthening the internal market for mobile TV


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Information society > Radiofrequencies

Strengthening the internal market for mobile TV

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 18 July 2007 – Strengthening the Internal Market for Mobile TV [COM(2007) 409 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Mobile TV involves transmission of audiovisual content to a mobile device, usually a mobile telephone. It offers the possibility of viewing any content at any time. This platform brings together the dynamic character of telecommunications and the diversity of the audiovisual world.

Mobile TV is considered as an innovative and essential service. This platform could represent a market worth approximately EUR 20 billion by 2015 and reach between 200 and 500 million consumers worldwide.

The Commission invites all Member States and stakeholders to coordinate their efforts and speed up deployment of mobile TV throughout Europe to avoid losing its competitive edge in mobile services.

Keys to the success of mobile TV

The success of this new platform is mainly dependent on three factors:

  • technical aspects. The DVB-H * standard is presented as the most suitable technology. The Commission encourages the use of a common technical standard by registering the DVB-H in the list of European Union (EU) standards. Once it has been published in the Official Journal, the Member States will be legally obliged to promote and encourage use of the DVB-H standard, without, however, prohibiting the use of other standards. Companies are invited to ensure effective interoperability * by promoting consensus on the common use of DVB-H;
  • creation of a coherent regulatory environment. The Member States do not apply the same rules on mobile TV licensing. The Commission wishes to remove legal barriers by creating a coherent regulatory environment applicable to all EU licensing schemes;
  • access to radio spectrum. Mobile TV is likely to benefit from the digital dividend. For this reason, it is necessary to guarantee a quality spectrum by coordinating frequency allocation.

Successful adoption of mobile TV also depends on content availability. Mobile TV not only makes it possible to watch TV on mobile devices, but also provides the opportunity to access on-demand audiovisual services. These new possibilities also require a new approach to copyright as highlighted by the Commission Communication on content on-line.


This new platform is an example of digital convergence supported by the i2010 initiative. The development of the mobile TV market contributes to EU competitiveness and European welfare in accordance with the objectives of the renewed Lisbon Growth and Jobs Strategy.

Key terms of the Act
  • DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting-Handheld): broadcasting system for digital video derived from the digital terrestrial television standard, optimised for mobile terminals. DVB corresponds to an industrial consortium recognised by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) which develops digital video broadcasting standards. These different broadcasting standards correspond to DVB-C (cable), DVB-S (satellite) and DVB-T or DTT (terrestrial). These standards are very widely used in Europe.
  • Interoperability: the ability of two systems to understand each other and work in synergy.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2007/176/EC of 11 December 2006 establishing a list of standards and/or specifications for electronic communications networks, services and associated facilities and services and replacing all previous versions [Official Journal L 86, 27.3.2007].

This list is drawn up according to certain criteria laid down in cooperation with the Member States. Its content aims to encourage the harmonised provision of electronic communications networks, electronic communications services and associated facilities and services.

A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Pharmaceutical and cosmetic products

A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 21 December 2008 – ‘Safe, Innovative and Accessible Medicines: a Renewed Vision for the Pharmaceutical Sector’ [COM(2008) 666 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


This Communication lays down objectives relating to the future of the pharmaceutical sector.

The new regulatory framework should contribute to reinforcing the safety of pharmaceuticals, encouraging innovation and making medicines more accessible for European patients.

Making progress towards a single market in pharmaceuticals

Better access to medicines

European patients should be able to benefit from scientific progress and obtain the medicines that they need for therapeutic purposes. Two options have been envisaged:

  • to put the emphasis on smaller markets thanks to cooperation with Member States up to 2010;
  • to identify, by 2010, ways to optimise the functioning of the network of European Union medicines authorities.

Transparency and the exchange of information in the field of pricing and reimbursement should be improved.

Better regulation for a more competitive industry

Regulation should be improved, particularly in the field of clinical trials. The first step towards improving regulation should be an assessment of the application of Directive 2001/20/EC on clinical trials by 2010.

Safer medicines for better informed citizens

The safety of medicines should be reinforced by the legislative proposal on pharmacovigilance. In parallel, it is important to provide the patients who request it with reliable and objective information on the medicines to which they have access.

The environment issue also comes into play via the proposing of measures aimed at reducing the negative effects of pharmaceuticals on the environment and public health.

Taking on the opportunities and challenges of globalisation

Tackling worldwide health challenges

To combat the circulation of illegal medicines, it is necessary to reinforce the exchange of information at international level by 2012 and to help third countries to take appropriate measures.

In the area of pandemics, bilateral and multilateral relations should be strengthened.

Global cooperation and harmonisation

Inspection mechanisms with the United States, Japan and Canada should be established by 2010. In addition, bilateral cooperation with Russia, India and China should be extended.

International harmonisation is advocated, particularly by means of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). It is also recommended that the areas of the Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) be used for the simplification and convergence of rules between the United States and the European Union.

Finally, for the European Union to be internationally competitive, the Communication encourages it to implement and enforce the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), as well as the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) in particular as regards the protection of intellectual property rights.

Making science deliver for European patients

Supporting pharmaceutical research

The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is to accelerate medicine development so as to make new treatment options available to patients earlier.

New horizons in medicine

These new horizons include two main challenges:

  • advanced therapies such as regenerative medicine should be reevaluated by 2012;
  • new technologies such as pharmacogenomics which make it possible to offer patients personalised treatment.


At the beginning of the 21st century, Europe is facing challenges such as pharmaceutical innovation, shortcomings in the availability of medicines, the increasing globalisation of the sector and scientific breakthroughs.

It therefore appears important to shape a Community framework which allows continued progress toward a single and sustainable market in pharmaceuticals to be made, advantage to be taken of the opportunities and challenges associated with globalisation, and European patients to benefit from scientific progress.

IMI Joint Undertaking

IMI Joint Undertaking

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about IMI Joint Undertaking


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

IMI Joint Undertaking

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2008 of 20 December 2007 setting up the Joint Undertaking for the implementation of the Joint Technology Initiative on Innovative Medicines.


The IMI Joint Undertaking implements the Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on Innovative Medicines, with a view to the development of a competitive, innovation-based pharmaceuticals sector. This public-private partnership aims to support investments in this field.

The IMI Joint Undertaking is a Community body possessing legal personality. Its headquarters are in Brussels. This undertaking has been set up for a period up to 31 December 2017. Its founding members are the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA).

Any legal entity directly or indirectly supporting research and development in a Member State or in a country associated with the 7th Framework Programme (7th FP) may become a member of the IMI Joint Undertaking.


The Joint Undertaking aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the medicine development process so that the pharmaceutical sector produces safer and more effective innovative treatments. The objectives of the Joint Undertaking are thus to contribute to the implementation of the 7th FP and to support pharmaceutical research and development in the Member States and countries associated with the 7th FP. The participation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and cooperation with the private sector and the academic world are encouraged.

In addition, the Joint Undertaking aims to ensure complementarity with other activities of the 7th FP and to establish a public-private partnership with a view to increasing research investment and fostering cooperation between the public and private sectors.

Projects and activities

The IMI Joint Undertaking supports prospective research activities, based on projects selected following open and competitive calls for project proposals, independent evaluation and the conclusion of grant agreements and project agreements.

The participating research-based pharmaceutical companies that are members of EFPIA are not eligible to receive financial support from the IMI Joint Undertaking for any activity.


The bodies of the IMI Joint Undertaking are as follows:

  • the Governing Board is composed of representatives of each of the members of the Joint Undertaking. It is responsible for operations and for overseeing the implementation of activities. It meets at least twice a year;
  • the Executive Director represents the IMI Joint Undertaking from a legal point of view. He or she is also the chief executive responsible for the day-to-day management of the Undertaking in accordance with the decisions taken by the Governing Board;
  • the Scientific Committee is the advisory body to the Governing Board, with responsibilities including advising on the scientific priorities for the annual implementation plan proposal.

The IMI Joint Undertaking is supported by two external advisory bodies:

  • the IMI States Representatives Group consists of one representative of each Member State and of each country associated with the Framework Programme. It advises on the annual scientific priorities. Furthermore, it also informs the IMI Joint Undertaking on relevant activities ongoing at national level;
  • the Stakeholder Forum is convened at least once a year by the Executive Director. It is informed on the activities of the IMI Joint Undertaking and provides comments.

The financial resources of the Joint Undertaking include members’ financial contributions, revenue generated by the IMI Joint Undertaking and any other financial contributions, resources and revenues.

The research activities are funded through non-monetary contributions by the research-based pharmaceutical companies that are members of EFPIA, contributions from members and a Community financial contribution under the 7th FP. This financial commitment on the part of the Community is limited to a maximum of EUR 1 000 million.


Under the 7th Community FP, the EU provides for the establishment of long-term public-private partnerships in the form of JTIs. These JTIs result from the work of European Technology Platforms set up under the 6th FP and implemented through Joint Undertakings.

In addition to the IMI, five other JTIs are planned in the sectors of spaceborne computer systems (ARTEMIS), nanotechnologies (ENIAC), aeronautics and air transport (Clean Sky), hydrogen and fuel cells (FUEL CELL) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES).


Act Entry into force – Expiry date Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 73/2008


OJ L 30, 4.2.2008

Investing in research: an action plan for Europe

Investing in research: an action plan for Europe

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Investing in research: an action plan for Europe


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.


Investing in research: an action plan for Europe

The European Union (EU) must provide a stronger public research base and make it more attractive to private investment to attain the objective of devoting 3% of GDP (gross domestic product) to research by 2010.

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission: “Investing in research: an action plan for Europe” [COM(2003) 226 final – Not published in the Official Journal].



The Barcelona European Council of March 2002 set the objective of increasing investment in research and technological development and bridge the gap between Europe and its main competitors. This investment should rise from 1.9% to 3% of GDP by 2010, of which two thirds should be funded by companies.

Currently the gap in research investment between the EU and the United States is already in excess of EUR 130 billion a year and is still widening.

To reach the 3% of GDP objective by 2010, two thirds coming from the private sector, the public sector and companies must increase their expenditure on research from 6.5% and 9.5% respectively on average each year.

This initiative forms the Commission’s policy response to the objective set in March 2000 by the Lisbon European Council to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy by 2010. It complements a series of European initiatives in the field of enterprise and innovation policy and structural reforms in the product, services, capital and labour markets.


The action plan comprises four main sets of actions:


This process is important to ensure that Member States learn from each other’s experience and take actions that are mutually consistent.

  • Fostering the coherent development of national and European policies

    Aim: to facilitate mutual learning between Member States in their efforts to increase and improve research investment.
    Action: setting up an open process of coordination on actions for increasing investment in research and another process of coordination to develop human resources in science and technology.

  • Shaping a common vision for the development and deployment of key technologies

    Aim: to foster effective public/private partnerships involving public research, industry, financial institutions, users, regulatory authorities and policymakers.
    Action: setting up European technology platforms to bring together all interested stakeholders to develop a long-term vision for key technologies.

  • Enabling all regions to benefit from increased investment in research

    Aim: to encourage regions to develop their own innovation strategies to raise their awareness of the importance of research and innovation.
    Action: establishing a mutual learning platform, mobilising all the stakeholders (the scientific community, companies, public authorities, financial circles, users and consumers).

  • Designing a coherent mix of policy instruments

    Aim: to facilitate companies’ access to an adequate supply of quality human resources and a more responsive public research base through closer interaction with the private sector.
    Action: using various policy instruments in a coherent way, in particular by developing interaction with policies put in place by other countries (research, innovation, economics and finance, immigration, competition, etc.).


The action plan focuses on the need to expand and improve human resources, to strengthen the public research base and to enhance the effectiveness of the various public financing instruments.

  • Human resources

    Aim: to attract more students to research, in particular women, attract international researchers to Europe, stimulate mobility between the academic world and industry, and maintain researchers in the profession and in the European research area by offering favourable career development prospects.
    Action: developing proposals on the career of researchers aimed at facilitating the opening-up of national systems for recruitment, promoting additional measures to improve conditions for researchers in the EU and adopting measures regarding the conditions of entry and stay of third-country nationals.

  • Public research base and its links to industry

    Aim: to promote partnerships among public research institutions providing complementary expertise, knowledge and resources that are often unavailable within companies.
    Action: initiating regulatory and administrative reform to enable public research institutions to develop more effective links with industry, in particular SMEs, increasing the participation of industry in public research and developing and reviewing the national regimes governing the ownership, licencing and exploitation of intellectual property rights (IPR).

  • Improving the mix of public financing instruments and their effectiveness

    Aim: to increase public support in research and innovation by making more effective use of the various public financing instruments: direct measures, tax incentives, guarantee schemes and support for risk capital.

    Direct measures and tax incentives can be used for large firms as well as SMEs, while guarantee and risk capital schemes mainly concern SMEs.
    Action: developing the research and innovation priority as a major axis, streamlining the funding of collaborative research projects within Eureka, optimising the mix of financial instruments and developing cooperation between the 6th framework programme and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD).


Given the current economic downturn, it is important to ensure that budgetary policies favour investment that will lead to higher growth in the future.

  • The stability and growth pact and the broad economic policy guidelines

    Aim: to refocus public spending towards more productive investment, particularly support for research and development, within the framework of the stability and growth pact.
    Action: encouraging and monitoring the refocusing of public spending towards knowledge, in particular research and innovation.

  • Balance between Member State funding and EU public funding until 2010

    Aim: to re-examine the financial means available from the EU budget to support research and innovation, taking account of the long-term common target of 3% of GDP for research expenditure.
    Action: analysing and discussing the public budget requirements with Member States and acceding countries.

  • State aid rules

    Aim: to encourage public support in research, find a balance between the need to ensure on the one hand that distortions of competition are kept to a minimum and on the other that European industry becomes more competitive.
    Action: clarifying and improving awareness of the forms of public support to research that cause no distortion to competition, preparing the revision of the Community framework on State aid for research and redirecting State aid towards research.

  • Public procurement

    Aim: to ensure that the best quality/price ratio is available to public buyers to enable them to procure products and services with the technology that best fits their needs and make them more aware of the possibilities available within the legislative framework.
    Action: supporting the development and dissemination of information on the best available technologies for certain key categories of products so as to adapt technologies to their needs.


The action plan is intended to improve the technological research and innovation environment in Europe, through protection of intellectual property, market regulation, competition rules, fiscal conditions and corporate reporting on research.

  • Intellectual property

    Aim: to take measures to optimise the use made of schemes for intellectual property (IP) rights in Europe, in particular emphasising university institutions and SMEs.
    Action: supporting EU-wide coordinated IP awareness and training activities, assessing specific research-related aspects of IP law and ensuring that science, engineering and business schools provide basic training in intellectual property rights and technology transfer.

  • Regulation of products and standardisation

    Aim: to ensure that the rules and regulations lay down the essential requirements to protect the public interest and leave the technical implementation of these requirements to European standards organisations (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) by means of consensus-based standards. Attention should focus on a planned, effective, open and transparent standardisation process which should remain technologically-neutral.
    Action: identifying technological areas where existing legislation or the lack of legislation is an impediment to the development of new technologies and strengthening the links between the 6th framework report and European standards organisations.

  • Competition rules

    Aim: to revise European competition rules so that better account is taken of research and innovation aspects when assessing market dynamics and competitive conditions.
    Action: work out guidelines on how the potential efficiencies through technological progress will be assessed in merger decisions.

  • Financial markets

    Aim: to facilitate the application of an action plan for financial services, in particular aspects such as the integration of capital markets in Europe and the emergence of rating mechanisms appropriate to technology-based companies, including SMEs. Attention should also be given to the tax and regulatory environment of risk capital since investors, in particular institutional investors, are highly sensitive to costs and complexity and are likely to divert their investments to other asset classes.
    Action: adapting the fiscal treatment of risk capital to avoid double taxation of investors and funds and ensuring that EU legislation takes the needs of risk capital providers into account.

  • Fiscal environment

    Aim: to remove tax obstacles to cross-border activities in the internal market by enacting specific legislation targeted at each particular obstacle and introducing a common consolidated tax base for the economic activities of companies.

  • Corporate research strategy, management and financial reporting

    Aim: to increase awareness of companies, especially SMEs, of the benefits and ways of integrating research and innovation into their business strategy and management. For instance, business schools should give more attention to an integrated approach to research management within business strategy.
    Action: setting up an industrial research monitoring, including a score-board, to analyse investment trends and encourage corporate measuring and reporting on research and other forms of intellectual capital.

  • Current situation

    According to the data provided in March 2005 by Eurostat, the research and development intensity (measured by the proportion of GDP accounted for by research expenditure) was 1.93% in EU 25 in 2002 compared with 1.82% in 1998. The average annual increase in research expenditure was 4% between 1999 and 2002. By contrast, in the United States, research expenditure represented 2.76% of GDP in 2003 and in Japan 3.12% in 2002. According to Eurostat, the business enterprise sector financed 55% of total research expenditure in EU-25 in 2001, whereas in the United States and Japan, this sector accounted for 74% in 2002. In 2003, the highest research intensity was recorded in Sweden (4.27% of GDP in 2001) and Finland (3.51%), followed by Denmark (2.60%), Germany (2.50%), Belgium (2.33%), France and Austria (2.19% each).

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the Council and to the European Parliament on the presentation of a proposal for a directive and two proposals for recommendations on the admission of third-country nationals to carry out scientific research in the European Community [COM(2004) 178 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Establishment of an open coordination process led by the Scientific and Technical Research Committee (CREST) to enable the Member States who so wish to exchange best practices and develop national measures in six areas:

  • reforming public research and strengthening its links with the private sector;
  • providing support to SMEs undertaking research;
  • developing tax measures in support of research;
  • improving intellectual property in the field of research;
  • improving the combination of policies and enhancing public funding of research;
  • developing human resources in science and technology.

Communication from the Commission to the spring European Council: “Delivering Lisbon – Reforms for the enlarged Union” [COM (2004) 29 final/2 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission – Science and technology, the key to Europe’s future – Guidelines for future European Union policy to support research [COM (2004) 353 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Action plan for an integrated maritime policy

Action plan for an integrated maritime policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Action plan for an integrated maritime policy


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Maritime Affairs And Fisheries > Maritime affairs

Action plan for an integrated maritime policy

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 10 October 2007 on an Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union [COM(2007) 575 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


The creation of an integrated maritime policy requires a precise management framework. The Commission has created a Maritime Policy task force to analyse the interactions between the sectoral policies and coordinate them. It has also requested help from the Agencies of the European Union (EU) with maritime-related functions to draw up new policies. In addition, the development of new maritime policies involves consultation of civil society and all stakeholders as well as comprehensive impact assessments.


The prime objective of an integrated maritime policy for the EU is to maximise sustainable use of the oceans and seas while enabling growth of the maritime economy and coastal regions. In order to ensure the competitiveness, safety and security of the sector, the European Commission commits to:

  • creating a strategy to alleviate the consequences of climate change in coastal regions;
  • enhancing professional qualifications and studies in the maritime field to offer better career prospects in the sector;
  • creating a European maritime space without administrative or customs barriers as well as a comprehensive maritime transport strategy for 2008-18 to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of maritime transport in Europe;
  • issuing guidelines on the application of environmental legislation relevant to ports and proposing a new ports policy taking account of the multiple roles of ports;
  • encouraging the formation of multi-sector clusters and promoting technological innovation in the shipbuilding and energy sector to ensure economic competitiveness without harming the environment;
  • supporting international efforts to reduce pollution of the atmosphere and greenhouse gas emissions attributable to ships;
  • taking steps against discharges into the sea, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and any other destructive practices.

A second key objective is building a knowledge and innovation base for the maritime policy. Marine science, technology and research enable analysis of the effects of human activity on marine systems and put forward solutions to alleviate environmental degradation and the effects of climate change. The European Commission plans to:

  • present a comprehensive European strategy for marine and maritime research;
  • improve understanding of maritime affairs for the 7th framework programme;
  • support the creation of a European marine science partnership with the aim of establishing dialogue between the scientific community, the industry and policy makers.

An integrated policy also has the objective of delivering a higher quality of life in coastal and outermost regions, reconciled with economic development and environmental sustainability. The Commission therefore aims in particular to:

  • encourage coastal tourism;
  • prepare a database on Community funding for maritime projects and coastal regions;
  • create a Community disaster prevention strategy in these regions;
  • develop the maritime potential of outermost regions and islands.

The EU intends, moreover, to promote its leading position in international maritime affairs. An integrated policy enables improved management of maritime affairs and the creation of EU priorities in this field. This is of particular importance given the global character of the problems encountered by the maritime sector. Therefore, the Commission will encourage:

  • cooperation in maritime affairs under the European Enlargement Policy, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Northern Dimension and structured dialogue with major partners. The application of international agreements by partners is essential;
  • the Member States to ratify and apply the relevant instruments.

The final objective of this integrated policy is raising the visibility of Maritime Europe and improving the image of this sector’s activities and professions. To this end, the Commission proposes positive actions and tools such as:

  • launch of educational tools (Atlas of the Seas) and instruments to highlight our common maritime heritage;
  • celebration of an annual European Maritime Day from 2008.


Three instruments are of particular importance for creating common maritime policies:

  • a European network for maritime surveillance to ensure the safe use of the sea and the security of the EU’s maritime borders, as these problems are transnational in nature. The Commission particularly encourages cooperation between coastguards and the relevant agencies, and undertakes to improve the interoperability of surveillance systems;
  • integrated coastal zone management (land and sea) to enable maritime spatial planning. While it is the Member States who have competence in this field, Europe-wide commitment is essential. The Commission will propose a roadmap in 2008 to facilitate the development of this instrument;
  • a complete and accessible source of data and information on natural and human activity on the oceans to facilitate strategic decision-making on maritime policy. Measures will be taken to establish a European Marine Observation and Data Network and to create multi-dimensional mapping of Member States’ waters.


The Communication follows on from the consultation launched in the Green paper on a Maritime Policy for the EU, by which the European Council of June asks the Commission to develop an action plan.

Related Acts

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 October 2010 establishing a Programme to support the further development of an Integrated Maritime Policy [COM(2010) 494 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
This Proposal establishes a programme aimed at supporting the measures planned to further the development and implementation of the Integrated Maritime Policy. It is part of the continuation of preparatory actions and pilots projects to be launched between January 2011 and December 2013. The programme will provide financial resources for achieving the objectives and priorities set out in the action plan which was adopted in 2007.
Codecision procedure (COD/2010/0257)

Commission Communication of 8 October 2010 – Marine Knowledge 2020: marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth [COM(2010) 461 – Not published in the Official Journal].
This Communication details an action plan which makes up one of the three cross-cutting tools provided for by the EU’s Integrated Maritime Policy. This action plan is divided into three strands aimed at improving the reliability of marine data, making it more user-friendly and less expensive and stimulating competitiveness amongst the users of this data.

Commission Communication of 15 October 2009 – Towards the integration of maritime surveillance: A common information sharing environment for the EU maritime domain [COM(2009) 538 – Not published in the Official Journal].
This Communication relates to the second cross-cutting tool provided for by the EU’s Integrated Maritime Policy. It sets out guiding principles for the development of a common information sharing environment for the EU maritime domain and launches the process towards its establishment. To achieve this, coordination and coherence between the European Commission, the Member States and interlocutors should be enhanced.

Communication from the Commission of 25 November 2008 – Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving common principles in the EU [COM(2008) 791 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
Maritime Spatial Planning is an instrument of the Integrated Maritime Policy which helps to improve coordination between the parties involved and optimises the use of the seas and oceans. This Communication defines a set of fundamental principles inspired by current practice and existing legislation. These principles will serve as the basis for the discussions leading to the drafting of a common approach concerning Maritime Spatial Planning.

Report from the Commission of 15 October 2009 – Progress report on the EU’s integrated maritime policy [COM(2009) 540 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission reviewed progress carried out under the framework of the Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP) since the adoption of the 2007 Communication and defined the six strategic directions for the future:

  • integration of maritime governance: EU institutions, Member States and coastal regions shall establish effective structures for the purpose of cross-sectoral collaboration and consultation with stakeholders. These structures shall enable the potential of all the synergies between maritime-related sectoral policies to be used. As much as is possible, it should prevent sectoral policies from being isolated from each other.
  • development of cross-cutting policy tools such as maritime spatial planning, exhaustive knowledge and databases on maritime spaces and integrated maritime surveillance. These tools can unlock considerable economic investments and improve the management of European maritime spaces.
  • definition of the boundaries for maritime activities in order to ensure sustainability: in the context of the Framework Directive “Strategy for the marine environment”, these boundaries take into consideration the impact of the development of maritime activities on the seas and oceans.
  • sea-basin strategies: these strategies contribute to the success of the IMP. They enable the priorities and tools of the policy to be adapted to the specific geographic, economic and political context of each large European sea-basin.
  • strengthening the international dimension of integrated maritime policy: the EU must take a leading role in improving global maritime governance, as it has done in the matter of piracy or with regard to destructive fishing practices.
  • sustainable economic growth, employment and innovation: the EU shall define overall, coherent economic priorities in order to promote the development of intra-EU maritime transport, stimulate investment, advance the concept of clean ships and promote energy generation from the sea, etc. It shall also ensure that maritime policy and coastal areas are fully taken into account in the debate on territorial cohesion.

The Commission shall publish a document on the implementation of these six strategic directions in 2010.

Media literacy in the digital environment

Media literacy in the digital environment

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Media literacy in the digital environment


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Audiovisual and media

Media literacy in the digital environment

Document or Iniciative

Commission Recommendation 2009/625/EC of 20 August 2009 on media literacy in the digital environment for a more competitive audiovisual and content industry and an inclusive knowledge society.


This Recommendation aims to increase media literacy in the digital environment in order to achieve a more competitive knowledge economy while contributing towards a more inclusive information society.


Media literacy is defined as the ability to access the media, and to understand and critically evaluate different aspects of the media and media content. Media literacy also includes the ability to communicate in a variety of contexts.


There are still many barriers to the development of media literacy at European level. Member States still lack a shared vision in this area. In addition, the lack of visibility of national, regional and local initiatives in this area makes it more difficult to foster European networks. Consequently, for the moment, there is no coordination between stakeholders.


Media literacy should enable European citizens to better understand and analyse the media messages and content they encounter and to acquire the skills which will enable them to play their role of citizen fully.

It may also contribute to safeguarding the pluralism and independence of the media. It permits the expression of diverse opinions from different social groups and promotes the development of the values of tolerance and dialogue.

Media literacy also plays an important role in enhancing awareness of the European audiovisual heritage and cultural identities. In fact, it helps to increase knowledge of and interest in recent European cultural works.

Faced with these challenges, the European Commission proposes encouraging research projects on media literacy in the framework of existing programmes.

Recommended action

Member States are invited to develop and implement co-regulatory initiatives leading to the adoption of codes of conduct relating to the European media.

It is important to promote and finance research, studies and projects covering the different aspects and dimensions of media literacy in the digital environment.

Member States are also encouraged to organise debates in conferences and public events with a view to the inclusion of media literacy in the education curriculum and as part of the provision of key competences for lifelong learning.

Member States should also implement national campaigns to raise public awareness of cultural heritage, as well as training to raise awareness of the risks involved in processing personal data through information and communication networks.

Moreover, the Media Industry is invited to suggest tools for improving the level of media literacy, such as:

  • information tools relating to digital content and search engines;
  • awareness-raising campaigns about techniques used for commercial communication purposes (product placement and online advertising);
  • information packs for young people on the processing of personal data;
  • information days on the creative economy and copyright.


The Commission Communication of December 2007 on ‘A European approach to media literacy in the digital environment’ emphasised the importance of media literacy in relation to commercial communication, audiovisual works and digital content. A better level of media literacy would contribute towards the objectives that the European Union set for itself in Lisbon and in the context of the i2010 initiative.