Tag Archives: Greenhouse effect

Tackling climate change

Tackling climate change

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Tackling climate change


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Tackling climate change

Tackling climate change

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing mankind in the coming years. Rising temperatures, melting glaciers and increasingly frequent droughts and flooding are all evidence that climate change is really happening. The risks for the whole planet and for future generations are colossal and we need to take urgent action.
For several years now the European Union has been committed to tackling climate change both internally and internationally and has placed it high on the EU agenda, as reflected in European climate change policy. Indeed, the EU is taking action to curb greenhouse gas emissions in all its areas of activity in a bid to achieve the following objectives: consuming less-polluting energy more efficiently, creating cleaner and more balanced transport options, making companies more environmentally responsible without compromising their competitiveness, ensuring environmentally friendly land-use planning and agriculture and creating conditions conducive to research and innovation.


A realistic long-term policy framework
Following on from work under the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP), the European Union has come up with a realistic climate change strategy, advocating practical action to prevent temperatures from increasing to more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels.

  • Strategy on climate change: foundations of the strategy
  • Strategy on climate change for 2020 and beyond
  • Launching the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP)

Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions as priority objective
Reducing greenhouse gases is a key component of European action. The EU has a monitoring mechanism in place to keep regular track of emissions and the absorption of these gases. With a view to gradually reducing emissions the EU has also established a system based on market rules, a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme and specific rules on fluorinated greenhouse gases.

  • Reducing greenhouse gases by 2020
  • Greenhouse gas: reducing emissions by 20 % or more by 2020
  • Mechanism for monitoring greenhouse gas emissions
  • Greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme
  • Reduction in fluorinated greenhouse gases

Monitoring and adapting to the inevitable consequences of climate change
We are already feeling the effects of climate change. The extent of these effects can be measured thanks to the GMES monitoring system, while a number of European measures provide for an emergency response. These include, in particular, the Community Civil Protection Mechanism and specific measures concerning floods and droughts. In 2007, the Commission adopted a Green Paper on adapting to climate change in Europe.

  • European Earth monitoring programme (GMES)
  • Adapting to Climate Change
  • Civil Protection Mechanism
  • Flood management and evaluation
  • Combating deforestation
  • Fight against illegal logging

The Kyoto Protocol and the EU’s commitment in international negotiations
In the international arena, the EU is at the very forefront of the fight against climate change and takes an active part in negotiations on the subject. The EU signed up in 1998 to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which deals with six greenhouse gases. Moreover, to help developing countries meet the challenge of climate change, the EU has adopted a strategy on climate change in the context of development cooperation.

  • Kyoto Protocol on climate change
  • Implementing the Kyoto Protocol
  • Global climate change alliance
  • Climate change in the context of development cooperation


Focusing the energy market on security and sustainability of supply
With a package of measures adopted in 2007, the EU laid the foundations for a genuine common energy policy. This series of measures also focuses the energy market more on sustainability, particularly by means of tax measures.

  • An Energy Policy for Europe
  • Community framework for the taxation of energy products and electricity
  • Sustainable power generation from fossil fuels
  • Demonstration of the capture and storage of CO2

Controlling and rationalising energy consumption thanks to energy efficiency
The EU has launched a large-scale consultation based on a Green Paper and has adopted an Action Plan for 2007-2010 to make energy efficiency and energy saving a key component of European energy policy. It has also adopted specific measures, in particular on energy efficiency and the labelling of energy-using products.

  • Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal
  • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12)
  • Green Paper on energy efficiency
  • Towards a European Strategic Energy Technology Plan

Making renewable energy a genuine and affordable alternative
A total of 20% of European energy consumption to be met from renewable sources by 2020: this is the target the EU set itself in 2007. To achieve this objective the EU has adopted measures aimed at promoting renewable energy sources and developing the markets in the biomass and biofuel sectors, among others.

  • Promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources
  • Renewable Energy Road Map
  • Biomass Action Plan
  • EU strategy for biofuels


Achieving transport policy objectives
The ambitious revitalisation of EU transport policy, through the White Paper adopted in 2001, will make a significant contribution towards reducing the impact of transport on climate change. Achieving this objective will require, in particular, better management of freight transport and the harnessing of technology.

  • Freight transport logistics in Europe
  • White paper: European transport policy for 2010

Reconciling road and air transport with the environment
The EU has adopted a wide range of measures to reduce the impact of road and air transport, including measures reducing levels of polluting emissions, traffic management measures and tax measures.

  • Taxation of heavy goods vehicles: Eurovignette Directive
  • Passenger car related taxes
  • Aviation and climate change
  • Framework for creation of the Single European Sky (SES)
  • Single European Sky II
  • Clean Sky
  • Internalisation of external transport costs

Promoting transport by rail and waterways and intermodality
To improve the balance between transport modes and to promote less polluting means of transport, the EU supports the development of measures to promote rail, maritime and waterway transport and to join up different modes of transport (intermodality).

  • White Paper: A strategy for revitalising the Community’s railways
  • Promotion of inland waterway transport “NAIADES”
  • Programme for the promotion of short sea shipping
  • Strategy to reduce atmospheric emissions from seagoing ships
  • The Marco Polo II programme
  • Maritime Policy Green Paper

Companies are obliged to take into consideration – and reduce – the impact of their activities on the environment (according to the “polluter pays” principle). A number of environmental management instruments are available to assist them in this.

  • Environmental liability

Man-made greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced by proper land and land-use management, including, among other things, carbon storage and the promotion of low-emission activities.

  • Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage
  • Thematic strategy for soil protection
  • Landfill of waste
  • Production and labelling of organic products

The EU has set up a raft of direct and indirect financial assistance packages, particularly to support innovative projects and technological development.

  • SET-Plan for the development of low carbon technologies
  • Seventh Framework Programme (2007 to 2013)
  • Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) (2007-2013)
  • Action plan in favour of environmental technologies
  • Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan)

Sustainable power generation from fossil fuels

Sustainable power generation from fossil fuels

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Sustainable power generation from fossil fuels


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > European energy policy

Sustainable power generation from fossil fuels

Document or Iniciative

Commission Communication of 10 January 2007 “Sustainable power generation from fossil fuels: aiming for near-zero emissions from coal after 2020” [COM(2006) 843 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


The large-scale use of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal) is the main cause of man-made climate change resulting from the CO2 emissions produced. The power generation sector accounts for a major proportion of these emissions and the upward trend is set to continue in future.

Over 50% of EU electricity comes from fossil fuels, mainly coal, which accounts for about 30% of overall electricity generation in the EU. To help secure the EU’s energy supply, coal will continue to play a key role in the energy sources used. In 2005 CO2 emissions from coal-based electricity generation accounted for 70% of total CO2 emissions due to electricity generation in the EU, and 24% of CO2 emissions from all sectors taken together.

These energy sources, particularly coal, will also become more and more important in power generation in certain parts of the world over the coming decades (China and India in particular) as a result of the significant rise in demand for energy.

It is therefore essential for the EU to set up the right framework now for the development and distribution of sustainable coal technologies, and thus limit CO2 emissions from the use of coal for electricity generation.

The improvements already made in coal technologies (increase in energy efficiency and a reduction in acid rain and local atmospheric pollution due to SO2, NOx and particulate emissions) show that significant technological progress is possible, in particular by applying the principle of carbon capture and storage (CCS).

Technologies for the sustainable use of fossil fuels

Technologies for the sustainable use of coal will be based on an optimum combination of ‘clean coal’ technologies (improving yield and reducing atmospheric emissions) and CCS technologies. Continued development of these technologies and demonstrating their commercial viability will lead to their large-scale use.

To achieve this, a substantial increase in funding for research is required for the development of technological demonstration projects at both national and Community level. Routine cooperation between the industrial sector and the pubic authorities is called for, via a coordination and support structure based on the Zero Emission Fossil Fuel Power Plant Technology Platform launched in 2006. The Commission is also to study what other appropriate demonstration measures should be taken in the short term.

The best available technology will have to be used for modernising the EU’s stock of coal-fired power plants, enabling CO2 emissions generated by them to be cut by 20% by 2020. The Commission will assess whether using the best available technology is effective and will consider proposing the adoption of legally binding instruments to promote it where necessary.

A framework for developing these technologies

The EU needs a regulatory and economic framework that rewards low-carbon technologies. It will have to ensure the long-term use of sustainable coal technologies to promote investment and the transition to such technologies.

The Commission therefore recommends:

  • assessing the potential risks involved in carbon capture and storage, a process which will involve public internet-based consultation;
  • proposing requirements for using these technologies, allowing the risks to be properly managed;
  • incorporating these requirements into the existing regulatory framework, i.e. the greenhouse gas emission quota exchange system and the Environmental Impact Assessment (SK) (SL) (FI) and Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directives.

The Commission also thinks that new coal-fired power plants should be built with CCS systems by 2020 and that existing plants should be gradually retrofitted. Incentives could be provided (by adopting legally binding objectives and setting up EU storage sites, for example).

The EU will also continue its efforts at international level to conclude an agreement to limit the rise in the Earth’s temperature to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. CCS will be one of the options to be used in this connection. The EU will support the amendment of some of the existing international agreements and conventions to reduce the barriers to CCS technologies (for example under the seabed).

Costs and benefits of sustainable fossil fuels technologies

The construction of new CCS-ready plants should not necessarily lead to additional costs, while the construction of plants for the industrial-scale demonstration of sustainable coal use will require substantial financial resources, as will the retrofitting of existing power plants after 2020.

CCS technologies are as yet too costly for large-scale use. However, technological improvements over the coming years and the side benefits of CCS should limit the rise in the cost of electricity from plants using these technologies to 10% of current levels by 2020 or even fully cancel them out. Also, the potential rise in the cost of electricity generated in coal-fired plants should not translate, at least not fully, into higher electricity prices for consumers.

The Commission thinks that any negative environmental effects of CCS will stem mainly from potential leakage. However, the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that the proportion of CO2 retained in well-selected and well-managed storage sites is very likely to exceed 99% over 100 years.

The sustainable use of fossil fuels, in particular CCS, will make it possible to eliminate up to 90% of the carbon emissions from fossil-fuel power plants, i.e. an overall reduction in CO2 emissions in the 27 EU Member States of 27 to 30% by 2030 compared to 2000. The use of appropriate technologies will also enable the atmospheric pollutants traditionally associated with coal combustion, including NOx and SO2, to be reduced, thus resulting in lower local environmental and health costs.

If the EU can display strong international leadership in the development of sustainable fossil fuel technologies, this will enable it to create jobs and export its technology, and will have a positive knock-on effect on third countries. To achieve this, there will need to be close cooperation, particularly at technological and trade level, with coal-using countries, including China, the United States, India and the developing countries.


The Communication is part of the “energy package” published by the Commission in January 2007, which sets out a new European energy policy with quantified targets.

Related Acts

Commission Communication of 10 January 2007 on an Energy Policy for Europe [COM(2007) 1 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

This Communication is the main feature of the package of measures presented by the Commission in January 2007 (the “energy package”). After reviewing the energy challenges facing Europe, in particular climate change and the EU’s security of supply, the Commission details a number of actions relating, among other things, to the internal energy market, security of supply, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, energy technologies and international energy policy.

Commission Communication of 10 January 2007 “Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius – The way ahead for 2020 and beyond” [COM(2007) 2 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

In this Communication the Commission looks at the costs and benefits of tackling climate change and recommends a number of measures to limit global warming to 2° Celsius. Some of the measures apply to the European Union alone (binding greenhouse gas emission targets and the adoption of energy measures, among others) while others are international in outlook (in particular, negotiation of an international agreement).

Commissionof 8 March 2006 “A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy” [COM(2006) 105 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

With this Green Paper the Commission maps out a genuine European energy policy to meet the numerous challenges in terms of supply and the impact on growth and the environment in Europe.


Strategic Energy Technology Plan

Strategic Energy Technology Plan

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategic Energy Technology Plan


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan)

The Commission presents a strategic plan to accelerate the development and deployment of cost-effective low carbon technologies. This plan comprises measures relating to planning, implementation, resources and international cooperation in the field of energy technology.

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 22 November 2007 entitled: “A European strategic energy technology plan (SET Plan) – Towards a low carbon future” [COM(2007) 723 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Energy technology is vital if Europe’s objectives for 2020 and 2050 as regards the fight against climate change, security of energy supply and competitiveness of European companies are to be fulfilled.

However, certain constraints hamper the development and widespread application of energy technologies, be they the chronic underinvestment that has affected this sector since the 1980s, significant delays in the marketing of new products, the additional cost often involved without always giving better energy output, legal and administrative obstacle, or their social acceptability.

In addition, faced with competition from certain industrialised countries and emergent economies, the European Union (EU) Member States must adopt an effective joint approach on the subject of energy technologies. The timing of the adoption of such an approach will also determine whether European objectives are met.

The strategic energy technology plan (SET plan) presented by the Commission aims to help achieve European objectives and face up to the challenges of this sector:

  • in the short term by increasing research to reduce costs and improve performance of existing technologies, and by encouraging the commercial implementation of these technologies. Activities at this level should in particular involve second-generation biofuels, capture, transport and storage of carbon, integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity network and energy efficiency in construction, transport and industry;
  • in the longer term by supporting development of a new generation of low carbon technologies. The activities to be carried out should focus, among other things, on the competitiveness of new technologies relating to renewable energies, energy storage, sustainability of fission energy, fusion energy, and the development of Trans-European Energy networks.

Implementation of this SET plan will involve collective effort and activities in the private sector, the Member States and the EU, as well as internationally.

The SET plan first of all proposes a new governance method for energy technologies, based on joint strategic planning.

With this in mind, a steering group, created by the Commission in 2008 and made up of representatives of the Member States, will improve coherence by developing joint actions, making resources available and evaluating progress. Also, a European summit on energy technologies is planned for 2009. Furthermore, the Commission will set up a European information system, comprising technology mapping and capacity mapping.

The SET plan also improves the effectiveness of the implementation of the jointly decided actions, so as to take full advantage of the possibilities offered by the European research area and the internal market.

The Commission will therefore gradually launch new European industrial initiatives, in wind energy, solar energy, bio-energy, capture, transport and storage of CO², the electricity network and nuclear fission, which will take the form of public-private partnerships or joint programmes between Member States. Furthermore, the Commission wants to create a European energy research alliance to better coordinate, in terms of programming, the efforts of research centres and universities. A prospective approach will also be adopted to prepare the future development of Trans-European energy networks and systems.

An increase in resources, both financial and human, is another major element of the SET plan. Investment in research and innovation must increase at Community level, through the research framework programme of the “Intelligent Energy – Europe” programme and the European Investment Bank, as well as in the Member States, in order to double the overall effort made in the EU within three years. A communication from the Commission will be issued in 2008 on the subject of funding of low carbon technologies. In addition, the training of energy researchers will be promoted and new research and training opportunities will be created, to increase the number and quality of engineers and researchers.

Finally, the SET plan makes provision for intensified international cooperation, in order to promote the development, marketing, deployment and accessibility of low carbon technologies worldwide. The EU should speak more often with one voice on this matter. Cooperation with developed countries will involve public interest research and long-term exploratory research. As for developing countries and emergent economies, cooperation should allow their sustainable development while creating opportunities for European companies; cooperation could be involved, for example, in networking of research centres, large-scale demonstration projects and increased use of the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 10 January 2007 entitled: “Towards a European Strategic Energy Technology Plan” [
COM(2006) 847 final

– Not published in the Official Journal].


Strategy on climate change for 2020 and beyond

Strategy on climate change for 2020 and beyond

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategy on climate change for 2020 and beyond


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > European energy policy

Strategy on climate change for 2020 and beyond

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission, of 10 January 2007, entitled: “Limiting Global Climate Change to 2 degrees Celsius – The way ahead for 2020 and beyond” [COM(2007) 2 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Strong scientific evidence shows that urgent action to tackle climate change is imperative. New research has confirmed that the climate really is changing and there are signs that these changes have accelerated. Impact analyses are beginning to quantify precisely what the cost of inaction or of simply pursuing current policies will be.

In 2005, the Commission laid the foundations for an EU strategy to combat climate change. This document now sets out more concrete steps to limit the effects of climate change and to reduce the risk of massive and irreversible disruptions to the planet. These short-term and medium-term measures target both developed countries (the EU and other industrialised countries) and developing countries.

The EU and its Member States have confirmed their target to limit the global average temperature increase to 2° Celsius compared with pre-industrial levels, the point beyond which the impact of climatic change is believed to increase dramatically. Research shows that stabilising the level of greenhouse gases at 450 ppmv (parts per million volume of CO2 equivalent) would lead to a 1 in 2 chance of reaching the target of a 2°C rise (compared with a 1 in 6 chance if levels reach 550 ppmv, and a 1 in 16 chance if levels hit 650 ppmv).

Costs and benefits of future policy choices

Recent research, such as the PESETA study carried out for the Joint Research Centre and the Stern Review, points out the hefty economic and social costs of failing to take sufficient action to combat climate change. The Stern Review estimates this cost at between 5 and 20 % of global DGP.

Climate change will cause widespread damage to populations, ecosystems and resources, as well as to infrastructure and living conditions, ranging from an increase in mortality and disease linked to changes in temperature, damage caused by more frequent flooding and a rise in sea level, increasing desertification in Southern countries and scarcer fresh water resources. The PESETA study focuses in particular on the impacts in Europe on agriculture, public health, tourism, river basins and coastal systems.

According to the impact assessment carried out by the Commission, the investment needed to maintain the level of greenhouse gases at 450 ppmv would cost about 0.5 % of global GDP over the period 2013-2030. Global GDP growth would only fall by 0.19 % per year up to 2030, a fraction of the expected annual GDP growth rate (2.8 %). The Commission also stresses that the global cost needed is overstated, since it does not account for the benefits of combating climate change.

Effectively tackling climate change would in fact produce significant benefits, including fewer damages by avoiding problems. In the same way, reducing our consumption of fossil fuels (especially oil and gas) will help cut costs in importing these resources and substantially improve the security of energy supply. Similarly, reducing CO2 emissions will help improve air quality, which will produce huge health benefits. What’s more, most studies show that mitigation policies would have positive effects on employment, for example in the field of renewable energy and cutting-edge technology.

The benefits of combating climate change will not stop at EU borders. Similar benefits can be expected in other countries if they adopt similar measures to Europe, especially regarding the security of energy supply and air quality.

Action in the EU

The EU has already proved, through internal policies, that is possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without undermining economic growth. The Commission stresses that there is the potential to further reduce emissions considerably and echoes its commitment to pursue and extend current measures and to adopt new measures.

The Commission suggests that the EU should adopt targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It calls for the EU to set the target in international negotiations of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in developed countries by 30 % (compared to 1990 levels) by 2020. Until an international agreement is made, and without prejudice to the position it will take in these negotiations, the EU should immediately make the resolute and independent commitment to reduce its own emissions by at least 20 % by 2020. At the March 2007 European Council, Member States also strongly backed these targets.

In line with the strategic analysis of the EU’s energy policy, the Commission recommends taking the following measures on energy:

  • improving the EU’s energy efficiency by 20 % by 2020;
  • increasing the share of renewable energy to 20 % by 2020;
  • developing an environmentally safe carbon geological storage policy.

The Commission believes that the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) needs to be strengthened by taking measures such as the following:

  • increasing the duration of quota allocations to over five years, as it is now;
  • extending the scheme to other gases and sectors;
  • aligning allocation procedures across Member States and
  • linking the EU ETS to compatible mandatory schemes in other States (such as California and Australia).

In order to limit emissions in the transport sector, the Commission asks the Council and Parliament to adopt, where necessary, proposals to include aviation in the EU ETS and to link taxes on tourism vehicles to their CO2 emissions. There are also plans to reduce CO2 emissions from cars to reach the target of 120 grams of CO2 per kilometre (g CO2/km). The Commission also stresses the need for consumers to do more, to cut the emissions produced by freight transport by road and maritime transport and to address biofuels.

The document suggests cutting CO2 emissions in other sectors, such as by improving the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings. It also recommends reducing other gases, notably by adopting and strengthening measures on agriculture and forestry, setting limits for methane emissions from industry and gas engines and including these sources of emissions in the EU ETS, stricter measures on fluorinated greenhouse gases and tackling nitrous oxide from combustion and large installations.

It is also important to rapidly mobilise funds for research on the environment, energy and transport under the Seventh Framework Programme and to increase the research budget after 2013 to promote the development of clean technology and increase our knowledge of climate change. The action plans on energy technology and environmental technology must be fully implemented.

The document also notes that the strategic guidelines on cohesion should be applied, which promote sustainable transport and energy and environmental technologies.

International Action

The battle against climate change can only be won through global action. International negotiations must move beyond rhetoric towards negotiations on concrete commitments.

The Commission believes that developed countries must commit to cutting their greenhouse gas emissions by 30 % compared to 1990 levels by 2020, as part of a post-2012 international agreement. Developed countries also have the technological and financial capacity to reduce their emissions, which is why they should make most of the effort over the next decade. Emissions trading schemes will be a key tool to ensure that developed countries can reach their targets cost-effectively.

The growth in developing countries‘ economies and emissions makes it essential for them to start reducing the rise in their emissions as soon as possible and to cut their emissions in absolute terms after 2020, since by 2020, these countries will be responsible for over half the greenhouse gas emissions.

Many developing countries are already making efforts that result in significant reductions in the growth of their greenhouse gas emissions, through policies addressing economic, security or local environmental concerns. Developing countries have many strategic options where the benefits outweigh the costs, such as improving energy efficiency, promoting renewable energy, adopting measures on air quality and recovery of methane from sources such as waste.

The following elements should be part of the process to step up action in these countries:

  • streamlining and expanding the clean development mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol to cover entire national sectors;
  • improving access to finance via a combination of the various mechanisms available so that developing countries can build the facilities to generate the cleanest energy possible;
  • introducing emissions trading schemes for certain industrial sectors where the capacity exists to properly monitor emissions;
  • countries that reach a level of development similar to that of developed countries should make a quantified, appropriate commitment;
  • no commitments for least developed countries.

Lastly, a future international agreement should address issues such as further cooperation in research and technology development, halting deforestation and restoring forested areas, adapting to the inescapable impacts of climate change and concluding an international agreement on energy efficiency standards.


This communication follows up on the 2005 communication laying the basis for a future climate change strategy. The measures proposed in this strategy are closely linked to the “Energy package” published by the Commission in January 2007, which defines a new European energy policy and sets out clear, quantified targets.

According to scientific research, the currents levels of CO2 and methane in the atmosphere are the highest they have been for 650 000 years, which causes a significant acceleration of the greenhouse effect. To stabilise global warming at an average of 2° Celsius, global emissions must fall by almost 50 % compared to 1990 levels by 2050, which implies a 60 to 80 % reduction by most developed countries by 2050 and a gradual but significant effort made by developing countries.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 9 March 2010 – International climate policy post-Copenhagen: Acting now to reinvigorate global action on climate change [COM(2010) 86 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission, dated 10 January 2007, on an Energy Policy for Europe [COM(2007) 1 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
This communication is the centrepiece of the package of measures that the Commission submitted in January 2007 (the energy package). After assessing the energy challenges that Europe faces, especially climate change and the security of supply, the Commission sets out a number of steps to take in areas such as the internal energy market, security of supply, energy efficiency, renewable energy resources, energy technology and international energy policy.