Tag Archives: Health care

European dimension in sport

European dimension in sport

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European dimension in sport


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Sport

European dimension in sport

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 18 January 2011 – Developing the European Dimension in Sport [COM(2011) 12 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Building on the achievements of the White Paper on sport, this communication presents issues under the same three broad thematic areas that are to be addressed at the European Union (EU) level. Actions at this level aim at providing added value by supporting and complementing EU countries’ actions in the field of sport.

The societal role of sport

Sport can make a positive contribution to European growth, employability of citizens and social cohesion, while limiting health expenditure. However, sport continues to face threats related to doping, violence and intolerance, against which action must be taken to protect athletes and citizens.

The use of doping substances poses serious public health hazards, thus necessitating the stepping up of the fight against doping. Stakeholders have called for the EU to join the Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention, to which end the Commission will propose a draft mandate for negotiating the EU’s accession. It is also essential to reinforce the measures preventing organised networks’ trade in doping substances. The Commission will examine ways to reinforce such measures, including through the introduction of criminal law provisions. The Commission already supports several organisations that play an important role in the fight against doping, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). It will continue supporting transnational anti-doping networks.

The quality of sports programmes in educational institutions is not satisfactory in several EU countries. The quality of sport training centres and their staff should be high enough to safeguard athletes’ moral, educational and professional interests. To support education, training and qualifications in sport, the Commission and EU countries will draw up European guidelines on “dual careers” to ensure that quality education is provided alongside sport training. They will also support the referencing of sport-related qualifications to the European Qualification Framework (EQF) and promote the recognition and validation of non-formal and informal learning gained through sport-related activities.

A European approach is needed to prevent and fight against violence and intolerance, which continue to pose problems to European sport. The Commission and EU countries will therefore develop and implement security arrangements and safety requirements covering a wide range of sport disciplines (currently only international football events are covered). Furthermore, the Commission will support the fight against intolerance in sport and encourage EU countries to fully and effectively transpose the Framework Decision 2008/913/JHA on combating racism and xenophobia.

Sport is fundamental for improving physical activity, which is an essential health determinant in today’s society. To enhance health through sport, the Commission and EU countries are further working on national guidelines encouraging the incorporation of physical activity into citizens’ daily lives, based on the 2008 EU Physical Activity Guidelines. There are great differences between EU countries regarding the concept of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA). To overcome these differences, the Commission will support transnational projects and networks in this area.

Social inclusion can be improved in and through sport. To this end, the Commission and EU countries will draw up accessibility standards for sport through the European Disability Strategy. They will also further promote the participation of persons with disabilities in sporting activities. In addition, the Commission will support transnational projects that promote women’s access to sport and disadvantaged groups’ social integration through sport.

The economic dimension of sport

Sport is an ever growing sector of the economy that contributes to growth and jobs. However, there is a need for comparable data to form the basis of evidence-based policy-making and for sustaining the financing of sport, in particular its non-profit structures.

Evidence-based policy-making is essential for implementing EU sport provisions. The Commission and EU countries will produce satellite accounts for sport to measure its economic importance. The Commission will also provide support to a network of universities to promote innovative and evidence-based sport policies, as well as study the possibility of setting up an EU sport monitoring function.

The sustainable financing of sport must be ensured. Intellectual property rights are an important source of revenue in the professional sports field; consequently, the Commission will take those arising in the coverage of sporting events into consideration in the implementation of the Digital Agenda initiative. It will also study the funding of grassroots sport, which will inform future action in this field. Furthermore, together with EU countries, the Commission will examine how the financial solidarity mechanisms in the sports sector may be strengthened.

Thus far, there have only been a few decisions on the application of EU state aid rules to sport. As a result, stakeholders are continually requesting for additional clarifications on the financing of infrastructure and sport organisations. Hence, the Commission will monitor the application of state aid law in the area of sport and, if the number of state aid cases increases, it will consider providing guidance.

Sport is a valuable tool for regional development and employability. To take advantage of this value, the Commission and EU countries will make full use of the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund to support sustainable sport structures.

The organisation of sport

The autonomy and self-regulation of sport organisations is underpinned by good governance in the sector. To promote good governance in sport at the European level, the Commission and EU countries will endorse common standards through the exchange of good practice and by providing targeted support to specific initiatives.

In order to support the correct application of the concept of the specific nature of sport, the Commission will provide theme-by-theme guidance on the relationship between EU law and sporting rules. It will also provide guidance on EU rules relating to the free movement and nationality of sportspeople, with a view to the organisation of non-discriminatory competitions in individual sports on a national basis.

In addition, the Commission will provide guidance on transfer rules, as player transfers often raise questions about their legality and the financing involved. It will assess both the economic and legal aspects relating to such transfers. The activities of sport agents also raise questions of ethical nature; consequently, the Commission will organise a conference to examine ways in which agents’ activities may be improved.

Within the professional football sector, a European social dialogue committee was already launched in 2008. Several organisations have called for the creation of European social dialogue for the whole sport sector, which the Commission is backing. To facilitate this process, the Commission will propose a test phase for the relevant social partners.

Work Plan for Sport 2011-2014

Work Plan for Sport 2011-2014

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Work Plan for Sport 2011-2014


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Sport

Work Plan for Sport 2011-2014

Document or Iniciative

Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on a European Union Work Plan for Sport for 2011-2014 [OJ C 162 of 1.6.2011].


The Treaty of Lisbon made sport a European Union (EU) area of competency, in which it can support, coordinate and complement the actions of its Member States. By promoting sustainable, smart and inclusive growth, and job creation, sport also contributes to the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy. Furthermore, it has a positive effect on social inclusion, education, training, public health and active ageing.

In order to develop the European dimension in sport, the Council approves a 3-year work plan detailing the actions to be implemented by Member States and the Commission.

Three priority themes are identified and accompanied by actions for the period 2011-2014:

  • The integrity of sport, in particular the fight against doping and match-fixing. The actions defined to this end are:
    • prepare draft EU comments to the revision of the World Anti-Doping Agency’s world anti-doping code;
    • develop a European dimension of the integrity of sport with the focus on the fight against match-fixing;
    • develop principles of transparency concerning good governance and organisation of sport;
    • address the issues identified related to access to and to supervision of the profession of sport agents and to transfers in team sports (in particular the issue of the transfer of young players).
  • Social values of sport, in particular health, social inclusion, education and volunteering. The following actions must be carried out:

    • prepare a proposal for European guidelines on ‘dual careers’ aimed at ensuring that young athletes receive quality education alongside their sports training;
    • follow up on the inclusion of sport-related certificates in national qualifications frameworks with reference to the European Qualifications Framework;
    • explore ways to promote health enhancing physical activity and participation in grassroots sport.
  • Economic aspects of sport, in particular sustainable financing of sports and evidence-based policy making. Two actions are defined in this respect:

    • promote data collection to measure the economic benefits of the EU sport sector;
    • strengthen financial solidarity mechanisms between professional sport and grassroots sport.


Implementation of the Work Plan will be supported by expert groups created by the Commission and the EU countries in the following areas: anti-doping; good governance in sport; education and training in sport; sport, health and participation; sport statistics and sustainable financing of sport.

The Commission will collaborate with the sports movement and competent organisations at national, European and international levels. It will submit a report by the end of 2013 evaluating the implementation of the Work Plan.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 18 January 2011 – Developing the European Dimension in Sport [COM(2011) 12 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

White Paper on sport of 11 July 2007, presented by the European Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Committee of the Regions and the European Economic and Social Committee [COM(2007) 391 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Alzheimer’s and other dementias: European initiative

Alzheimer’s and other dementias: European initiative

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Alzheimer’s and other dementias: European initiative


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > Health determinants: lifestyle

Alzheimer’s and other dementias: European initiative

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 22 July 2009 on a European initiative on Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias [COM(2009) 380 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


This Communication lays down milestones for a European initiative on Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.


Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease which affects mental ability such as memory, thinking and judgement, even causing a deterioration in personality.

The most common types of dementia are:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (50 to 70 % of cases);
  • dementia caused by successive strokes (30 % of cases);
  • Frontotemporal dementia;
  • Pick’s disease
  • Binswanger’s disease;
  • Lewy-Body dementia.


Obstacles hindering the introduction of a European initiative to combat forms of dementia involve:

  • the lack of prevention and early diagnosis of the disease;
  • the lack of epidemiological data which limits understanding of the mechanisms of the disease;
  • the lack of exchanges of good practices between Member States;
  • the image and negative impact of the disease on the population.

First objective: prevention and early diagnosis of the disease

Preventing the disease or making an early diagnosis can delay the development of the disease. However, these risk factors are not the same according to the different forms of dementia. It is, for example, easier to detect vascular dementia than Alzheimer’s disease since risk factors for vascular dementia are already well known:

  • high blood pressure;
  • high cholesterol levels;
  • smoking.

Member States already have avenues to explore regarding the development of effective prevention of the disease. In particular:

  • the promotion and stimulation of physical and mental activities throughout life;
  • the control of the vascular risk factors mentioned above.

In order to meet this objective of prevention and early diagnosis, Member States shall put in place the following actions:

  • promote cardiovascular health and physical activity;
  • produce recommendations to inform the public;
  • include older people in a flexible retirement regime to allow them to remain active.

Second objective: to improve epidemiological knowledge

The European Commission proposes to collect data on the impact of these diseases through the “European Collaboration on Dementia (EuroCoDe)” project. The framework of the “Health” programme may also be used to prepare new criteria for early diagnosis. The Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development (FP7) may also offer an effective research framework for Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

It is also necessary to harmonise existing research frameworks both at European and national level in order to prepare coherent policies. To this end, actions include:

  • using the European Health Examination Survey to provide new Europe-wide data on the prevalence of people with early cognitive deficiencies;
  • launching a pilot Joint Programming approach to combat neurodegenerative diseases.

Third objective: exchange of good practices

Exchange of good practices may take place through the Open Method of Coordination (OMC) for social protection, social inclusion and long-term care. Moreover, the Commission may provide information on how ongoing Community programmes can finance these exchanges.

The OMC can help to define quality frameworks for medical and care services for people affected by the disease.

The European Union Disability Action Plan 2003-2010 (DAP) can also be used to support patients’ organisations.

Fourth objective: to respect patients’ rights

The Commission intends to establish a European Network for the protection of the rights and dignity of people with dementia. This Network would be responsible for working on issues related to the dignity, autonomy and social inclusion of patients.


7.3 million Europeans between 30 and 99 years of age were suffering from dementia in 2006. According to the “Dementia in Europe Yearbook” report (2008) , the total direct and informal care costs of the disease amounted to EUR 130 billion for the European Union in 2005. Coordinated action at European level would reduce these figures and combat this major health problem.

Investing in people

Investing in people

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Investing in people


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > General development framework

Investing in people

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 25 January 2006, “Investing in people” [COM(2006) 18 – not published in the Official Journal].


The current legislative framework governing external action has to be simplified. To this end, within the financial perspectives 2007-2013, the Commission is proposing six new instruments to meet two main objectives:

  • horizontal instruments to respond to particular needs and circumstances;
  • instruments designed to implement particular policies with specific geographical coverage (geographical programmes).

These instruments are to provide the legal basis for Community expenditure in support of external cooperation programmes and replace the existing thematic regulations.

Forming part of this new external assistance architecture, the new thematic programme “Investing in people” provides a number of advantages:

  • improved consistency among EU policies;
  • a framework for sharing know-how;
  • improved monitoring, data collection and analysis;
  • greater emphasis placed on innovation;
  • a higher international profile.

Social and human development: recent developments

In addition to the wealth of experience built up at national and international level, several assessments and evaluations have been carried out recently in the following areas:

  • poverty diseases, sexual health, gender equality;
  • education;
  • employment and social cohesion;
  • culture.

The Commission’s analysis highlighted the need for a holistic and coherent thematic approach to human and social development, which must back up the various national initiatives. The programme “Investing in people” could pave the way for the development of European-level strategies that would respond effectively to the new priorities for health, education, social policy and culture in the field of human and social development.

The thematic programme

The focus of the thematic programme is on six different areas of action: health, knowledge and skills, culture, employment and social cohesion, gender equality, youth and children.

In order to ensure access to health care for all, the programme sets out to:

  • mobilise global public goods to combat and prevent diseases;
  • support innovative health measures;
  • improve the regulatory framework;
  • increase political and public awareness and education;
  • improve technical resources.

In the field of access to knowledge and skills, the measures taken to support national programmes consist mainly in:

  • supporting low-income countries for the development of successful education policies;
  • promoting reciprocal learning via international exchanges of experience and good practice;
  • promoting transnational university cooperation and the mobility of students and researchers at international level;
  • developing a broader framework for monitoring and data assessment;
  • promoting schooling for marginalised and vulnerable children.

In the field of culture, the new thematic programme should make for:

  • the bringing together of peoples and cultures on an equal footing, while preserving diversity;
  • greater international cooperation to fully exploit the economic potential of the cultural sector.

To reduce socio-economic inequalities, the new thematic programme will focus on social cohesion and employment, and will do this in three different ways, by:

  • promoting of the “decent work for all” agenda through global and multinational initiatives;
  • supporting initiatives to promote the improvement of working conditions as well as the adjustment to trade liberalisation;
  • promoting the social dimension of globalisation and the EU’s experience.

A fundamental human right, gender equality is already the subject of country action, which the new thematic programme will complement by:

  • supporting the various programmes that contribute to achieving the objectives of the Beijing Declaration;
  • backing the efforts of civil society organisations;
  • helping to include the gender perspective in statistics.

Finally, the thematic programme will place the interests of young people and children at the centre of European action, by:

  • drawing countries’ attention to children and youth issues and enhancing their capacity to address these issues in external action;
  • supporting regional, inter-regional and global initiatives in key areas, such as preventing all forms of child labour, human trafficking and sexual violence;
  • supporting the youth employment network;
  • supporting efforts to promote young people and children in situations and regions where bilateral cooperation has limitations;
  • supporting the monitoring of data, the development of policies, the exchange of information, awareness-raising campaigns and innovative initiatives in all areas that affect young people and children.


Human and social development is part of the “European Consensus” on development policy. This statement is the cornerstone of the Union’s international commitments as set out in the Millennium Declaration, at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, the World Summit for Social Development, the Beijing Platform for Action on gender equality and the September 2005 UN Summit.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on “External Actions through Thematic Programmes under the Future Financial Perspectives 2007 – 2013” [COM(2005) 324 final – not published in the Official Journal]

Cross-border healthcare: patients’ rights

Cross-border healthcare: patients’ rights

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Cross-border healthcare: patients’ rights


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > European health strategy

Cross-border healthcare: patients’ rights

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare.


This Directive makes provision for the introduction of a general framework to:

  • clarify patients’ rights with regard to accessing cross-border healthcare provision *;
  • guarantee the safety, quality and efficiency of care that they will receive in another EU Member State;
  • promote cooperation between Member State on healthcare matters.

This Directive does not concern:

  • long-term care services;
  • public vaccination programmes.

Member States’ responsibilities

Each Member State shall designate one or several national contact points for cross-border healthcare. These contact points shall consult with patient associations, healthcare providers and healthcare insurers. They are responsible for providing patients with information on their rights when they decide to take advantage of cross-border healthcare and with the contact details of the other contact points in the other Member States.

The Member State of treatment
* organises and provides the healthcare. They are responsible for ensuring the quality and safety of the healthcare provided, in particular by implementing control mechanisms. They also ensure the protection of personal data and equal treatment for patients who are not nationals of their country. The national contact point in the Member State of treatment shall provide patients with the necessary information.

Following the provision of care, it is the Member State of affiliation
* who takes care of the reimbursement of the insured person on the condition that the treatment received is provided for under reimbursable care in their national legislation.

Procedures for reimbursing cross-border care

The Member State of affiliation shall ensure that the costs incurred by an insured person who receives cross-border care shall be reimbursed, on the condition that the person has the right to the type of care received. The amount of the reimbursement is equivalent to the amount which could have been reimbursed by the statutory social security system if the care was provided in their country. It must not exceed the actual costs of the care.

The Member State of affiliation may reimburse related costs, such as accommodation and travel costs.

An insured person may also receive reimbursement for services provided through the means of telemedicine.

With regard to certain cross-border healthcare *, the State of affiliation can implement a system of prior authorisation in order to avoid the risk of undermining the planning and/or financing of their health system. It must provide this authorisation automatically if the patient has the right to the healthcare in question and when this healthcare cannot be provided on its territory within a time limit which is medically justifiable. However, the State of affiliation may refuse to grant prior authorisation to a patient in very specific cases (as detailed in the Directive *).

If a patient requests prior authorisation and the conditions are met, authorisation must be granted in accordance with the Regulation relating to the coordination of social security systems, except if the patient requests to be treated under the framework of this Directive.

Administrative procedures relating to the provision of healthcare must be necessary and proportional. They should be implemented in a transparent manner, within fixed deadlines and based on objective and non-discriminatory criteria. When processing a request for cross-border healthcare, Member States must take into account the patient’s medical condition and the urgency of the specific circumstances.

Cooperation on healthcare

Member States will cooperate on the implementation of the Directive. In particular, they will support the creation of European reference networks of healthcare providers, which aim to facilitate the mobility of expertise and access to highly specialised care through the concentration and joining up of available resources and expertise.

Member States shall recognise the validity of medical prescriptions issued in other Member States if those medicines are authorised in their country. Measures must be taken to help health professionals mutually recognise and verify the authenticity of prescriptions.

Member States are also encouraged to cooperate in the treatment of rare diseases through the development of diagnostic and treatments methods. The Orphanet database and European networks can be used in this respect.

E-health systems or services also enable the provision of cross-border care. This Directive provides for the establishment of a network of national authorities responsible for ‘e-health’ with the aim of improving the continuity of care and guaranteeing access to high quality healthcare.

Lastly, the creation of a network of authorities or bodies responsible for evaluating health technologies will facilitate cooperation between the national competent authorities in this field.


This Directive is in line with the Court of Justice jurisprudence following the Kohll and Decker judgement delivered on 28 April 1998 and which established the right of patients to be reimbursed for medical treatment in a Member State other than their own. It does not bring into question the Regulation principles on the coordination of social security systems, in particular the principles regarding equality between resident and non-resident patients of a Member State and the European Health Insurance Card.

Key terms of the act
  • Cross-border healthcare: healthcare provided or prescribed in a Member State other than the Member State of affiliation.
  • Member State of affiliation: the Member State where the patient is an insured person.
  • Member State of treatment: the Member State on whose territory cross-border healthcare is actually provided.
  • Care that may be subject to prior authorisation: 1. Care which is subject to planning and requires: (a) either overnight hospital accommodation of at least one night, or (b) that requires the use of highly specialised and cost-intensive medical infrastructure or medical equipment; 2. involves treatments presenting a particular risk for the patient or the population; 3. is provided by a healthcare provider that could give rise to serious and specific concerns relating to the quality or safety of the care.
  • Reasons for refusal to grant authorisation: 1. In the case of patient-safety risk; 2. In the case of a safety risk to the general public; 3. When there are serious and specific concerns relating to the healthcare provider regarding the respect of standards on quality of care and patient safety; 4. when this healthcare can be provided on its territory within a time limit which is medically justifiable.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2011/24/EU



OJ L 88, 4.4.2011

Patient safety and the prevention of healthcare associated infections

Patient safety and the prevention of healthcare associated infections

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Patient safety and the prevention of healthcare associated infections


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > Threats to health

Patient safety and the prevention of healthcare associated infections

Document or Iniciative

Council Recommendation 2009/C 151/01 of 9 June 2009 on patient safety, including the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections.


Patient safety during treatment constitutes a major public health problem and generates considerable cost. This Recommendation advises the introduction of a framework aimed at improving patient safety and preventing adverse events, in particular the healthcare associated infections
which may be contracted in healthcare institutions.

Patient safety

The establishment and development of national policies and programmes on patient safety

A competent authority responsible for patient safety on their territory should be designated. This measure would contribute, inter alia, to embedding patient safety as a priority issue in health policies and programmes at national as well as regional and local levels.

In order to improve patient safety, more efficient systems, processes and tools in the area of healthcare safety should be developed. Safety standards and practices applying to healthcare should be reviewed regularly.

Health professional organisations should also be encouraged to have a more active role in patient safety.

An approach should be introduced to promote safe practices so as to prevent the most commonly occurring adverse events such as medication-related events, healthcare associated infections and complications related to surgical intervention.

Making patients part of the process

Patients should be involved, through the associations representing them, in the definition of patient safety policies. They should, moreover, receive information on safety standards which are in place as well as complaints procedures and available remedies or redress. It would also be opportune to enable patients to acquire a basic knowledge of patient safety.

Improving information and introducing reporting systems

The introduction or improvement of existing reporting systems should enable information to be provided on the extent, types and causes of incidents related to patient care. Such systems should be designed to encourage healthcare workers to report any adverse event *. They would also allow patients and their families to share their experiences.

These systems would also enable other risk management systems in the field of health safety to be supplemented, such as those concerning pharmacovigilance.

Education and training of healthcare workers

Healthcare workers have an important role to play in improving patient safety. It is therefore essential that they have multidisciplinary training and education in this field. Undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, continuing professional development and on-the-job training for healthcare workers should therefore include the issue of patient safety.

All healthcare workers should be duly informed of existing risks and safety measures.

Sharing knowledge, experience and best practice at Community level

It would be relevant to develop a system to classify and assess patient safety at European level. This approach requires the preparation of common definitions and terminology as well as comparable indicators which would allow Member States to make mutual use of information and experience acquired at national level. This exchange of knowledge and best practice would also enable patient safety policies to be improved and to better target research in this field.

Prevention of healthcare associated infections

A strategy to prevent and control healthcare associated infections should be established in order to:

  • implement prevention and control measures at national or regional level;
  • improve the prevention and control of infection in healthcare institutions;
  • establish active surveillance systems;
  • foster education and training of healthcare workers;
  • facilitate access to information for patients.


On average, healthcare associated infections occur in one hospitalised patient in 20, that is to say 4.1 million patients a year in the European Union, and cause 37 000 deaths. Many of these deaths could be avoided. This Recommendation builds upon the work of the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to propose a framework for patient safety.

Key terms of the Act
  • Healthcare associated infections: means diseases or pathologies related to the presence of an infectious agent or its products in association with exposure to healthcare facilities or healthcare procedures or treatments;
  • Adverse event: means an incident which results in harm to a patient;
  • Patient safety: means freedom, for a patient, from unnecessary harm or potential harm associated with healthcare.

Development of high-quality, accessible and sustainable health care and long-term care

Development of high-quality, accessible and sustainable health care and long-term care

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Development of high-quality, accessible and sustainable health care and long-term care


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Social protection

Development of high-quality, accessible and sustainable health care and long-term care

Last updated: 25.10.2005