Tag Archives: Energy consumption

Smart Grids

Smart Grids

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Smart Grids

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Internal energy market

Smart Grids

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 24 April 2011 – Smart Grids: from innovation to deployment [COM(2011) 202 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Communication proposes several actions which aim to develop Smart Grids * in order to contribute effectively to the European Union’s (EU) Europe 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.

According to the European Bio Intelligence study , the use of these grids could:

  • reduce the annual primary energy consumption of the EU energy sector by almost 9 % by 2020;
  • create new jobs;
  • generate additional economic growth.

1st objective: develop common European Smart Grid standards

Since March 2009, the European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs) such as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) have been responsible for establishing European standards for the interoperability of smart utility meters (for electricity, gas, water and heat) and smart grids. The results of this research are expected in 2012 and will be based in part on the Directive on measuring instruments.

The ESOs also have the task of developing new standards for the interoperability of chargers for electric vehicles with all types of electric vehicles and with all electricity supply points.

The Commission intends to supervise the development of these standards throughout 2011-12.

2nd objective: guarantee data protection and security

In the EU, the protection of personal data is covered by Directive 95/46/EC which applies to the processing of data in any sector, including Smart Grids.

The challenge lies in distinguishing between personal and impersonal data. The Commission believes that it would be sensible to make adaptations in the national legal frameworks in order to accommodate the specific parameters of Smart Grids, whilst protecting the private life of European citizens.

The Commission proposes to guide the changes to national legislation which will accommodate the parameters of Smart Grids, while the ESOs will be responsible for developing the technical standards for these grids, taking the ‘privacy by design’ approach. An expert group shall assess the network and information security of Smart Grids.

3rd objective: incentivise Smart Grid deployment

The deployment of Smart Grids is market-driven. This is the reason why households and companies should have simple access to consumption information so they can keep their energy costs down.

Furthermore, investment in Smart Grids should be incentivised. The Electricity Directive and the Energy Services Directive should enable the emergence of a regulatory framework which provides incentives for such investment.

The Commission plans to define a methodology using national smart meter implementation plans. In addition, it encourages Member States to design action plans for establishing Smart Grids. Specific coordinated action by all the actors involved will be made possible using national regulators and the European Network of Transmission System Operators for electricity (ENTSO-E).

4th objective: develop Smart Grids in a competitive retail market in the interest of consumers

Member States must create transparent retail markets and facilitate competition between providers. Developing Smart Grids in a competitive retail market should encourage consumers to change their behaviour in terms of energy consumption, because they should have real-time access to their exact energy consumption.

To complete this market, the Commission plans to revise the Energy Services Directive in order to draw up minimum requirements for the format and content of information provision for customers. It will monitor the implementation of the Third Energy Package which, in particular, provides for time-of-use pricing and demand response.

5th objective: support innovation

Smart Grids require significant investment in terms of research and development. For example, the European Electricity Grids Initiative (EEGI) was established under the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) to accelerate the deployment of smart grid technologies by 2020. Two other initiatives have the same objectives: the Covenant of Mayors and the Smart Cities and Communities initiatives.

The Commission intends to propose new initiatives similar to those mentioned above, with the aim of promoting the deployment of Smart Grids.

Key terms of the Act
  • Smart Grids: an upgraded electricity network to which two-way digital communication between supplier and consumer, intelligent metering and monitoring systems have been added.

Clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

Clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Air pollution

Clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2009/33/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Directive aims at promoting and stimulating the development of a market for clean and energy-efficient vehicles. With regard to procurement for public transport, the Directive requires public authorities and some other operators to take into account the impact of these vehicles during their operational lifetime in terms of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and other pollutant emissions.

Scope

The Directive applies to contracts for the purchase of road transport vehicles entered into by:

  • contracting authorities and contracting entities;
  • operators for the discharge of public service obligations under a public service contract.

Purchase of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles

Member States shall ensure that contracting authorities, contracting entities and operators under a public service contract take into account the operational lifetime energy and environmental impacts when purchasing road transport vehicles.

Energy and environmental impacts include:

  • energy consumption;
  • emissions of CO2;
  • emissions of NOx, NMHC and particulate matter.

In order to fulfil this requirement to take into account the environmental impact of vehicles, contracting authorities, contracting entities and operators of public transport services can choose to set technical specifications for energy and environmental performance in the documentation established when the vehicle is purchased or to include energy and environmental impacts in the purchasing decision.

Methodology for the calculation of operational lifetime costs

The Directive provides for a methodology for calculation which monetises the cost of energy consumption, C02 emissions and pollutant emissions during a vehicle’s operational lifetime.

The operational lifetime cost of the energy consumption of a vehicle is calculated using the following method:

  • fuel consumption per kilometre is calculated in units of energy consumption per kilometre;
  • the calculation uses a single monetary value per unit of energy;
  • the operational lifetime cost of the energy consumption of a vehicle is calculated by multiplying the mileage already performed by energy consumption, and then by the cost per unit of energy.

The cost of CO2 emissions is calculated by multiplying the mileage already performed by CO2 emissions in kilograms per kilometre, and then by the cost per kilogram.

The cost of pollutant emissions is obtained by adding the costs related to emissions of NOx, HCNM and particulate matter.

Best practice exchange

The Commission must encourage exchange of knowledge and best practice between Member States with regard to promoting the purchase of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles.

Context

Greenhouse gas emissions and the pollution due to transport are among the main obstacles to sustainable development, as identified by the Gothenburg European Council of 15 and 16 June 2001. Efforts must be made in this sector in order to implement the 2020 targets for energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The promotion and development of markets for cleaner, smarter, safer and energy-efficient vehicles represents one of the ways to meet these objectives.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2009/33/EC

4.6.2009

4.12.2010

OJ L 120 of 15.5.2009

Product energy consumption: Information and labelling

Product energy consumption: Information and labelling

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Product energy consumption: Information and labelling

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Product energy consumption: Information and labelling (from July 2011)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Directive establishes a framework for labelling and consumer information regarding energy consumption for energy-related products *.

Which products are concerned?

The Directive shall apply to products which are likely to have a direct or indirect impact on the consumption of energy and on other potential resources during use. It does not apply to:

  • second-hand products;
  • any means of transport for persons or goods;
  • product rating plates.

What sort of information must be provided?

Suppliers shall place on the market products that have a label containing information on the product’s consumption of electric energy or other forms of energy.

Suppliers must also make available technical documentation including:

  • a general description of the product;
  • the results of design calculations carried out;
  • test reports;
  • the references allowing identification of similar models.

The technical documentation must be available for a period of five years.

Suppliers shall provide dealers with labels and product information free of charge.

Dealers must affix labels in such a way that they are visible and legible.

What are the conditions for distance selling?

In some situations, the final consumer does not see the product – in particular when purchasing by mail order, by catalogue or through the Internet. However, the consumer must have access to product information through delegated acts which specify the way in which the label or the fiche is displayed or provided to the end-user.

What is the function of delegated acts?

A delegated act shall indicate in particular:

  • a description of the product;
  • measurement standards and methods;
  • details of the technical documentation;
  • the design and content of the label. The classification of the product on the label shall be indicated using the letters A to G. The most efficient class shall be represented by A+++. A scale with a maximum of seven colours shall also be used, and dark green shall always represent the maximum level of efficiency;
  • the location where the label shall be fixed to the product;
  • the duration of label classification.

If a product is covered by a delegated act, contracting authorities which conclude public works, supply or service contracts as referred to in Directive 2004/18/EC shall procure products which comply with high performance levels, expressed as ‘energy classes’. These criteria are as follows:

  • products which allow significant energy savings to be made;
  • equivalent products on the market shall have a wide disparity in performance levels;
  • the Commission shall take into account relevant EU legislation and self-regulation.

A delegated act shall take into account environmental parameters.

The European Commission has the power to adopt delegated acts for a period of five years from 19 June 2010. The period shall be renewed automatically unless the European Parliament or the Council revoke this right. These two institutions also have the power to object to a delegated act.

Transitional provisions

Member States shall apply the provisions of the Directive from 20 July 2011. This Directive repeals Directive 92/75/EEC from 21 July 2011.

Key terms of the Act
  • Energy-related product: any good having an impact on energy consumption during use, which is placed on the market and/or put into service in the Union, including parts intended to be incorporated into energy-related products covered by this Directive which are placed on the market and/or put into service as individual parts for end-users and of which the environmental performance can be assessed independently.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2010/30/EU

19.6.2010

20.6.2011

OJ L 153 of 18.6.2010

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 8 March 2011 – Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 [COM(2011) 109 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 forms part of the European Union’s (EU) 20 % target (aimed at reducing primary energy consumption) and the 2020 Energy strategy. It aims at:

  • promoting an economy that respects the planet’s resources;
  • implementing a low carbon system;
  • improving the EU’s energy independence;
  • strengthening security of energy supply.

In order to meet these objectives, the European Commission proposes to act at different levels.

Fostering low energy consumption in the construction sector

The Plan emphasises the necessity to implement the means for reducing final energy consumption in buildings, as this sector is responsible for almost 40 % of the final energy consumption in Europe. However, it highlights several obstacles such as “split incentives” which hinder improvements in the energy performance of buildings.

In order to effectively promote low energy consumption in the construction sector, the training of architects, engineers and technicians should be adapted, for example under the “Agenda for new skills and jobs”.

The Plan also states that Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) may give financial assistance to public authorities to modernise buildings and thus reduce their energy consumption.

Developing competitive European industry

The Commission wishes to encourage new production capacity and infrastructures to replace old equipment. These new infrastructures must comply with the requirements of the Directive on the emission allowance trading scheme and the Directive on industrial emissions.

It is also crucial to introduce a scheme for the effective recovery of heat losses from electricity and industrial production, and to valorise cogeneration.

The Commission also proposes to create instruments which allow financial value to be attributed to energy savings and link profits of utilities (suppliers and distributors) to energy efficiency and not to the volume of energy delivered.

Lastly, the Plan provides for increased energy efficiency in industry, particularly in European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Regular energy audits should become mandatory.

Adapting national and European financing

In order to promote energy efficiency, the European Commission proposes to intensify energy taxation and carbon taxes by means of the following instruments:

  • the cohesion policy;
  • the Intelligent Energy Europe programme (2007-2013);
  • intermediated funding;
  • the European Energy Programme for Recovery;
  • the Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007-2013).

Making savings for the consumer

Initially, the Commission proposes to reinforce the approach of the “Ecodesign” Directive and to define strict standards for heating boilers, water heaters and computers for example.

Furthermore, consumers’ understanding of the Ecolabel should be improved in order to facilitate the choice of energy-efficient products. Consumers should also have information about their own energy consumption in real time by means of “intelligent” individual meters, as recommended in the Directive establishing the internal market in electricity.

Improving transport efficiency

The transport sector represents 32 % of final energy consumption. The Commission intends to define a strategy to improve the efficiency of this sector, for example by introducing traffic management in all modes of transport.

Widening the scope of the national framework

Member States have implemented national plans to meet the target of reducing EU primary energy consumption by 20 %. However, the Commission suggests widening the scope of these plans to cover all stages of the energy chain and better exploit potential energy savings.

Context

In November 2008, the Commission published the Communication “Energy efficiency: delivering the 20 % target” recommending a reduction of 20 %, by 2020, of primary energy consumption. It transpired that this target would be difficult to achieve if the EU did not exploit the considerable potential of energy savings in sectors such as buildings and transport. This Plan therefore proposes new overarching guidelines for energy efficiency taking account of current parameters.

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy efficiency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency

Reducing energy consumption and eliminating energy wastage are among the main goals of the European Union (EU). EU support for improving energy efficiency will prove decisive for competitiveness, security of supply and for meeting the commitments on climate change made under the Kyoto Protocol. There is significant potential for reducing consumption, especially in energy-intensive sectors such as buildings, manufacturing, energy conversion and transport. At the end of 2006, the EU pledged to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020. To achieve this goal, it is working to mobilise public opinion, decision-makers and market operators and to set minimum energy efficiency standards and rules on labelling for products, services and infrastructure.

POLICY ORIENTATIONS

  • Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
  • Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal
  • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12)
  • Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) (2007-2013)
  • The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
  • Green Paper on energy efficiency
  • “Intelligent Energy for Europe” programme (2003-2006)
  • Action Plan for energy efficiency (2000-2006)

DELIVERING ENERGY EFFICIENCY

  • Energy performance of buildings
  • Energy end-use efficiency and energy services
  • Cogeneration

Energy efficiency of products

  • Product energy consumption: Information and labelling (from July 2011)
  • Tyre labelling
  • Ecodesign for energy-using appliances
  • Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts
  • Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme (EU – US)
  • Hot-water boilers

The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund

The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > Sectoral development policies

The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 6 October 2006: “Mobilising public and private finance towards global access to climate-friendly, affordable and secure energy services: The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund” [COM(2006) 583 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund (GEEREF) proposed by the European Commission will help mobilise private investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy projects.

Boosting such projects will substantially contribute towards sustainable development. It will provide benefits in terms of the environment, climate change and air quality and will also have social and economic benefits in terms of business, job and income creation at local level. It will also help to stabilise energy supply in the poorest regions of the world.

Overcoming investment barriers

Boosting renewable energy and energy efficiency technology calls for investment, in particular in developing countries and emerging economies. Although the prospects are promising, several factors block the participation of private-sector investors and projects and businesses have major difficulties in raising risk capital, which provides vital collateral for lenders.

One of the key reasons causing this block to investments is the significantly higher cost of initial investment in renewable energy generation than for conventional energy. While these costs are compensated by much lower running costs, private-sector investors still regard the longer repayment periods as too risky.

The various risks in developing countries are another hurdle, which means that investors look for additional reassurances.

Moreover, renewable energy technologies are often suited to small and medium sized projects with less than 5-10 million in total capital, whilst international finance institutions and the private sector traditionally do not invest in such small-scale projects.

The GEEREF, a public-private partnership.

The GEEREF will establish a public-private partnership by offering ways of risk sharing and co-financing for projects investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency.

It will mainly target the raising of “patient” risk capital, in other words, capital invested with a long-term prospect of return on the investment. GEEREF participation will range from between 25 and 50 % for medium to high-risk operations to 15 % for low-risk operations. Provision will also be made for dedicated technical assistance funds.

Rather than providing finance directly to projects, GEEREF will help create and fund regional sub-funds or scale up similar existing initiatives. Sub-funds will accommodate the specific conditions and needs of each region.

Beneficiaries

The GEEREF will support projects and businesses engaged in improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. Priority will be given to deploying environmentally sound technologies with a proven technical track record. Special focus will be given to investments of less than 10 million since they are often ignored by commercial investors and international financial institutions.

Regional sub-funds will be set up for the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) region, North Africa, non-EU Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia.

Incentives to support and contribute to the Fund

The minimum funding target for the GEEREF was set at 100 million for it to have a meaningful impact at global level and to be sufficient to establish a public-private partnership that will be self-sustaining over time.

An initial budget of 100 million should be enough to harness additional risk capital, through the sub-fund structure, of 300 million and, in the long term, up to 1 billion.

The European Commission intends to contribute 80 million to the GEEREF for the period 2007-10 with an initial contribution of 15 million proposed for 2007. It hopes that other public and private sources will contribute towards meeting the 100 million target set for the GEEREF.

International financial institutions, such as the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), private-sector investors and other financial intermediaries have already expressed their intention to contribute to this initiative.

Member States, members of the European Economic Area (EEA) and other financial institutions are also invited to participate.

Background

The constant increase in demand for global energy has serious consequences, in particular in terms of air quality, resources and access to energy. The need to ensure sustainable development requires not only combating climate change but also eradicating energy poverty and securing energy supply. It is therefore essential to harness investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

The GEEREF initiative is an integral part of the approach put forward in the Green Paper ” A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy “.

 

Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

Action Plan for energy efficiency

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Action Plan for energy efficiency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Action Plan for energy efficiency (2000-2006)

The Commission presents an Action Plan aimed at reducing energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. The goal is to protect the environment, enhance security of energy supply and establish a more sustainable energy policy.

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, of 26 April 2000, entitled: “Action Plan to improve energy efficiency in the European Community” [COM(2000) 247 – not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Background

Energy efficiency means reducing energy consumption without reducing the use of energy-consuming plant and equipment. The aim is to make better use of energy. Energy efficiency means promoting behaviour, working methods and manufacturing techniques which are less energy-intensive.

The measures to promote energy efficiency form part of the wider objectives of the European Community’s energy and environment policy. Greater energy efficiency has a major role to play in meeting the targets set in the Kyoto Protocol. It encourages a more sustainable energy policy and is a key element in the security of energy supply in the European Community, a subject which has given cause for concern in recent years.

The Action Plan is a follow-up to the Commission communication adopted in April 1998 on the rational use of energy and the Council resolution on energy efficiency.

This summary presents the measures proposed by the Action Plan and, where appropriate, gives an update of certain measures taken since its adoption.

Barriers to energy efficiency

There are many barriers to energy efficiency, such as inefficient use of energy in the industrial sector. Commercial barriers are also a major obstacle to improving energy efficiency, as they can prevent access to technologies and the spread of efficient energy forms. These include in particular:

  • the practice of selling energy by kWh rather than as a service;
  • energy prices that do not reflect the real costs of energy as they do not include the externalities;
  • institutional and legal barriers;
  • lack of or incomplete information which often hampers the use of cost-effective and energy-efficient technology.

Objectives

According to the 1998 Communication, the European Community’s energy consumption could be reduced by 18% compared with the current situation by improving energy efficiency. The Action Plan proposes a target of a 1% decrease per annum until 2010 over and above that currently envisaged. This means that two thirds of the overall objective should be achieved by 2010.

In order to meet this overall objective, the Commission has set detailed targets with the aim of developing action in the area of energy and environment policy, refocusing attention on the subject, underlining the possibility of exceeding the objectives set and, finally, introducing measures to ensure the long-term improvement of energy efficiency, through the use of market forces and new technologies.

Implementation

A wide range of instruments is to be used to implement the plan at European Community and national level. Many of the proposed actions are not mandatory (voluntary agreements, for example). The Community policies reinforce and supplement those of the Member States and the Community has an important coordinating role, through the SAVE programme in particular. It is important to note that SAVE projects will be undertaken in the areas described below. They are an important instrument for implementing the plan. A significant role is also attributed to the Fifth R&D Framework Programme.

The proposed actions are divided into three categories:

  • measures to integrate energy efficiency into other Community policies;
  • initiatives to strengthen and extend existing policies;
  • new policies and measures.

Category 1: Measures to integrate energy efficiency into other Community policies

There are six main areas:

Transport

The transport sector is a priority area for energy efficiency as it is responsible for over 30% of final energy consumption. The measures are mostly of a non-technological nature and include promoting the establishment of new infrastructures and, consequently, intermodality;

Modern enterprise policy

It is necessary to encourage sustainable development. This primarily concerns industries and can be achieved through voluntary agreements;

Regional and urban policy

This dimension should be integrated into the allocation of resources through the Structural Funds, the Regional Fund, the Cohesion Fund, etc.;

Research and Development

The Fifth Framework Programme of Research and Development and in particular the energy programme contribute to the research in this area. Of the 1 042 million allocated to energy between 1999 and 2002, 440 million will be allocated to energy efficiency;

Taxation and tariff policy

The Commission considers initiatives in these two areas important for improving energy efficiency. Tax exemptions for investments in energy efficiency are a possible example. In this connection, the Commission has already proposed a Community framework for taxation of energy products;

International cooperation and pre-accession activities

Approximation of legislation, harmonised efficiency standards, etc. as well as a measure of international liberalisation are desirable. In this context, the Energy Charter concluded with third countries and the participation of accession countries in programmes such as SAVE are important initiatives.

Category 2: Measures to strengthen and expand existing measures

It is necessary to strengthen and expand measures in four priority areas:

Transport

The proposed measures involve both non-mandatory measures (voluntary agreements) and legislation. The Commission has already set ambitious targets for this key sector, such as reducing the average CO2 emissions of new vehicles by one third by 2005/2010 compared with 1995 with the aid of voluntary agreements. Voluntary agreements have already been negotiated with the automobile industry. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate these agreements and to provide incentives to apply them in full.

Household appliances, commercial and other equipment

This covers equipment such as large domestic electrical appliances and lighting. The proposed measures principally concern labelling systems and minimum standards for energy efficiency.
It is necessary to reinforce and expand the existing Community labelling system which, although useful, has been relatively badly applied in certain cases (e.g. the labelling system for domestic appliances). In December 2006, the Community concluded a new agreement with the United States on energy efficiency on office equipment (the Energy Star label and programme). There must also be close synergy with the EU ” Eco-Label ” system.

As for agreements concerning minimum efficiency standards, voluntary agreements between the Member States and manufacturers on minimum efficiency standards for appliances have become an alternative to legislation. The Commission itself has concluded two agreements of this type (one on energy consumption by televisions and video recorders in standby mode and one on washing machines). The agreements will be extended to other appliances such as water heaters and dishwashers. There is no labelling system for the commercial and industrial sector. The Commission therefore believes that mandatory minimum efficiency standards are necessary if acceptable voluntary agreements are not concluded. The Commission is also going to propose a framework directive on concluding such agreements that will lay down minimum standards in certain areas, where necessary.

Industry (including electricity and gas companies)

There are plans to

  • conclude long-term agreements in industry;
  • increase combined production of heat and power (CHP);
  • increase the role of energy efficiency in the energy services offered by distributing companies and SMEs.

In the first case, it is necessary to remove technical barriers. This can be achieved via agreements or protocols on minimum energy efficiency, which lay down guidelines for energy-efficient processes and production methods. Such agreements have already been concluded in certain sectors and the scheme should now be extended to the chemical industry, steel industry, etc. The Commission will prepare a communication on harmonising these agreements at Community level.
CHP has a double role in contributing to energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact. An existing measure in particular is to be strengthened, namely Directive 88/609/EEC on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants, which implies greater use of CHP.

Concerning the third objective, it will be necessary to conclude voluntary agreements through which utilities and service companies commit themselves to promoting energy efficiency, while also complying with the normal cost efficiency criteria. Use of rational planning techniques is desirable (the Commission has made a proposal on this subject).

Buildings

Buildings represent approximately 40% of energy consumption and the potential energy saving is more than 20%. The Action Plan proposes amending one of the key directives in this area, i.e. Directive 93/76/EEC on the energy certification of buildings, which seeks to limit carbon-dioxide emissions and includes insulation measures and heating requirements (Directive repealed by Directive 2006/32/EC).

In May 2001, the Commission made a proposal for a complementary directive on the energy performance of buildings. The Directives on boilers (92/42/EEC) and on construction products (89/106/EEC) also figure among the main actions in the sector and, in September 2000, a Directive on energy efficiency for lighting was adopted. The dissemination of good practices, the extension of labelling and the training and qualification of fitters are also planned. Moreover, among the many initiatives in this sector, the Community also finances a “Green Light Programme” concerning lighting in commercial buildings.

Horizontal Measures

The Action Plan sets out a number of “horizontal” initiatives designed to improve energy efficiency, i.e. initiatives which affect several or all of the sectors concerned. These are:

  • decentralisation of energy management at local and regional levels;
  • strengthening third-party financing (private undertakings, for example);
  • better dissemination of information and training via a renewed Community information campaign and specialised training;
  • better monitoring and evaluation methods through greater harmonisation of national monitoring programmes and definition of indicators.

Category 3: New Policies and Measures

New policies should be put in place in order to meet the targets. Some of them have already been implemented on a small scale in the Member States.

Promotion of energy efficiency in public procurement

Public procurement (public institutions, authorities, public enterprises, etc.) can promote the improvement of energy efficiency and thus stimulate demand for energy-efficient technologies. It thereby sets a good example in integrating energy-efficiency measures into public-sector policies/activities. The Commission has launched a study of Member States’ public programmes to provide recommendations for launching pilot projects. In this context, the institutions of the European Union have launched initiatives regarding their own energy management.

Cooperative technology procurement

This involves coordinating the needs and requirements of public-sector calls for tender for energy-efficient technologies, in order to be able to benefit fully from all the available technologies. The introduction of competitive tendering in some Member States should facilitate this task.

Energy audits in industry and the tertiary sector

Energy audits already carried out in certain Member States (sometimes in conjunction with incentives) have supplied useful information which is often difficult to obtain and have identified energy-saving opportunities. The Commission is considering presenting a Community initiative on energy audits in the Member States.

Best Practice

Following a feasibility study on this subject, a best-practices scheme has been launched under the auspices of the SAVE programme. This scheme aims to supply decision-makers and end-users with independent information and advice on energy efficiency and to familiarise them with new techniques and technology.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 19 October 2006, entitled: “Action Plan for energy efficiency: realising the potential” [COM(2006) 545 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission has proposed a new Action Plan aimed at achieving energy savings of 20% by 2020. This Action Plan covers the period 2007-12 and is a follow-up to the Action Plan adopted in 2000; the initiatives taken under the latter Plan have either been implemented already or are being implemented at the present time.

Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC [Official Journal L 114 of 27.4.2006].

Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products and amending Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [Official Journal L 191 of 22.7.2005].


Another Normative about Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Environment > Tackling climate change

Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12)

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 19 October 2006 entitled: Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential [COM(2006) 545 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The purpose of this Action Plan is to mobilise the general public, policy-makers and market actors, and to transform the internal energy market in a way that provides EU citizens with the most energy-efficient infrastructure (including buildings), products (including appliances and cars), and energy systems in the world.

The objective of the Action Plan is to control and reduce energy demand and to take targeted action on consumption and supply in order to save 20 % of annual consumption of primary energy by 2020 (compared to the energy consumption forecasts for 2020). This objective corresponds to achieving approximately a 1.5 % saving per year up to 2020.

In order to achieve substantial and sustainable energy savings, energy-efficient techniques, products and services must be developed and consumption habits must be changed so that less energy is used to maintain the same quality of life. The Plan sets out a number of short and medium-term measures to achieve this objective.

The Action Plan runs for a six-year period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012. The Commission considers this timeframe to be sufficient to adopt and transpose most of the measures it proposes. A mid-term review will be carried out in 2009.

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS

The Commission considers the biggest energy savings are to be made in the following sectors: residential and commercial buildings (tertiary), with savings potentials estimated at 27 % and 30 % respectively, the manufacturing industry, with the potential for a 25 % reduction, and transport, with the potential for a 26 % reduction in energy consumption.

These sectoral reductions of energy consumption correspond to overall savings estimated at 390 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) each year or €100 billion per year up to 2020. They would also help reduce CO2 emissions by 780 million tonnes per year.

These potential savings come in addition to an estimated 1.8 % (or 470 Mtoe) reduction in annual consumption which would partly stem from other measures already adopted and normal replacements of material.

Achieving the 20 % reduction objective will help reduce the EU’s impact on climate change and dependence on fossil fuel imports. The Action Plan will also boost industrial competitiveness, increase exports of new technologies and will have positive benefits in terms of employment. The savings made will, moreover, offset the investments put into innovative technologies.

MEASURES PROPOSED BY THE ACTION PLAN

The Commission included in the Action Plan all measures presenting the best cost-efficiency ratio, i.e. those with the lowest environmental cost over the life cycle, which do not overrun the budget given for investments in the energy sector. Some are priority measures, and should therefore be adopted without delay, whilst others are to be implemented throughout the six-year period set for the Action Plan.

Improving energy performance

Effective action on energy-consuming equipment and appliances requires steps on two fronts: standards for the energy yield of appliances and an appropriate, consumer-focused system to label and evaluate energy performance.

To this end, the Action Plan provides for the adoption of Eco-Design minimum standards to improve the energy yield of 14 groups of products (including boilers, televisions and light fittings) and to extend it to other products in the long-term. In addition, the Commission hopes to strengthen the rules on labelling, in particular by regularly updating classifications and extending these rules to other equipment.

On the basis of Directive 2006/32/EC on end-use energy efficiency and energy services, the Commission plans to draft guidelines, a code of conduct and a certification procedure applicable to all sectors.

To substantially reduce heat loss in buildings, the Action Plan plans to extend the scope of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive to cover small buildings, to develop minimum performance standards applicable to new and renovated buildings and to promote so-called “passive” houses.

Improving energy transformation

The energy transformation sector uses around one third of all primary energy, yet the average energy yield for transformation facilities is around 40 %. There is great potential for improving this, which would substantially help to reduce energy loss. Energy distribution and transport are also sources of energy losses where action could potentially be taken.

The Commission will develop minimum binding energy efficiency requirements for electricity generation facilities, heating and cooling for facilities operating with less than 20 megawatts of power, and possibly for more powerful facilities too.

It also plans to develop, in cooperation with industry professionals, guidelines for good practices designed both for existing facilities and for energy suppliers and distributors. The promotion of cogeneration will also be stepped up and connections with decentralised generation centres will be encouraged.

Limiting the costs linked to transport

With almost 20 % of total primary energy consumption and the fastest growth in consumption, the transport sector represents both a major environmental risk (greenhouse gas emissions) and one of the main factors of dependency on fossil fuels. To solve these problems, it is vital to take action on car use and on promoting cleaner alternative transport.

The Commission plans to set a binding target to reduce polluting car emissions to achieve the threshold of 120g of CO2/km by 2012. It also intends to address the issue of car components, such as air conditioning and tyres, in particular by issuing a European standard for rolling resistance and by promoting tyre pressure monitoring. Moreover, strengthening the rules on vehicle labelling will help to promote the most energy-efficient vehicles, as will proper awareness-raising campaigns and public authorities purchasing clean vehicles.

Urban transport will be the subject of a Green Paper, aimed at pooling experience to encourage the use of alternatives to car transport, such as public transport, non-motorised transport and teleworking.

Reducing the energy consumption of other forms of transport – rail, air and water-based – will also be studied. Accordingly, the Action Plan includes an initiative to extend the greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme to the air transport sector, to improve air traffic control (SESAR), to implement the third rail package, and to connect ships to the electricity network when in harbour.

Financing, incentives and fares

The Action Plan includes several types of measures to facilitate investments designed to boost energy efficiency.

The Commission also calls on the banking sector to offer financing opportunities tailored to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and enterprises providing energy efficiency solutions (businesses providing energy services). In addition, the private banking sector, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the European Investment Bank (EIB) and other international financial institutions will facilitate the establishment of public-private partnerships.

The Commission also plans to remove, where possible, the national legal barriers to shared savings, third-party financing, energy performance contracting and recourse to businesses providing energy services.

Using the Structural and Cohesion Funds will also help provide support to regions in need, especially in the new Member States, including support for habitats.

Taxation is also a powerful tool for providing incentives. Here the Commission notes that it would draft a Green Paper on indirect taxation, revise the Energy Tax Directive, and encourage the taxation of private cars according to their pollution levels. It also highlights the potential for using tax credits as incentives for both companies and households.

Changing behaviour

Consumers’ purchasing decisions will determine the success of the results. The Commission plans a number of educational measures to raise public awareness of the importance of energy efficiency, including education and training programmes on energy and climate change issues. It also proposes to organise a competition to reward the most energy-efficient school.

In addition, the Commission considers that public authorities should set an example. The Commission itself plans to obtain EMAS certification for all buildings it owns, and then to extend the initiative to all EU institutions.

It also plans to adopt guidelines on tenders and to set up networks for cities to exchange good practices concerning energy efficiency in urban areas.

Adapting and developing international partnerships

The Commission considers that European development and trade policies, agreements, treaties and other international instruments represent other ways to promote the spread and use of high energy yield technologies and techniques at global level.

It will launch an international conference with a view to adopting an international framework agreement on energy efficiency which will involve the EU’s main trading partners and key international organisations.

Background

In its Green Paper on the European Energy Strategy, the Commission underlines the need to strengthen its energy efficiency policy. In addition, the target for a 20 % reduction in energy consumption set in this Action Plan is part of the measures requested by the European Council in March 2006 to ensure the environmental feasibility of European Energy Policy.

The policies and measures contained in this Action Plan are based on the consultations launched by the 2005 Green Paper on Energy Efficiency.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 13 May 2008 – “Addressing the challenge of energy efficiency through information and communication technologies” [COM (2008) 241 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

This communication places information and communication technologies (ITCs) at the heart of a combined European climate and energy policy. ITCs are effectively a means of improving energy efficiency in different sectors of the economy. To begin with the focus is on the most promising domains, such as the power grid, energy efficient buildings, smart lighting and ITCs, before the consultation and partnership process is launched, which will identify other areas for action. This communication also encourages research and innovation, cooperation, regional and national initiatives, as well as the dissemination of good practice in the field of ITCs.

Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC [Official Journal L 114 of 27 April 2006].

The EU adopted a framework on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. This framework includes an indicative goal for energy savings applicable to Member States, obligations for national public authorities regarding energy savings and energy efficient procurement and measures to promote energy efficiency and energy services.

Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme

Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme (EU – US)

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2006/1005/EC of 18 December 2006 concerning the conclusion of the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the European Community on the coordination of energy-efficiency labelling programmes for office equipment [Official Journal L 381 of 28.12.2006].

Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the European Community on the coordination of energy-efficiency labelling programmes for office equipment [Official Journal L 381 of 28.12.2006].

Summary

The European Union (EU) and the United States of America (US) signed a new Energy Star * agreement on 28 December 2006, the aim of which is for manufacturers to voluntarily apply agreed specifications to measure the energy performance of office equipment.
The agreement was signed for a period of five years.

The “Energy Star”® label can be used for office equipment meeting these specifications, so that consumers can easily identify low-energy appliances. They are: computers, computer monitors, photocopiers, printers, digital duplicators, faxes, franking machines, multifunction devices and scanners.

The previous Energy Star agreement remains applicable only to computers until 31 December 2007 at the latest.
The new technical specifications for computers contain provisions on the active mode, unlike the previous agreement, which only took account of the standby mode.

Voluntary participation of manufacturers

Manufacturers, retailers and dealers of office equipment may join the Energy Star programme and use the “Energy Star® * ” label. Equipment labelled as such must meet the agreed specifications (Annex C) and may be tested by the manufacturer or by independent test laboratories.

Programme management and monitoring

The US and the EU each have a managing body for the programme: the US has the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the EU has the European Community Energy Star Board (ECESB), set up in 2003 (see below under “Related Acts”).

The agreement sets out guidelines for the correct use of the Energy Star name and label.

The Commission – via the managing body – is responsible within the EU for testing office equipment carrying this label or checking that it meets the requirements.

If the product fails to meet the requirements, the ECESB:

  • notifies the manufacturer in writing that it fails to comply with the requirements;
  • drafts a plan to ensure compliance with the conditions in the programme;
  • if the conditions are not then met, cancels the manufacturer’s participation in the programme.

Amending and ending the agreement

Either the EU or the US may amend the programme of the managing bodies by common agreement. This includes amending technical specifications or including a new type of product if it becomes more energy efficient.

The agreement may also be ended by giving three months’ notice in writing to the other party. If the agreement is ended, the EU may no longer use the label “Energy Star®”.

Community decision-making

The Community decision-making process is used to establish the internal procedures needed to ensure the agreement operates smoothly.

This decision authorises the Commission to regularly adapt and reassess the technical specifications. The Commission is supported by a Community advisory committee made up of national representatives and all stakeholders.

Background

The first Energy Star agreement was signed with the US in 2001 for a 5-year period. This agreement renews the former agreement, with some changes made:

  • the technical specifications applicable to computer monitors, computers and imaging equipment were revised;
  • three obligations for the EU were removed: promotion of the Energy Star logo by the Commission and Member States, production by the ECESB of a report on market penetration of products meeting the criteria and information on the activities of the ECESB for the Commission to draw up and send to the European Parliament and the Council.
Key terms used in the act
  • Energy Star®: the registered service mark owned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  • Energy Star labelling programme: a programme managed by a managing body using the specifications, marks and common guidelines on energy efficiency applicable to all designated product types.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2006/1005/EC 18.12.2006
18.12.2011
OJ L 381 of 28.12.2006

Related Acts

Commission Communication to the Council and the European Parliament on the implementation of the Energy Star programme in the Community for the period 2001-2005 [Official Journal L 381 of 28.12. 2007].

The communication states that the technical specifications contained in the previous agreement targeted the low power mode of office equipment on standby, when energy consumption of appliances in active mode is rising. Appliances are now more powerful and are kept in active mode for longer, due to the increasing use of Internet applications. The new agreement takes on board the importance of the active mode.

Commission Decision 2003/168/EC of 11 March 2003 establishing the European Community Energy Star Board [Official Journal L 67 of 12.03.2003].
This decision establishes the European Community Energy Star Board (ECESB) and includes a list of the national representatives in the Annex.
This board manages the Energy Star programme by regularly consulting Member States and manufacturers, national energy agencies and consumer organisations. The ECESB has also been involved in revising technical specifications.

Commission Decision 2003/367/EC of 15 May 2003 establishing the rules of procedure of the European Community Energy Star Board [Official Journal L 125 of 21.05.2003].

For more information on the Energy Star programme, please see the website set up by the Commission, which sets out the benefits of it for consumers, companies and the public sector.

Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal

Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Tackling climate change

Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 13 November 2008 – Energy efficiency: delivering the 20% target [COM(2008) 772 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Energy efficiency represents a solution to:

  • tackle climate change;
  • improve energy security;
  • achieve the Lisbon objectives;
  • reduce costs within the European Union.

Different measures are proposed to improve energy efficiency.

Measure for energy efficiency in the building sector

Energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings represents around 40% of total final energy use. It is responsible for 36% of the European Union’s total CO2 emissions.

To reduce this type of consumption, steps should be taken to simplify Directive 2002/91/EC on the energy performance of buildings, which constitutes the current legal framework, whilst leaving some autonomy to Member States to act in this area.

The European Commission proposes that the 1000 m2 threshold for existing buildings when they undergo major renovation is eliminated and that the requirements concerning energy performance be applied to a larger number of buildings.

The launch of innovative, sustainable and energy-efficient actions is also planned in 2009 in this sector.

Measure for the energy efficiency of products

The Commission has presented a Proposal for a Directive establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy related products aimed at extending the scope of the Ecodesign Directive. A proposal to revise the Energy Labelling Directive, Directive 92/75/EEC, is also planned. Another proposal for a labelling scheme for tyres is also part of this policy package.

Ecodesign measures will be adopted for lighting (bulbs, electrical appliances, external power supplies, etc).

Cogeneration

The existing Directive on cogeneration will be reinforced. Further possibilities will be proposed in a future Communication.

Financing

More and more urban development and renewal projects are related to energy efficiency. In order to encourage this type of project, a well-coordinated financing framework should be implemented.

In this regard, the Commission is collaborating with the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in order to create an EU financing initiative for sustainable energy.

As part of the renewed Lisbon strategy, the Commission will also ensure that more public funds are devoted to projects aimed at combating climate change.

In this economic context of crisis that the Member States are currently experiencing, the Commission is working in close collaboration with the latter to develop new opportunities for the economy with a view to boosting technologies related in particular to energy efficiency and green technologies in buildings and clean cars. Reduced taxation with regard to energy is being considered.

Evaluation of theEuropean Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

The current 2007-2012 Plan will be evaluated in 2009 and a revised Action Plan will be presented. It will deal with energy saving potentials and the cost-effectiveness of policy tools.

The integration of energy efficiency into the broader energy policy and the Energy and Climate Package is planned. It is expected that by 2030, or even 2050, measures taken will be more ambitious.

The revised Plan will focus on energy supply, transmission and energy consumption sectors.

International relations

Energy efficiency forms part of the priorities in relations with third countries. It is also a priority in relations with enlargement countries, Neighbourhood Policy and Regional Policy.

Similarly, an International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation was established in June 2008 in which the G8 and the Community are participating.

Context

The need to increase energy efficiency is part of the triple goal of the ’20-20-20′ initiative for 2020, which means a saving of 20% of the Union’s primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the inclusion of 20% of renewable energies in energy consumption.

Energy performance of buildings

Energy performance of buildings

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy performance of buildings

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy performance of buildings

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings.

Summary

This Directive aims to promote the energy performance of buildings * and building units.

Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings

Member States shall adopt, either at national or regional level, a methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings which takes into account certain elements, specifically:

  • the thermal characteristics of a building (thermal capacity, insulation, etc.);
  • heating insulation and hot water supply;
  • the air-conditioning installation;
  • the built-in lighting installation;
  • indoor climatic conditions.

The positive influence of other aspects such as local solar exposure, natural lighting, electricity produced by cogeneration and district or block heating or cooling systems are also taken into account.

Setting minimum requirements

Member States shall put in place, in compliance with the aforementioned calculation methodology, minimum requirements for energy performance in order to achieve cost-optimal levels. The level of these requirements is reviewed every 5 years.

When setting requirements, Member States may differentiate between new and existing buildings and between different categories of buildings.

New buildings shall comply with these requirements and undergo a feasibility study before construction starts, looking at the installation of renewable energy supply systems, heat pumps, district or block heating or cooling systems and cogeneration systems.

When undergoing major renovation, existing buildings shall have their energy performance upgraded so that they also satisfy the minimum requirements.

The following may be exempt from the application of the minimum requirements:

  • officially protected buildings (for example, historic buildings);
  • buildings used as places of worship;
  • temporary buildings;
  • residential buildings intended for a limited annual time of use;
  • stand-alone buildings with a total useful floor area of less than 50 m2.

When new, replaced or upgraded technical building systems such as heating systems, hot water systems, air-conditioning systems and large ventilation systems are installed, they shall also comply with the energy performance requirements.

Building elements that form part of the building envelope and have a significant impact on the energy performance of that envelope (for example, window frames) shall also meet the minimum energy performance requirements when they are replaced or retrofitted, with a view to achieving cost-optimal levels.

This Directive strongly encourages the introduction of intelligent energy consumption metering systems whenever a building is constructed or undergoes renovation, pursuant to the Directive concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity.

Objective: Nearly zero-energy buildings

By 31 December 2020, all new buildings shall be nearly zero-energy consumption buildings. New buildings occupied and owned by public authorities shall comply with the same criteria by 31 December 2018.

The Commission encourages increasing the numbers of this type of building by putting in place national plans, which include:

  • the Member State’s application in practice of the definition of nearly zero-energy buildings;
  • the intermediate targets for improving the energy performance of new buildings by 2015;
  • information on the policies and financial measures adopted to encourage improving the energy performance of buildings.

Financial incentives and market barriers

Member States shall draw up a list of the existing and potential instruments used to promote improvements in the energy performance of buildings. This list is to be updated every three years.

Energy performance certificates

Member States shall implement a system for the energy performance certification of buildings. It shall include information on the energy performance of a building and recommendations for cost improvements.

When a building or building unit is offered for sale or for rent, the energy performance indicator of the energy performance certificate shall be included in advertisements in commercial media.

When buildings or building units are constructed, sold or rented out, the certificate is to be shown to the new tenant or prospective buyer and handed over to the buyer or new tenant.

With regard to buildings where a total floor area of over 500 m² is occupied by a public authority and buildings with a total floor area of over 500 m² which are frequently visited by the public, the energy performance certificate shall be displayed in a prominent place and be clearly visible (this threshold shall be lowered to 250 m² on 9 July 2015).

Member States are responsible for putting in place a system of regular inspections of heating and air-conditioning systems in buildings.

This Directive repeals Directive 2002/91/EC.

Key terms of the Act
  • Energy performance of a building: the calculated or measured amount of energy needed to meet the energy demand associated with a typical use of the building, which includes energy used for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and lighting.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2010/31/EU

8.7.2010

9.7.2012

OJ L 153 of 18.6.2010