Tag Archives: Framework programme

Clean Sky

Clean Sky

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Clean Sky

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Air pollution

Clean Sky

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 71/2008 of 18 December 2007 setting up the Clean Sky Joint Undertaking.

Summary

The “Clean Sky” joint technology initiative (JTI) is part of the “Cooperation” specific programme (7th framework programme for research and technological development).

Aims

Created to run until 31 December 2017, Clean Sky aims principally to:

  • accelerate the development of clean air transport technologies;
  • guarantee effective coordination of aeronautics research on a European scale;
  • set up an innovative and competitive air transport system;
  • improve knowledge generation and use of research findings.

In terms of figures, “Clean Sky” aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 50 %, NOx by 80 % and noise pollution by 50 % by 2020.

“Integrated Technology Demonstrators” (ITD)

Six technical domains, covering all aspects of aircraft technology and known as “integrated technology demonstrators” form the structure of “Clean Sky”. They provide a framework for research operations from the experimental phase to in-flight demonstrations.

Specifically, the six ITD are:

  • the Smart Fixed Wing ITD targeting wing technologies;
  • the Green Regional Aircraft ITD (engines, energy management and new silent configurations);
  • the Green Rotorcraft ITD targeting installation of innovative blades and engines which are quieter, reduce drag, are more fuel-efficient and use environmentally-friendly flight paths;
  • the Systems for Green Operations ITD targeting equipment, architecture and thermal management;
  • the Sustainable and Green Engines ITD integrating technologies for quiet, low weight, low pressure systems and reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx);
  • the Eco-Design ITD, which will focus on the full life cycles of materials and components (design, manufacture, maintenance and destruction/recycling).

An independent technical evaluator will assess and monitor the results of research carried out in these various sectors in order to optimise the impact of the programme in terms of achieving its environmental objectives.

Members and bodies

Its founding members are:

  • the European Union (EU) represented by the Commission;
  • twelve ITD leaders and associates;
  • any public or private entity (industry, company, SME, research centre, university, etc.) established in a Member State or in a country associated with the 7th Framework Programme which, under certain conditions and subject to the consent of the governing board, may request membership.

Its bodies are:

  • the Governing Board;
  • the Executive Director;
  • the ITD Steering Committees;
  • the Technology Evaluator Steering Committee;
  • the General Forum.

A National States Representative Group will act as an external advisory body to the undertaking.

Budget

The maximum Community contribution will be EUR 800 million paid from the budget appropriation allocated to the “Transport” theme of the “Cooperation” Specific Programme. Added to this is a contribution which is at least equivalent from the other members of the undertaking, giving a total budget of EUR 1.6 billion.

General information

As a Community body, “Clean Sky” has legal status.

Further information on the objectives and activities of the “Clean Sky” JTI, its status and operation, the role and tasks of its members and bodies, and its funding, are available in the annex to the Regulation.

Background

In addition to “Clean Sky”, five other initiatives of this type are planned in the areas of miniaturisation (ENIAC), invisible information systems (ARTEMIS), innovative medicine, hydrogen and fuel cells and global monitoring for environment and security (GMES).

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 71/2008

7.2.2008 – 31.12.2017

OJ L 30 of 4.2.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 71/2008 have been integrated into the original text. This consolidated versionis for reference only.

Specific programme Cooperation

Specific programme Cooperation

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Specific programme Cooperation

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > General framework

Specific programme Cooperation

Last updated: 15.01.2010

Specific programme: Ideas

Specific programme: Ideas

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Specific programme: Ideas

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > General framework

Specific programme: Ideas

Last updated: 04.06.2009

Specific programme People

Specific programme People

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Specific programme People

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > General framework

Specific programme “People”

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2006/973/EC of 19 December 2006 concerning the specific programme People implementing the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007 to 2013) [Official Journal L 400 of 30.12.06].

Summary

“People” is a specific programme within the 7th Framework Programme and its basic objectives are to improve, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the professional opportunities available to researchers in Europe. To put it another way, the “People” programme aims to adapt the European employment market so that it is more able to meet the training, mobility and career development needs of researchers. This will give researchers incentives to build their futures in Europe.

This programme mobilises extensive financial resources and draws on experience gained through the Marie Curie actions.

More specifically, the focus will be on the following three areas:

  • generating benefits and structuring effects, for example by introducing co-funding for regional, national and international programmes;
  • improving conditions for training and career development in the private sector;
  • strengthening the international dimension.

The budget required for executing this specific programme is estimated at EUR 4 750 million for the period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013.

CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL OBJECTIVES

The overall objective of this specific programme is to improve, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the human research and technological development potential in Europe. In order to achieve this, various initiatives need to be taken to:

  • encourage people to embark on a career in research;
  • encourage European researchers to stay in Europe;
  • attract researchers to Europe from throughout the world;
  • do more to share knowledge between countries, sectors, organisations and disciplines;
  • foster the participation of women in research and technological development.

This specific programme provides added value in a number of respects. First of all, it will undoubtedly improve the mobility of researchers at both the intersectoral and transnational levels. It will also have structuring effects on:

  • the organisation, performance and quality of training given to researchers;
  • their career development;
  • the sharing of knowledge between research sectors and organizations; and
  • the participation of women.

TheFramework Programme including the various specific programmes and the research activities they give rise to, should respect fundamental ethical principles and give consideration to social, legal, socio-economic, cultural and gender mainstreaming aspects.

ACTIVITIES

The various objectives of this specific programme will be achieved by implementing a series of “Marie Curie” actions focusing on skills and competence development at all stages of a researcher’s career. Mobility (both transnational and intersectoral), the recognition of experience acquired in different sectors and countries, and optimum working conditions are all key elements of these actions, which will address:

  • initial training for researchers;
  • life-long training and career development;
  • industry-academia partnerships and pathways;
  • the international dimension.

The programme also provides for more specialised accompanying actions, promotion actions (Marie Curie Awards, for example) and support actions.

Initial training of researchers

Initial research training will normally take place during the first four years of a researcher’s career; an additional year can be added if necessary.

This type of training should open up new career opportunities for researchers and make scientific careers more attractive by optimising the way in which training is structured in Member States and associated countries, in both the public and private sectors.

This action encourages the networking of organisations from different sectors engaged in the training of researchers. These networks will be built around joint multi-disciplinary training programmes covering not only scientific and technological knowledge but also skills in diverse disciplines such as management, finance, law, entrepreneurship, ethics, communication and societal outreach. In more concrete terms, Community support should be directed at:

  • recruiting and training researchers at the start of their careers;
  • setting up academic chairs or equivalent teaching positions for experienced researchers;
  • organising short training events (conferences, summer schools, specialised training courses, etc.) open both to trainees of the network and to researchers from outside the network.

Life-long training and career development

This action is directed at experienced researchers who have at least four years’ experience in full-time research or a doctorate. Essentially, it will help them to diversify their skills portfolio by acquiring multi- or interdisciplinary qualifications and intersectoral experience. The aim here is twofold:

  • to give researchers support in attaining the independent positions of responsibility they desire and/or strengthening their standing in such positions;
  • to help researchers who are resuming their career after a break by enabling them to (re)integrate quickly into a scientific career in a Member State or associated country, including in their own country of origin, after a mobility experience.

This action will be implemented through:

  • support for individual transnational, intra-European fellowships;
  • co-funding of regional, national or international programmes – applicants for co-funding may come from either the public or private sector, but they must play a key part in building up human resource capacity for research in their respective fields.

Industry-academia partnerships and pathways

This action seeks to establish links between public research organisations and private commercial enterprises (and in particular SMEs). It will involve long-term (intersectoral and transnational) cooperation programmes which will not only increase knowledge-sharing but also improve mutual understanding of the different cultural settings and skills requirements of both sectors.

Community support will focus on human resources, and take one or more of the following forms:

  • staff secondments between both sectors in the partnership;
  • temporary hosting of researchers recruited from outside the partnership;
  • the organisation of workshops and conferences;
  • a contribution to equipment for participating in the cooperation initiative (for SMEs only).

The international dimension

The international dimension of human resources in European research and development can be divided into two separate areas:

  • career development for researchers from EU Member States and associated countries;
  • international cooperation through researchers.

Actions in both these areas will be supported by international fellowships (“incoming” and “outgoing” fellowships), grants, partnerships, exchanges, organised events (conferences, etc.) and a systematic sharing of good practices.

Background

Since 1984, the research and technological development policy of the European Union has been founded on multiannual framework programmes. The 7th Framework Programme is the second to be adopted since the Lisbon strategy was launched in 2000 and will play a crucial role in stimulating growth and jobs in Europe in the coming years. The Commission wishes to advance the “knowledge triangle” of research, education and innovation so that knowledge is used to promote economic dynamism as well as social and environmental progress.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2006/973/EC

1.1.7 – 31.12.13

OJ L 400 of 30.12.06

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 29 April 2009 to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the progress made under the Seventh European Framework Programme for Research [COM(2009) 209 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The “Marie Curie” grants proposed by the “People” programme remain a great success. They contribute towards a balanced “brain circulation” both at European and global levels and to the creation of a high-quality and mobile European R&D workforce. The use of industry-academia fellowships could be improved by better communicating opportunities to industries and SMEs.

Specific programme Capacities

Specific programme Capacities

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Specific programme Capacities

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > General framework

Specific programme “Capacities”

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2006/974/EC of 19 December 2006 on the Specific Programme: capacities implementing the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007 to 2013).

Summary

Continuing previous action, the “Capacities” programme aims in the main to create new research and innovation infrastructures across Europe.

To this end, the programme calls for a strategic approach in two phases: a preparatory phase and a construction phase. This approach concerns the following areas:

  • research infrastructures;
  • research to benefit SMEs;
  • regions of knowledge;
  • research potential;
  • science in society;
  • horizontal activities in the field of international cooperation.

The budget required for executing this specific programme is estimated at EUR 4 097 million for the period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013.

CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL AIMS

All of the financial resources mobilised by the programme correspond to specific aims in each area:

  • to optimise use and development of research infrastructures;
  • to reinforce SMEs’ innovation capacities and their ability to benefit from research;
  • to promote and sustain development of regional groupings which depend on research;
  • to unlock research potential in the European Union’s convergence and outermost regions;
  • to bring science and society closer together;
  • to stimulate international cooperation;
  • to encourage coherence in research policy and synergies with other policies and Community programmes.

It is worth noting that theFramework Programme, including the various specific programmes and the research activities they give rise to, should respect fundamental ethical principles and give consideration to social, legal, socio-economic, cultural and gender equality aspects.

THEMES: OBJECTIVES, APPROACHES, ACTIVITIES

For each of the themes touched on by the programme, the following are defined:

  • a specific aim;
  • a suitable approach;
  • specific activities.

Research infrastructures

The specific programme aims to optimise the use and development of European research infrastructures * and to support their creation or modernisation. Support measures could also be proposed in order to respond to possible needs arising at a later date. More generally, it is a question of reinforcing the technological know-how of Europe to benefit a more competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy.

The measures relating to research infrastructures (which may already exist or have been newly created) and the emergence of new needs involve:

  • promoting trans-national access to structures already in place;
  • improving coordination through integrated modernisation;
  • developing on-line infrastructure based on ICT;
  • supporting the design and creation of new infrastructures;
  • strengthening cooperation within Europe and internationally.

The budget allocated to this field of research will amount to EUR 1 715 million.

Research benefiting SMEs

To allow SMEs and SME associations to use advances made in research to benefit their growth, their know-how and their innovation capacity, two special schemes are planned:

  • one is designed to aid small business groups to resolve, in the short term, common or complementary technological problems;
  • the second should allow technical solutions to be found for problems common to a large number of SMEs on a longer-term basis (e.g. conformity to European norms or regulations in areas such as health, safety and environmental protection.)

These projects will receive funding of EUR 1 336 million.

Regions of knowledge

Strengthening the research potential of European regions is the prime objective pursued here by the specific programme. To do this, support will be concentrated throughout Europe on the development of “regional clusters”, bringing together regional authorities, universities, research centres, businesses and other stakeholders. Better coordination between regional policy and research policies is one of the priorities of the programme.

The different projects in this section concern the following activities:

  • analysis, development and implementation of the research agendas of regional clusters (planning capacity and priorities for research and development);
  • “mentoring” of regions with a less developed research profile by highly developed ones, in particular by setting up trans-national regional consortia;
  • initiatives to improve integration of research actors and institutions in regional economies (e.g. trans-national activities organised within the framework of regional clusters);
  • measures aiming to promote the systematic exchange of information and interaction between similar projects (e.g. analysis and synthesis workshops, round tables, publications, etc.).

The budget allocated to the regions of knowledge will be EUR 126 million.

Research potential

The programme’s impact should centre around the European Union’s convergence and outermost regions to enable them to benefit fully from their research potential. This should, in the long term, stimulate the research potential (reinforcing knowledge, developing new skills, increasing visibility) of the enlarged Union.

In terms of specific activities, the focus will be on encouraging strategic partnerships, including twinning, between research groups from these regions (from both the public and private sectors) with prominent research groups elsewhere in Europe. These partnerships and twinning schemes will allow research groups in the least advanced regions, selected on the basis of their quality and potential, to benefit from:

  • exchanging knowledge and experience;
  • recruiting experienced researchers in charge of imparting knowledge and giving training;
  • acquiring and developing some research equipment;
  • organising workshops and conferences;
  • dissemination and promotion activities to maximise their visibility.

EUR 340 million funding will be dedicated to the development of research potential.

Science in society

Building an effective and democratic knowledge-based European society inevitably entails the integration of the scientific dimension into the European social fabric.

Despite being the driving force behind innovation and therefore growth, well-being and sustainable development, scientific research remains, generally speaking, badly integrated within society. Several causes for this can be identified:

  • insufficient public participation in the debate relating to the priorities and direction of scientific policy;
  • growing reservations with regard to certain scientific developments (lack of control, the questioning of fundamental values, etc.);
  • the perceived isolation of science from the everyday realities of economic and social life;
  • questioning the objectivity of scientific evidence made available to public policy-makers.

Further ambiguities arise from the increasing desire to undertake more research to address major social challenges (diseases, pollution, epidemics, unemployment, climate change, ageing of the population, etc.) and from a growing feeling of distrust regarding the possible misuses of science.

The danger of an increasing scientific divide in our societies therefore makes it essential to:

  • make scientific research more open, transparent and ethical;
  • strengthen the role of Europe on a global level in debates on shared values, equal opportunities and social dialogue;
  • bridge the gap between those who have scientific training and those who do not;
  • encourage a taste for scientific culture;
  • stimulate public debate on research policy;
  • make the world of science more accessible and more comprehensible;
  • help women to continue to progress in scientific careers;
  • adapt scientific communication to the present (using new means of communication to reach the widest possible audience).

Implementing this aspect will follow three general strands:

  • management of the relationship between science and society: strengthening and improving the European science system, anticipating and resolving political, ethical and social problems, a better understanding of the place of science and technology in society, development of the role of universities;
  • potential and prospects for the scientific world: consolidating the role of women and young people;
  • scientific communication: re-establishing the connection between science and society.

In terms of the European science system, three aspects are on the agenda:

  • improving the use of scientific advice and expertise in developing policies in Europe and evaluating their impact;
  • promoting trust and self-regulation within the scientific community;
  • encouraging debate on the distribution of information.

In anticipating and resolving political, ethical and social problems, two aspects come into play:

  • broader engagement on science-related questions;
  • setting up an informed debate on ethics and science.

To improve understanding of the place of science and technology in society, the programme advocates the formation of specialised university networks. These would have the task of demonstrating the actual role of science in building a European society and identity. To this end, several elements should be highlighted:

  • relationships between science, democracy and law;
  • research on ethics in science and technology;
  • the reciprocal influences of science and culture;
  • the role and image of scientists.

Regarding the evolving role of universities, emphasis will be placed on:

  • defining better framework conditions to optimise university research;
  • promoting structured partnerships with the business world;
  • reinforcing knowledge-sharing between universities and society at large.

Furthermore, programmes will be put in place to reinforce the role of women and the gender dimension within scientific research.

Equally, youth-based activities will be centred around:

  • supporting science education in schools;
  • reinforcing links between science education and science careers;
  • research and coordination on new methods in science teaching.

On matters of scientific communication, efforts will focus on the following aspects:

  • the reliability of information distributed to the scientific press;
  • creation of a European centre for scientific information;
  • training in and exchange of good practice to bring the media and the scientific community closer together;
  • reinforcing the European dimension of science events targeting the general public;
  • increasing the prominence of science by using audiovisuals;
  • promoting multinational communication (e.g. by awarding public prizes);
  • researching new methods and equipment to aid communication of scientific material.

The budget allocated to this topic will be EUR 330 million.

International cooperation

To develop an international policy of the first order for science and technology, the EU intends to:

  • support European competitiveness through strategic partnerships with third countries and welcome their best scientists to Europe;
  • address problems of accessibility that third countries face or will face.

Cooperation with third countries will mainly involve the candidate countries, the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPC), the Western Balkan countries (WBC), the countries of Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Caucasus (EECAC), developing countries and emerging economies.

This cooperation will entail:

  • the establishment of priorities and definition of policies;
  • improving and developing partnerships;
  • improving coordination of national policies and activities.

A budget of EUR 180 million will be dedicated to activities in the field of international cooperation.

Coherence of research policies

In addition to enhancing the efficiency and coherence of national and community research policies, the EU aims to:

  • increase their coordination with other policies;
  • improve the impact of public research and its links with businesses;
  • increase public funding and its leverage effect on private sector investments.

To do this, two lines of action will be adopted:

  • monitoring and analysis of research-related public policies and industrial strategies, including their impact;
  • supporting open coordination and transnational cooperation initiatives.

These activities will receive EUR 70 million funding from the programme.

Background

Since 1984, the EU has been following a technology research and development policy based on multi-annual framework programmes. The Seventh Framework Programme is the second since the launching of the Lisbon strategy in 2000. Its role is vital in relation to growth and employment in Europe over the coming years.

Key terms in the act
  • Research infrastructure: facilities, resources and services which the scientific community needs to do its research in all scientific and technological domains. This encompasses personnel, equipment, knowledge-based resources, information and communications technology, plus anything used for scientific research.

References

Act Entry into force and expiry date Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2006/974/EC

1.1.2007 – 31.12.2013

OJ L 400 of 30.12.2006

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 29 April 2009 to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the progress made under the Seventh European Framework Programme for [COM(2009) 209 – Not published in the Official Journal].

All actions under the “Capacities” programme are in heavy demand, notably those supporting research for SMEs and SME associations. The realisation of 44 priority infrastructure projects of strategic European interest identified by the ‘European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures’ (ESFRI) are limited by a lack of Community and national resources. However, the adoption of a new legal framework for European research infrastructures in 2009 should provide a further boost and financial planning security integrating other financial instruments (EIB, Structural Funds).
The “Research potential” and “Regions of knowledge” activities which bring together scientific capacity between regions have not produced the expected results (particularly in convergence regions), as they also suffer from a lack of resources. A more efficient, targeted use of Structural Funds would raise the level of scientific and technological excellence in the EU.
The new financial system is more encouraging towards the creation of a partnership between research and society.

Decision N° 743/2008/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 July 2008 on the Community’s participation in a research and development programme undertaken by several Member States aimed at supporting research and development performing small and medium-sized enterprises [Official Journal L 201 of 30.7.2008].
The Eurostars programme supports research and development (R&D) performing SMEs. This programme is founded on Article 169 of the EC Treaty concerning the participation of the Community in the R&D programme implemented jointly by several Member States. Eurostars is aimed at aligning and synchronising national research and innovation programmes to establish an integrated joint programme in scientific, management and financial fields and to contribute towards the realisation of the European Research Area.
Eurostars is a joint programme between Eureka and the Seventh Framework Programme for technological research and development (Capacities).
It is co-funded by Member States, the other participating countries and the Community. The Community financial contribution will be EUR 100 million, whilst the 22 Member States of the EU and the 5 countries associated to the 7th FPRD will jointly provide an additional EUR 300 million. Private funding will reach EUR 400 million. The total amount for European SMEs that are active in the field of research will therefore be EUR 800 million over six years.

Framework programme on solidarity and management of migration flows for the period 2007-2013

Framework programme on solidarity and management of migration flows for the period 2007-2013

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Framework programme on solidarity and management of migration flows for the period 2007-2013

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Free movement of persons asylum and immigration

Framework programme on solidarity and management of migration flows for the period 2007-2013

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament establishing a framework programme on solidarity and management of migration flows for the period 2007-2013 [COM(2005) 123 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The framework programme will establish financial solidarity mechanisms covering four areas:

  • controls and surveillance of external borders;
  • return of Non-EU Member Country nationals residing illegally in the EU;
  • integration of legally resident Non-EU Member Country nationals;
  • asylum.

The communication, which maps out the broad lines of the framework programme, is accompanied by four proposals that constitute the instruments setting up four funds corresponding to each of the four policy areas.

The overall amount envisaged for the framework programme “Solidarity and management of migratory flows” is EUR 5 866 million for the period 2007-2013. The following amounts will also be provided:

  • EUR 285.1 million for the FRONTEX Agency;
  • EUR 900 million for the implementation of large-scale information systems;
  • EUR 62.3 million for the setting up of a European Migration Observatory.

 

This proposal presses ahead with the implementation of the second stage of the ERF, which was launched by a decision of December 2004 and covers the period 2005-2010.

It sets out to harmonise the ERF schedule with those proposed for the other three instruments. Its duration is extended until 2013 and the new provisions will enter into force on 1 January 2008 so as to allow the multiannual programming cycle provided for by the decision of December 2004 to be applied in full. This will result in a third multiannual programme (2011-2013).

External Frontiers Fund

The Hague Programme underlines the need for a fair sharing of responsibility between Member States regarding the management and surveillance of external borders. This proposal is in response to this request and lays down four main policy objectives for burden sharing between the Member States and the European Union.

In order to express the notion of solidarity, the bulk of the allocations to the Member States would be determined on the basis of a distribution key defining the relative share of Member States.

European Integration Fund

This project follows on from pilot integration projects carried out in 2002. These initiatives, known as INTI, have proved very fruitful. This is the reason why the Commission launched the idea of a European Integration Fund at an interministerial conference on integration during the Dutch Presidency.

European Return Fund

In The Hague Programme the European Council called for the establishment of a European Return Fund. This proposal is in response to that request.

Background

The framework programme is designed to improve management of migratory flows at European Union level and to strengthen solidarity between Member States. It forms part of the Financial Perspective 2007-2013. Its objective is to ensure multiannual EU programming in different areas (integrated border management and asylum, integration and return policies).

The programme follows on from current programmes (such as the ERF), previous programmes (Argo and Odysseus) and preparatory actions (such as the INTI).

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2008/22/EC of 19 December 2007 laying down rules for the implementation of Decision No 573/2007/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the European Refugee Fund for the period 2008 to 2013 as part of the General programme “Solidarity and Management of Migration Flows” as regards Member States’ management and control systems, the rules for administrative and financial management and the eligibility of expenditure on projects co-financed by the Fund [Official Journal L 17 of 10.1.2008]

This decision provides a whole range of additional information on the decisions establishing the European Refugee Fund, the External Borders Fund, the European Return Fund and the European Fund for the Integration of Non-EU Member Country Nationals. It gives details relating to the implementation of these decisions, particularly as regards designated authorities, information to be provided by the Member States to the Commission, reporting of irregularities and personal data.

 

Specific programme: Preventing and combating crime

Specific programme: Preventing and combating crime

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Specific programme: Preventing and combating crime

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Fight against organised crime

Specific programme: Preventing and combating crime (2007-2013)

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2007/125/JHA of 12 February 2007 establishing for the period 2007-2013, as part of the General Programme on Security and Safeguarding Liberties, the Specific Programme “Prevention of and Fight against Crime”.

Summary

The programme “Prevention of and Fight against Crime”, which replaces the framework programme on police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (AGIS). It is intended to prevent and fight crime, particularly terrorism, trafficking in persons, offences against children, drug trafficking, arms trafficking, corruption and fraud. It consists of four main themes:

  • crime prevention and criminology;
  • law enforcement;
  • protection and support for witnesses;
  • protection of victims.

Within these main areas of action, the new programme will in particular:

  • develop coordination and cooperation among law enforcement agencies, other national authorities and European Union (EU) bodies;
  • promote best practices for the protection of victims and witnesses;
  • encourage the methods necessary for strategically preventing and fighting crime and maintaining security, such as the work carried out in the European Union Crime Prevention Network and public-private partnerships.

Even though it does not deal with judicial cooperation, the programme may cover actions aimed at encouraging cooperation between judicial authorities and law enforcement authorities.

Eligible projects and actions

The programme will enable the following to be financed through grants or public contracts:

  • projects with a European dimension initiated and managed by the Commission;
  • transnational projects involving partners in at least two Member States or at least one Member State and a country which is an acceding or a candidate country;
  • national projects within Member States which prepare transnational projects and/or Union actions which complement them, or which develop innovative technologies which can be used in other countries;
  • operating grants for non-governmental organisations pursuing on a non-profit basis the objectives of the programme on a European dimension.

Eligible actions are specifically those relating to operational cooperation and coordination, analytical, monitoring and evaluation activities, the transfer of technology and methodology, training, exchange of staff and experts, as well as awareness and dissemination activities.

The programme concerns law enforcement agencies and other private or public actors, including regional and national authorities, social partners, universities, statistical offices and non-governmental organisations, as well as relevant international bodies which participate as partners.

Bodies applying to participate in the programme must have legal personality and be established in a Member State. Organisations which are profit oriented have access to grants only in conjunction with non-profit oriented or state organisations.

From 1 January 2007 this decision replaces the corresponding provisions of Decision 2002/630/JHA (AGIS). Actions started before 31 December 2006 pursuant to that decision continue to be governed, until their completion, by that decision.

Context

The specific programme “Prevention of and Fight against Crime”, like the programme “Prevention, Preparedness and Consequence Management of Terrorism”, comes under the framework programme “Security and Safeguarding Liberties” which has a budget of EUR 745 million for the period 2007 to 2013.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2007/125/JHA

24.2.2007

OJ L 58 of 24.2.2007

RELATED ACTS

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 16 June 2011 on the mid-term evaluation of the Framework Programme – Security and Safeguarding Liberties (2007-2013) [COM(2011) 318 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

The report evaluates the implementation of the Securities and Safeguarding Liberties Programme for the period 2007-2009. It shows that the projects supported by the programme have largely produced the expected results: creating new tools and methodologies, disseminating good practice, and increasing knowledge on specific issues. The large majority of the projects concern horizontal methods for preventing crime and cooperation between law enforcement agencies. Furthermore, law enforcement agents are the principal participants in the programme. Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom account for 48 % of the projects. However, the Commission notes a variety of implementation problems and an under-utilisation of appropriations. It proposes to continue the programme until 2013 by improving the procedure for approving grants and the evaluation process.

Commission communication to the Council and to the European Parliament establishing a general programme “Security and Safeguarding Liberties” for the period 2007-2013 [COM(2005) 124 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Seventh Framework Programme

Seventh Framework Programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Seventh Framework Programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Tackling climate change

Seventh Framework Programme (2007 to 2013)

Acts

Decision No 1982/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007-13).

Council Decision 969/2006/EC of 18 December 2006 concerning the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) or nuclear research and training activities (2007-11).

Summary

The 7th Framework Programme is adapted to the EU’s needs in terms of growth and employment. After wide-ranging public consultation, four main objectives have been identified, which correspond to the four specific programmes around which the European research effort is to be structured.

Four main specific programmes

The Cooperation Programme aims to stimulate cooperation and improve links between industry and research within a transnational framework. The aim is for Europe to gain and consolidate leadership in key research areas. The programme will have nine themes, which are to be managed autonomously but will be complementary in terms of implementation:

  • health;
  • food, agriculture and biotechnology;
  • information and communication technologies;
  • nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materials and new production technologies;
  • energy;
  • environment (including climate change);
  • transport (including aeronautics);
  • socio-economic sciences and the humanities;
  • security and space.

The Ideas Programme is intended to enhance exploratory research in Europe, i.e. aimed at discovering new knowledge that fundamentally changes our vision of the world and our way of life. In order to achieve this, the new European Research Council will support the most ambitious and innovative research projects. Within this new structure, at the forefront of European research, there will be an autonomous Scientific Council, which will identify priorities and scientific strategies. The aim is to enhance European research excellence by promoting competition and risk-taking.

The People Programme will harness significant financial resources that can be used to improve the career prospects of researchers in Europe and attract more high-quality young researchers. The Commission hopes to encourage training and mobility so that European researchers can realise their full potential. The programme will reinforce the existing “Marie Curie” actions, which for several years have been offering mobility and training opportunities to European researchers.

The Capacities Programme is intended to give researchers powerful tools that will enable them to enhance the quality and competitiveness of European research. This means more investment in research infrastructure in the less successful regions, in the creation of regional research-driven clusters and in research for the benefit of SMEs. This programme also has to reflect the importance of international cooperation in research and the role of science in society.

Furthermore, the 7th Framework Programme will finance the direct actions of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the actions covered by the Euratom Framework Programme in the fields of:

  • research into fusion energy;
  • nuclear fission and radiation protection.

Change in the duration of the programme

The 7th Framework Programme takes over many features from previous programmes that have had a positive effect on European research. This is the case with the projects run by European partner groups, which will continue to have a central role in the Framework Programme. Similarly, the Commission places the Framework Programme within the context of the European Research Area, which brings together all of the EU’s activities in this field. The extension of the programme from four to seven years is indicative of the EU’s sustained commitment to stimulating European research.

While preserving the best aspects of the previous programmes, the 7th Framework Programme introduces new measures designed to improve the coherence and effectiveness of the EU’s research policy. The main innovations introduced in this framework programme are:

  • simplification of the procedures for participation in the programme;
  • implementation of the programme and its budget by theme instead of by instrument, so that it may function more coherently and effectively;
  • creation of the European Research Council under the Ideas Programme to support exploratory research;
  • improved cooperation with industry via the Joint Technology Initiatives, which will combine private investment and public funding;
  • the support of a European research infrastructures policy;
  • creation of a Risk Sharing Finance Facility to make it easier for participants to access European Investment Bank loans.

As was the case during the Sixth Framework Programme, several research areas will not receive Community financing:

  • reproductive human cloning
  • research aiming to alter human genetic stock such that modifications become heritable;
  • research aiming to create human embryos solely for research purposes or for stem cell procurement.

A simplified Framework Programme

Since 1984, various framework programmes have increased the number of administrative and financial procedures which govern the EU’s research effort. The Commission hopes to continue the process of simplification launched under the previous framework programme, thereby making the financing and management of research projects more effective.

Specific measures designed to simplify the framework programme’s implementation include:

  • streamlining of funding schemes and a more limited choice of instruments for more coherent funding;
  • use of simpler and less bureaucratic language in order to be more comprehensible to the general public;
  • reduction in the number and size of official documents;
  • simplification of the procedures participants have to go through;
  • reduction in the number of preliminary checks prior to the adoption of a project;
  • greater autonomy for partner groups;
  • simplification of the selection procedure for projects.

A budget that is large but necessary

The Commission is proposing a budget of EUR 50 521 million for the period of 2007-13, i.e. an average of EUR 7 217 per annum. This total is in fact one and a half times that of the annual budget of the 6th Framework Programme, set at EUR 4 375 per annum, i.e. a total of EUR 17 500 million over four years). The budget will be broken down as follows:

  • Cooperation: EUR 32 413 million.
  • Ideas: EUR 7 513 million.
  • People: EUR 4 750 million.
  • Capacities: EUR 4 097 million.
  • Non-nuclear actions taken by the JRC: EUR 1 751 million.
  • Euratom: EUR 2 700 million (2007-11).

This increase reflects the importance of research in the relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy, which aims to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge economy in the world. Recently, Europe has missed big opportunities in certain key areas due to a lack of available funds. This Framework Programme will make it possible to finance more quality projects and enhance the EU’s innovation capacity.

Knowledge and technology are Europe’s main advantages and represent the foundation for growth and employment. The Framework Programme is intended to have a leverage effect on national research spending, in order to achieve the objective of spending 3 % of GDP on research in Europe. The Commission intends to play a central role in driving and coordinating European research, so that knowledge is placed at the service of growth and employment in Europe.

Background

Since 1984, the EU has run its research and technological development policy on the basis of multiannual framework programmes. The 7th Framework Programme is the second since the launching of the Lisbon Strategy in 2000 and should play a fundamental role in growth and employment in Europe in years to come. The Commission wants to develop the knowledge triangle formed by research, education and innovation policies, in order to place knowledge at the service of a dynamic economy and social and environmental progress.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision No 1982/2006/EC

1.1.2007 – 31.12.2013

OJ L 412 of 30.12.2006

Decision No 969/2006/EC

1.1.2007 – 31.12.2011

OJ L 391 of 30.12.2006

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 29 April 2009 on the progress made under the Seventh European Framework Programme for Research [COM(2009) 209 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 7th Framework Programme is adapting to help the EU meet its goals of creating a low carbon, knowledge-based society. It seeks to increase public and private R&D investment and to diversify its instruments in order to maximise European added value.
FP7 is crucial in promoting scientific excellence and technological. Its role is even more important now given the current economic situation. FP7 contributes to sustained research efforts, both private and public, as exemplified in the public private partnership initiatives for green cars, energy efficient buildings and factories of the future launched as part of the European Recovery Plan.
The Commission has requested a group of experts to carry out an interim evaluation of FP7 in order to improve its impact on shaping the European Research Area. The conclusions from this evaluation will feed into the debates on the future financial frameworks of the European Union, the post-2010 Lisbon Strategy and the next Framework Programme.

Council Regulation (Euratom) No 1908/2006 of 19 December 2006 laying down the rules for the participation of undertakings, research centres and universities in action under the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community and for the dissemination of research results (2007-2011).
This proposal outlines the rules of participation for businesses, research centres and universities in the 7th Framework Programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (2007-11). The document is divided into four parts: introductory provisions (scope, definitions and confidentiality), participation in indirect actions (conditions to participate, procedural aspects, etc.), the rules for dissemination and use and access rights (ownership, protection, publication, dissemination and use of new and existing knowledge and access to them) and the specific rules for participation in activities under the thematic area “fusion energy research”.

Regulation (EC) No 1906/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 laying down the rules for the participation of undertakings, research centres and universities in actions under the Seventh Framework Programme and for the dissemination of research results (2007-13) [Published in Official Journal L 391 of 30.12.2006].
Concentrating on the rules of participation for businesses, research centres and universities in the 7th Framework Programme of the European Community (2007-13), this Regulation consists of four chapters: the introductory provisions, participation in indirect actions, the European Investment Bank and the rules for dissemination and use.