Tag Archives: Environmental standard

Use of sewage sludge in agriculture

Use of sewage sludge in agriculture

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Use of sewage sludge in agriculture

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Agriculture > Environment

Use of sewage sludge in agriculture

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 86/278/EEC of 12 June 1986 on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture [See amending acts].

Summary

Sewage sludge has valuable agronomic properties in agriculture. In using sewage sludge account must be taken of the nutrient needs of the plants without, however, impairing neither the quality of the soil nor that of surface and ground water. Some heavy metals present in sewage sludge may be toxic to plants and humans.

Sewage sludge may be used in agriculture provided that the Member State concerned regulates its use.

The Directive lays down limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in the soil (Annex IA), in sludge (Annex IB) and for the maximum annual quantities of heavy metals which may be introduced into the soil (Annex IC).

The use of sewage sludge is prohibited if the concentration of one or more heavy metals in the soil exceeds the limit values laid down in accordance with Annex IA. The Member States must therefore take the necessary steps to ensure that those limit values are not exceeded as a result of using sludge.

Sludge must be treated before being used in agriculture but the Member States may authorise the use of untreated sludge if it is injected or worked into the soil.

The use of sludge is prohibited:

  • on grassland or forage crops if the grassland is to be grazed or the forage crops to be harvested before a certain period has elapsed (this period, fixed by the Member States, may not be less than three weeks);
  • on fruit and vegetable crops during the growing season, with the exception of fruit trees;
  • on ground intended for the cultivation of fruit and vegetable crops which are normally in direct contact with the soil and normally eaten raw, for a period of ten months preceding the harvest and during the harvest itself.

Sludge and soil on which it is used must be sampled and analysed.

Member States must keep records registering:

  • the quantities of sludge produced and the quantities supplied for use in agriculture;
  • the composition and properties of the sludge;
  • the type of treatment carried out;
  • the names and addresses of the recipients of the sludge and the places where the sludge is to be used.

Where conditions so demand, Member States may take more stringent measures than those provided for in this Directive.

Five years after notification of this Directive, and every four years thereafter, Member States must produce a consolidated report on the use of sludge in agriculture, specifying the quantities used, the criteria followed and any difficulties encountered. They must forward the report to the Commission, which will publish the information contained in it.

In the light of that report the Commission will, if necessary, submit appropriate proposals for increased protection of the soil and the environment.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 86/278/EEC

18.6.1986

18.6.1989

OJ L 181 of 4.7.1986

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 91/692/EEC

23.12.1991

1.1.1993

OJ L 377 of 31.12.1991

Regulation (EC) No 807/2003

5.6.2003

OJ L 122 of 16.5.2003

Regulation (EC) No 219/2009

20.4.2009

OJ L 87 of 31.3.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 86/278/EEC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

Related Acts

Report from the Commission of 20 November 2009 on implementation of the community waste legislation Directive 2006/12/EC on waste, Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive 86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste, Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste and Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment for the period 2004-2006 [COM(2009) 633 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
Since the adoption of the Directive on sewage sludge more than 20 years ago, no implementation problems have been reported. However there are signals that the Directive may be too limited in scope and lack ambition. Several Member States have enacted and implemented stricter limit values for heavy metals and set requirements for other contaminants. The Commission impact assessment will evaluate whether more stringent measures should be put in place and look into a possibility of extending the scope of the Directive to other types of sludges and applications other than agriculture.

Report from the Commission of 19 July 2006 on implementation of the Community waste legislation: Directive 75/442/EEC, Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive 86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste and Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste for the period 2001-2003 [COM(2006) 406 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
According to this report, several Member States have set concentration limits at levels below those in the Directive. In addition, average concentrations of heavy metals in sludge used in agriculture are significantly lower than those specified in the Directive. Most EU-15 Member States registered an increase in sludge generation. Seven Member States report using at least 50% of the sludge they generate in agriculture. The Commission considers that using sewage sludge as fertiliser on agricultural soils remains one of the best environmental options, provided it poses no threat to the environment or to animal and human health.

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 19 May 2003 on the implementation of Community waste legislation, in particular Directive 75/442/EEC on waste, Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive 86/278/EEC on sewage sludge and Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste, for the period 1998-2000 [COM(2003) 250 final Not published in the Official Journal].

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 10 January 2000 on the implementation of Community waste legislation for the period 1995-1997 (Directives 75/442/EEC, 91/689/EEC, 75/439/EEC and 86/278/EEC) [COM(1999) 752 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission notes in this report that there were no major problems in the formal transposition of Directive 86/278 on sewage sludge into national law. The Directive has been successful in preventing crop contamination by pathogens caused by the use of sludge on agricultural soils. However, few Member States have very high sludge reuse rates. As the Commission foresees an increase of about 40 % of sludge production by 2005, it seems appropriate to completely revise the provisions of the Directive.

Commission Communication to the Council and the European Parliament of 27 February 1997 concerning the application of Directives 75/439/EEC, 75/442/EEC, 78/319/EEC and 86/278/EEC on waste management [COM(97) 23 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
As Directive 86/278/EEC was published on 17 June 1986, the Member States had to draw up their first report by 17 June 1991. Only six Member States (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom) sent their 1991/1992 report. A second report covering the years 1991-1994 should have been submitted by 17 June 1995.
The Commission’s analysis covers the period 1991-1994 on the basis of the reports submitted by five Member States (Belgium, Spain, France, the United Kingdom and Portugal).
The report notes that some Member States have failed to adopt all the national measures needed to transpose this Directive. As a result, Belgium in particular was sentenced by the Court of Justice (judgment of 3 May 1994, Case C-260/93) for failing to transpose the Directive.
Following the adoption of Directive 91/692/EEC standardising and rationalising reports on the implementation of certain Directives relating to the environment, the Commission adopted a standard questionnaire for drawing up these reports, first used for the 1991-1994 report. The report outlines the state of play regarding national laws and the minimum limit values set by the five Member States which submitted their report. The Commission feels that, under the current circumstances, it is difficult to draw final conclusions as the reports of several Member States are missing and some of the reports submitted were incomplete. However, it is of the view that the Directive was, on the whole, well implemented as regards the permitted concentration of heavy metals in sludge for use in agriculture, as the level is in general lower than the limit values laid down in Annex I B to the Directive.

Bathing water quality

Bathing water quality

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Bathing water quality

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Bathing water quality

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2006/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 concerning the management of bathing water quality and repealing Directive 76/160/EEC.

SUMMARY

The European Union (EU) is committed to protecting environmental quality and human health. This Directive therefore strengthens the rules guaranteeing bathing water quality *. It supplements Directive 2000/60/EC on water protection and management.

The Directive does not apply to swimming pools or spa pools, or to artificially created confined waters, subject to treatment or used for therapeutic purposes.

Monitoring of bathing water

Each year, the Member States shall identify the bathing waters in their territory and define the length of the bathing season.

They shall establish monitoring at the location most used by bathers or where the risk of pollution is greatest. Monitoring shall take place by means of sampling:

  • four samples, including one before the start of the bathing season;
  • three samples only if the seasons does not exceed eight weeks or if the region is subject to special geographical constraints.

Member States shall communicate the results of their monitoring to the Commission with a description of the water quality management measures. Monitoring may be suspended exceptionally once the Commission has been informed.

Determining bathing water quality

Water quality is assessed on the basis of microbiological data defined according to the parameters described in Annex I. Member States shall then establish a classification of waters of poor, sufficient, good or excellent quality. This classification shall comply with the criteria set out in Annex II.

All bathing waters in the EU must be at least of sufficient quality by the end of the 2015 bathing season. Furthermore, Member States are to take the necessary measures to improve the number of bathing waters of good or excellent quality.

If quality is poor, Member States shall adopt the necessary measures to manage and eliminate pollution, and to protect and inform bathers.

Bathing water profile

The Directive provides for profiles to be established to identify possible pollution, for one or more than one contiguous bathing waters. In particular, they comprise an assessment of:

  • the physical, geographical and hydrological characteristics of the bathing water and of other surface waters in the catchment area;
  • pollution and sources thereof;
  • management measures.

These profiles must be established by 24 March 2011.

Exceptional measures

Member States shall adopt exceptional measures if unexpected situations deteriorate the quality of waters or represent a risk to bathers’ health.

Appropriate monitoring must also be implemented if there is a risk of proliferation of algae. The authorities responsible must therefore:

  • take management measures and provide information immediately if a proliferation of cyanobacteria (or “blue algae”) occurs;
  • assess the health risks if there is a proliferation of macro-algae and/or marine phytoplankton.

Transboundary waters

Member States shall exchange information and take joint action if a river basin * extends over several territories.

Information to the public

National authorities shall enable the public to obtain information and to participate in water quality management. Citizens may therefore make suggestions, remarks or complaints. They may also participate in the establishment, review and updating of lists of water quality.

Moreover, Member States shall ensure that adequate information is disseminated actively and is easily available during the bathing season. This concerns in particular:

  • the classification of water, prohibitions or advice against bathing;
  • a general description of the water in non-technical language;
  • a description of the nature and duration of pollution.

Context

This Directive shall repeal Directive 76/2006/EEC by 31 December 2014.

Key terms
  • Bathing water: any element of surface water where the national authorities of a Member State expect a large number of people to bathe or have not imposed a permanent bathing prohibition, or issued permanent advice against bathing.
  • River basin: area from which all surface run-off flows through a sequence of streams, rivers and, possibly, lakes into the sea at a single river mouth, estuary or delta.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2006/7/EC

24.3.2006

24.3.2008

OJ L 64 of 4.3.2006


Another Normative about Bathing water quality

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Environment > Water protection and management

Bathing water quality (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 76/160/EEC of 8 December 1975 concerning the quality of bathing water [See amending acts].

Summary

This Directive concerns the quality of bathing water in the Member States of the European Union (EU). It concerns those waters in which bathing is authorised by the national authorities and regularly practised by a significant number of bathers. This Directive does not apply to water intended for therapeutic purposes, or to water used in swimming pools.

It lays down the minimum quality criteria to be met by bathing water. They relate to:

  • the limit values of substances considered to be indicators of pollution (in the Annex);
  • the minimum sampling frequency and method of analysis or inspection of such water (in the Annex).

Member States may fix more stringent values than the criteria laid down in the Directive. In addition, where it does not give any values for certain substances, Member States are not obliged to fix any.

Water quality assessment

Sampling is carried out by Member States at different intervals for each polluting substance (in the Annex). Samples are taken at places where the daily average density of bathers is highest. Sampling begins two weeks before the start of the bathing season. The water testing must be adapted to the geographical and topographical conditions and to the presence of existing or potential polluting discharges.

Non-compliance

Where the waters do not conform to the parameters of the Directive, Member States may not authorise bathing in them before they have taken the necessary measures to improve the water quality. They have a period of ten years after notification of the Directive for the quality of the water to conform to the set limit values.

However, under certain conditions, bathing water is deemed to conform to the relevant parameters, even if a certain percentage of samples taken during the bathing season do not conform to the limit values. Derogations to the Directive are possible, provided that they meet the objective of protecting public health.

In addition, the consequences of floods, natural disasters or abnormal weather conditions are not taken into consideration when determining the water quality.

Monitoring Committee

A Committee on adaptation to technical progress enables the measures for improving water quality to be adapted. It consists of representatives from the Member States and is chaired by a representative of the Commission.

Context

This is repealed by Directive 2006/7/EC with effect from 31 December 2014. However, it still applies in Member States where transposition of the new Directive is not finished.

The review of bathing water legislation is designed to ensure consistency with the Sixth Environment Action Programme, the Sustainable Development Strategy and the Water Framework Directive. It is also intended to simplify procedures in the light of scientific developments and improve participatory processes for the actors concerned and the information given to the public.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 76/160/EEC

10.12.1975

10.12.1977

OJ L 31, 5.2.1976

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 91/692/EEC

23.12.1991

1.1.1993

OJ L 377, 31.12.1991

Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008

11.12.2008

OJ L 311, 21.11.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 76/160/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purpose only.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 21 December 2000: Developing a new bathing water policy [COM(2000) 860 final – Not published in Official Journal].
The Communication sets out the strengths and weaknesses of the management of bathing water quality, and proposes various approaches to drafting a new directive to take account of technical progress in the field.

Commission Decision 92/446/EEC of 27 July 1992 concerning questionnaires relating to Directives in the water sector [Official Journal L 247 of 27.8.1992].
This Decision draws up the outlines of questionnaires needed to monitor the implementation of and compliance with the provisions of all Directives in the water sector, including Directive 76/160/EEC.

Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances

Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances (until 2013)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2006/11/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 February 2006 on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment of the Community (Codified version).

Summary

This Directive lays down rules for protection against, and prevention of, pollution resulting from the discharge of certain substances into the aquatic environment. It applies to inland surface water, territorial waters and internal coastal waters.

Two lists of dangerous substances have been compiled to combat pollution:

  • discharge of substances in list I must be eliminated; while
  • discharge of substances in list II must be reduced.

Pursuant to Annex IX of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC), quality objectives and emission limit values are established by the “daughter directives” of Directive 2006/11/EC. Moreover, emission limit values for pollutants must be based on the best available techniques in line with Article 10 of Framework Directive 2000/60/EC.

All discharges of substances included in list I require prior authorisation by the competent authority in the Member State concerned. The authorisation is granted for a limited period and lays down emission standards which may be more stringent than the thresholds set by Community legislation, particularly to take account of the toxicity or persistence of the substance in the environment into which it is discharged. It is up to the Member States to ensure compliance with the emission standards.

For the substances on list II, the Member States adopt and implement programmes to preserve and improve water quality. All discharges are subject to prior authorisation by the competent authority in the Member State concerned that lays down the emission standards.

The Member States draw up an inventory of the discharges into the waters covered by this Directive and may take more severe measures than those laid down by Community legislation to reduce or eliminate pollution caused by dangerous substances.

The Directive lays down a procedure for revising and adding to the lists or transferring specific substances from list II to list I.

Before 22 December 2012, Member States may carry out surveillance and notification pursuant to Articles 5, 8 and 15 of the Water Framework Directive.

Background

This Directive codifies and replaces Directive 76/464/EEC and its subsequent amendments. This codification leads to the clarification and rationalisation of legislation. It takes into account the adoption of the water framework Directive and the international conventions on the protection of water courses and the marine environment.

The Directive is repealed by the Water Framework Directive as from 22 December 2013.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2006/11/EC

24.4.2006

OJ L 64 of 4.4.2006

Related Acts

Environmental quality standards

Council Directive 82/176/EEC [Official Journal L 81 of 27.3.1982].

This Directive sets limit values and quality objectives for mercury discharges by the chlor-alkali electrolysis industry].
See consolidated version .

Council Directive 83/513/EEC [Official Journal L 291 of 24.10.1983]
This Directive sets limit values and quality objectives for cadmium discharges in the aquatic environment.
See consolidated version .

Council Directive 84/156/EEC [Official Journal L 74 of 17.3.1984]

This Directive sets limit values and quality objectives for mercury discharges in sectors other than the chlor-alkali electrolysis industry.
See consolidated version .

Council Directive [Official Journal L 274 of 17.10.1984].
This Directive sets limit values and quality objectives for discharges of hexachlorocyclohexane in the aquatic environment.

See consolidated version .

Council Directive 86/280/EEC [Official Journal L 181 of 4.7.1986]. This Directive sets limit values and quality objectives for discharges of certain dangerous substances included in List I of the Annex to Directive 2006/11/EC.

See consolidated version .

Directive 2008/105/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on environmental quality standards in the field of water, amending and repealing Council Directives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive [Official Journal L 348 of 24.12.2008].
This Directive establishes environmental quality standards (EQS) in the field of water. These quality standards aim to combat surface water pollution by 33 priority chemical substances (Annex II). This Directive provides in particular for:

  • an amendment of the list of priority substances and the corresponding EQS;
  • transparent criteria to designate so-called “mixing” zones, within which standards may be exceeded under certain conditions;
  • the preparation of an inventory of emissions, discharges and losses. This inventory will be used to prepare the Commission Report which will check progress achieved in reducing or ceasing emissions of pollutant substances by 2018.

The Directive supplements the legislative framework introduced by the Water Framework Directive. It allows decisions to be made at all levels of governance. Member States have until December 2009 to prepare plans for the management of hydrographical districts and programmes of measures relating thereto.

Improvement of information

Directive 91/692/EEC [Official Journal L 377 of 31.12.1991].

This Directive aims at rationalizing and improving on a sectoral basis the provisions on the transmission of information and the publication of reports concerning certain Community Directives on the protection of the environment.

Decision 92/446/EEC [Official Journal L 247 of 27.8.1992].

This Decision draws up the outlines of questionnaires needed to monitor the implementation of and compliance with the provisions of all Directives in the water sector, including Directives 76/464/EEC, 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC and 86/280/EEC.

Transfer Register

Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 [Official Journal OJ L 33 of 4.2.2006].
The EU introduces a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register to improve access by the public to information and, in the long term, contribute to preventing and reducing pollution.

Integrated pollution prevention and control

Integrated pollution prevention and control

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Integrated pollution prevention and control

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Air pollution

Integrated pollution prevention and control (until 2013)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control.

Summary

This Directive (“the IPPC Directive”) requires industrial and agricultural activities with a high pollution potential to have a permit. This permit can only be issued if certain environmental conditions are met, so that the companies themselves bear responsibility for preventing and reducing any pollution they may cause.

Integrated pollution prevention and control concerns new or existing industrial and agricultural activities with a high pollution potential, as defined in Annex I to the Directive (energy industries, production and processing of metals, mineral industry, chemical industry, waste management, livestock farming, etc.).

Mandatory environmental conditions

In order to receive a permit an industrial or agricultural installation must comply with certain basic obligations. In particular, it must:

  • use all appropriate pollution-prevention measures, namely the best available techniques (which produce the least waste, use less hazardous substances, enable the substances generated to be recovered and recycled, etc.);
  • prevent all large-scale pollution;
  • prevent, recycle or dispose of waste in the least polluting way possible;
  • use energy efficiently;
  • ensure accident prevention and damage limitation;
  • return sites to their original state when the activity is over.

In addition, the decision to issue a permit must contain a number of specific requirements, including:

  • emission limit values for polluting substances (with the exception of greenhouse gases if the emission trading scheme applies – see below);
  • any soil, water and air protection measures required;
  • waste management measures;
  • measures to be taken in exceptional circumstances (leaks, malfunctions, temporary or permanent stoppages, etc.);
  • minimisation of long-distance or transboundary pollution;
  • release monitoring;
  • all other appropriate measures.

In order to coordinate the permit process required under the Directive and the greenhouse gas emission trading scheme, a permit issued in compliance with the Directive is not obliged to contain the emission limit values for greenhouse gases if these gases are subject to an emission trading scheme, provided there is no local pollution problem. The competent authorities can also decide not to impose energy efficiency measures targeted at combustion plants.

Permit applications

All permit applications must be sent to the competent authority of the Member State concerned, which will then decide whether or not to authorise the activity. Applications must include information on the following points:

  • a description of the installation and the nature and scale of its activities as well as its site conditions;
  • the materials, substances and energy used or generated;
  • the sources of emissions from the installation, and the nature and quantities of foreseeable emissions into each medium, as well as their effects on the environment;
  • the proposed technology and other techniques for preventing or reducing emissions from the installation;
  • measures for the prevention and recovery of waste;
  • measures planned to monitor emissions;
  • possible alternative solutions.

Without infringing the rules and practice of commercial and industrial secrecy, this information must be made available to interested parties:

  • the public, using the appropriate means (including electronically) and at the same time as information concerning the procedure for licensing the activity, the contact details of the authority responsible for authorising or rejecting the project and the possibility for the public to take part in the licensing process;
  • the other Member States, if the project is likely to have cross-border effects. Each Member State must submit this information to interested parties in its territory so that they can give their opinion.

Sufficient time must be allowed for all interested parties to react. Their opinions must be taken into account in the licensing procedure.

Administrative and monitoring measures

The decision to license or reject a project, the arguments on which this decision is based and possible measures to reduce the negative impact of the project must be made public and sent to the other Member States concerned. The Member States must, in accordance with their relevant national legislation, make provision for interested parties to challenge this decision in the courts.

The Member States are responsible for inspecting industrial installations and ensuring they comply with the Directive. An exchange of information on best available techniques (serving as a basis for setting emission limit values) is held regularly between the Commission, the Member States and the industries concerned. Reports on the implementation of the Directive are drawn up every three years.

Regulation (EC) No 166/2006, which establishes a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR), harmonises the rules whereby Member States have to regularly report information on pollutants to the Commission.

Background

Directive 2008/1/EC is replaced by Directive 2010/75/EU on industrial emissions. However, its provisions remain applicable until 6 January 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2008/1/EC

18.2.2008

OJ L 24, 29.1.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2008/1/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for information only.

Related Acts

Report from the Commission of 25 October 2010 on the implementation of Directive 2008/1/EC concerning integrated pollution prevention and control and Directive 1999/13/EC on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations [COM(2010) 593 – Not published in the Official Journal].

The reusing, recycling and recovering of motor vehicles

The reusing, recycling and recovering of motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The reusing, recycling and recovering of motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Interactions between the automobile industry and specific policies

The reusing, recycling and recovering of motor vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2005/64/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 on the type-approval of motor vehicles with regard to their re-usability, recyclability and recoverability and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC.

Summary

The Directive helps facilitate the recycling and recovery of component parts of end-of-life vehicles by obliging manufacturers to incorporate recycling from the vehicle design stage onwards. Manufacturers must design vehicles from the viewpoint of dismantling and recycling them, for example by using a large proportion of materials which are potentially able to be recycled and recovered.

The Directive follows on from Directive 2000/53/EC, the objective of which is to eliminate waste from end-of-life motor vehicles by promoting the re-use, recycling and recovery of their components. Every year end-of life vehicles in the European Union generate between 8 and 9 million tonnes of waste, which must be managed actively.

Category of vehicles

The provisions of this new Directive apply to cars, station wagons and people carriers (category M1 vehicles) and to light-duty trucks (category N1 vehicles), new models and models already in production in accordance with a timetable set out in the Directive.

The new Directive does not apply, however, to special purpose vehicles (armoured vehicles, ambulances, etc.), to multi-stage built light-duty vehicles (provided that the base vehicle complies with this Directive), or to vehicles produced in small series (fewer than 500 vehicles a year in each Member State).

Minimum thresholds for recycling and recovery

In accordance with Directive 2005/64/EC, vehicles may be put on the market only if they are re-usable and/or recyclable to a minimum of 85% by mass or are re-usable and/or recoverable to a minimum of 95% by mass. The minimum thresholds for the recycling and recovery of components (new and used) and materials for new vehicles were set in Article 7(4) of Directive 2000/53/EC. Checks on components and materials are based on standard ISO 22628: 2002 developed by the International Standards Organisation.

Re-use of components

The Directive bans the re-use of some component parts, which it lists, in the construction of new vehicles. The re-use of these components in another vehicle after they have been dismantled from end-of-life vehicles presents serious risks to road safety and environmental protection. The aim is therefore to ensure that re-used component parts continue to offer the same level of performance as is required to obtain type-approval.

Certificate of compliance

The manufacturer must put in place satisfactory arrangements and procedures in order to obtain the certificate of compliance detailed in Annex IV to Directive 2005/64/CE. In particular, it must ensure that materials and parts do not contain any lead, mercury, cadmium or hexavalent chromium (with the exception of the cases listed in Annex II to Directive 2000/53/EC). Furthermore, it must manage the re-use, the recycling and the recovery of materials and parts in accordance with this Directive.

Member States appoint a competent organisation responsible for carrying out the preliminary assessment of the manufacturer and granting the certificate of compliance. The certificate shall be valid for two years from the date of deliverance of the certificate before new checks shall be conducted. The manufacturer shall inform the competent body of any significant change that could affect the relevance of the certificate of compliance.

Timetable

The provisions of this Directive will apply from 15 December 2008 to new types of vehicles put on the market, and from 15 July 2010 for models already in production.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2005/64/EC

15.12.2005

15.12.2006

OJ L 310 of 25.11.2005

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2005/64/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.

Related Acts

Directive 67/548/EEC of the Council of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances [Official Journal L 196 of 16.8.1967].

EU-Russia environmental cooperation

EU-Russia environmental cooperation

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EU-Russia environmental cooperation

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Eastern europe and central asia

EU-Russia environmental cooperation

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 17 December 2001 – EU-Russia environmental cooperation [COM(2001)772 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The dialogue and cooperation conducted between the European Union (EU) and Russia must be strengthened with regard to the environment.

The progress achieved by Russia in this area should benefit its socio-economic development, particularly in the energy and water resource management sectors, by complying with international standards for products and services intended for export, and promoting investment.

Existing cooperation frameworks

The Agreement on partnership and cooperation adopted in 1997 and its joint work programme on the environment are the partners’ principal instruments in this area.

The partners also set environmental objectives under the framework of:

  • the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue ;
  • the EU common strategy on Russia adopted in June 1999 (energy efficiency, sustainable use of natural resources, combating pollution, waste management, etc.);

The country must also renew its commitment to international cooperation, particularly under the framework of the Northern Dimension policy and the Conventions concerning the Regional Seas (the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Atlantic Ocean), as well as the implementation of multi-lateral agreements on the environment and combating climate change.

Cooperation priorities

However, the partners’ cooperation objectives must be expanded. The new priorities are primarily based on Russia’s national objectives for the environment and resource management. In particular, these concern conserving ecosystems and developing an environmentally-friendly economy. These priorities must also comply with the principles of the European strategy for sustainable development.

In addition, the partners establish a set of short-term priorities, in particular:

  • energy and natural resource savings through the development of adapted technologies, processes and products;
  • improving environmental standards, controls and assessments;
  • waste water treatment and reducing atmospheric pollution;
  • combating industrial pollution by applying the ‘polluter pays principle’;
  • establishing mechanisms to encourage investment, including foreign investment.

Context

This Communications followed on from the 7th EU-Russia Summit on 17 May 2001 during which the partners confirmed their desire to strengthen their strategic cooperation.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2006/890/Euratom of 4 December 2006 concerning the conclusion on behalf of the European Atomic Energy Community of a Framework Agreement on a Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Programme in the Russian Federation and of the Protocol on Claims, Legal Proceedings and Indemnification to the Framework Agreement on a Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Programme in the Russian Federation (notified under document number C(2006) 5219).

Sustainable Consumption, Production and Industry Action Plan

Sustainable Consumption, Production and Industry Action Plan

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Sustainable Consumption, Production and Industry Action Plan

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Food safety: general provisions

Sustainable Consumption, Production and Industry Action Plan

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 25 June 2008 on the ‘Sustainable Consumption and Production and Sustainable Industrial Policy Action Plan’ [COM(2008) 397 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Commission proposes the implementation of a series of measures to improve the energy and environmental performance of products throughout their life cycle, and to stimulate demand and consumption of better quality products, thus creating a ‘virtuous circle’.

These targets may be reached by:

  • extending the scope of the Directive on ecodesign, which for the moment only applies to energy-using products, to all energy-related products or those products which have an impact on energy consumption during their use (window frames, water-using devices etc.);
  • extending the scope of the Energy Labelling Directive to cover a wider range of products;
  • revising the Ecolabel Regulation to simplify and streamline the process of obtaining an ecolabel, and to extend the product coverage;
  • promoting green public procurement, by providing guidance and tools for public authorities to “green” their procurement practices;
  • implementing incentive measures aimed at reducing the environmental footprint of the retail sector and its supply chain, promote more sustainable products, and better inform consumers.

Leaner production

There is already a regulatory framework for production processes concerning environmental emissions from industries and the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme, in particular. The Commission considers however that there is a need to give further impetus to environmentally friendly production processes and energy savings. In this context, the Commission intends to act in three areas:

  • increase efficient use of resources (creating more value while using less resources);
  • support eco-innovation;
  • enhance the environmental potential of industry, by revising the EMAS Regulation (Community eco-management and audit scheme), by preparing industrial policies for environmental industries and by helping small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to fully exploit business opportunities in the field of environment and energy.

Acting on a global scale

Action will also be undertaken at a global level:

  • promote good practice internationally in sustainable production and consumption;
  • promote international trade in environmentally friendly goods and services;
  • promote sector-based agreements in international negotiations on climate change.

Context

The action plan forms part of the European Union Strategy for Sustainable Development and the Community Lisbon Programme for 2008-2010 of which one of the main orientations is the promotion of an industrial policy geared towards more sustainable consumption and production. The Commission will review progress and report on the implementation of the initiatives proposed in 2012.