Tag Archives: Ecosystem

Combating invasive species

Combating invasive species

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Combating invasive species

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Protection of nature and biodiversity

Combating invasive species

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 3 December 2008 – Towards an EU strategy on invasive species [COM(2008) 789 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Invasive species are animal or plant species that have become established in areas that are not their normal habitat and have become a threat. These non-native species may cause serious damage to ecosystems, crops, disrupt local ecology, impact human health and produce serious economic effects.

The main vectors introducing invasive species are directly or indirectly related to trade and transport. Climate change and the deterioration of natural habitats foster their spread. At present, the European Union (EU) has no specific instrument to tackle this issue.

At international level, a three-stage approach has been adopted by the Commission, which recommends measures based on:

  • prevention, to limit introductions resulting from trade which, in particular, necessitates stronger border controls;
  • early detection and rapid eradication which require monitoring and early warning programmes;
  • control and/or confinement if the invasive species is already established, as well as the implementation of coordinated action.

The legislation in force, particularly the plant health Directive, animal health legislation and the CITES Regulation, and a number of programmes already provide instruments to tackle the threat constituted by invasive species. However, coverage of the problem is still partial and does not enable coordinated implementation to take place.

Four strategic options can be envisaged to tackle the problem of invasive species in the EU:

  • business as usual: if no steps are taken, invasive species will continue to establish themselves and an increase in ecological, economic and social consequences is to be expected, as well as an increase in costs;
  • maximising existing instruments and voluntary measures: legal requirements would remain unchanged but stakeholders would consciously choose to tackle the problem of invasive species under the legislation in force. The Commission stresses however that the level of response may vary considerably from one Member State to another;
  • adapted existing legislation: a similar option to the above, but including the amendment of existing legislation on plant/animal health to cover a broader range of potentially invasive species;
  • the creation of a specific Community instrument: this option would in particular include an obligation for Member States to carry out border controls and to exchange information on invasive species. The Commission considers that this option would be the most effective.

Several horizontal issues related to invasive species should also be tackled. It is therefore important to build a sense of responsibility amongst citizens, authorities and industries with regard to the problem, to intensify research in order to gain a better understanding of the risks and to undertake bilateral action with third countries, in particular under development policy.

Context

Combating invasive species forms part of the Action Plan for biodiversity which recognises the necessity to prepare a comprehensive strategy at EU level to reduce their impact on biological diversity in Europe. The Commission intends to present such a proposal in 2010.

Biodiversity strategy for 2020

Biodiversity strategy for 2020

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Biodiversity strategy for 2020

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Protection of nature and biodiversity

Biodiversity strategy for 2020

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 3 June 2011, entitled: “Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020” [COM(2011) 244 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This strategy aims to halt the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystems in the European Union (EU) by 2020, by identifying six priority targets.. This strategy is an integral part of the Europe 2020 strategy, and, in particular, of the flagship initiative entitled “A resource-efficient Europe”.

Target 1: conserving and restoring nature

The EU must ensure better application of Directives “Birds” and “Habitats”. These two Directives constitute the backbone of EU biodiversity policy. They have achieved some good results so far, such as the creation of Natura 2000, the world’s largest network of protected areas, covering over 750 000 km2.. However, progress is still insufficient in terms of reaching a favourable conservation status of all habitats and species of European importance. In order to achieve the first target of this strategy, Member Sates must ensure better application of existing legislation. In particular, they must manage and restore the Natura 2000 sites by investing the necessary resources. These actions would contribute towards halting biodiversity loss and restoring biodiversity by 2020.

Target 2: maintaining and enhancing ecosystems and their services

The integration of a green infrastructure, restoring at least 15 % of the degraded ecosystems by 2020, and the development of an initiative aimed at preventing any net loss of ecosystems and their services by 2015, will be essential measures for maintaining and improving ecosystem services (for example the pollination of crops by bees).

Target 3: ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and forestry

The instruments provided under the CAP should contribute towards maximising areas under agriculture across grasslands, arable land, and permanent crops that are covered by biodiversity measures, by 2020.

Forest Management Plans or equivalent instruments will be put in place for all forests that are publicly owned and for forest holdings above a certain size, by 2020. The plans must ensure sustainable management of forests in order to receive funding under the EU’s Rural Development Policy.

Measures adopted to ensure sustainable management must also contribute towards achieving targets 1 and 2 of the strategy.

Target 4: ensuring sustainable use of fisheries resources

The measures adopted as part of the Common Fisheries Policy must enable the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) to be achieved by 2015. In order to achieve this, it is essential to achieve a population by age and by size distribution indicative of a healthy stock. Through fisheries management with no significant adverse impacts on other stocks, species and ecosystems, it will be possible to achieve Good Environmental Status by 2020, in accordance with the “Marine Strategy Framework-Directive”..

Target 5: combating invasive alien species

With the exception of the legislation on the use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture, there is currently no comprehensive EU policy on combating invasive alien species. However, these species pose a significant threat to European biodiversity. It is therefore necessary to identify them, isolate or eradicate them, and to control their introduction in order to prevent the appearance of new species. To this end, the Commission will fill policy gaps in combating invasive alien species with a dedicated legislative instrument..

Target 6: addressing the global biodiversity crisis

The EU must step up its contribution to averting global biodiversity loss by meeting the commitments made at the 10th Conference of Parties (COP10) to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which took place in Nagoya in 2010. During this conference, the EU committed to:

  • achieving the goals set by the global strategic plan for biodiversity 2011-2020;
  • implementing the Nagoya protocol on access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use (ABS Protocol); and
  • mobilising additional resources to finance the challenge of protecting biodiversity world-wide.

Context

The strategy responds to two major commitments made by EU officials in March 2010, namely halting biodiversity loss in the EU by 2020 and protecting, assessing and restoring biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU by 2050.

Action Plan for biodiversity

Action Plan for biodiversity

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Action Plan for biodiversity

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Maritime Affairs And Fisheries > Management of fisheries resources and the environment

Action Plan for biodiversity

The Commission is introducing an Action Plan which includes objectives to halt the decline of biodiversity and measures enabling these objectives to be achieved by 2010. The Action Plan is based on an assessment of biodiversity loss in the EU and globally and the measures taken by the European Union to deal with the problem to date.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Communication of 22 May 2006 “Halting the loss of biodiversity by 2010 – and beyond – Sustaining ecosystem services for human well-being” [COM(2006) 216 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Commission has produced an Action Plan aimed at conserving biodiversity and preventing biodiversity * loss within the European Union (EU) and internationally.

Halting damage to ecosystems * is a matter of urgency if we are to protect the future of the natural world, on account of both its intrinsic value (recreational and cultural value) and the services it provides (ecosystem services *). These services are essential for competitiveness, growth and employment and for improving livelihoods worldwide.

The Action Plan stipulates priority objectives, which are divided into four policy areas (biodiversity in the EU, the EU and global biodiversity, biodiversity and climate change, and the knowledge base). It further specifies four main supporting measures (financing, decision-making, building partnerships, and public education, awareness and participation), as well as monitoring, evaluation and review measures. The Action Plan is aimed at both the EU and the Member States. The relevant measures will have to be taken by 2010 and will be continued beyond.

Biodiversity in the European Union

The Action Plan provides for safeguarding the EU’s most important habitats and species. Achieving this objective involves stepping up the Natura 2000 network (designation and management of protected areas, the coherence and connectivity of the network) by re-establishing the most endangered species and by conservation measures in the outermost regions.

Sustainable biodiversity protection requires more than Natura 2000 and action on endangered species. This is why the Action Plan specifically outlines ways in which biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU countryside can be conserved and restored. In particular, this involves optimising the use of available measures under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), notably to conserve high-natural-value farmland and forest.

Along similar lines, the Action Plan seeks to conserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services in the wider EU marine environment. This involves restoring fish stocks, reducing impact on non-target species and marine habitats, in particular under the Common Fisheries Policy.

Reinforcing the compatibility of regional and territorial development with biodiversity in the EU is another priority objective of the Action Plan, to be achieved in particular by better local, regional and national planning, which takes more account of biodiversity (environmental impact assessments, projects funded by the Community, partnerships with planners and developers).

Another objective of the Action Plan is to substantially reduce the impact on EU biodiversity of invasive alien species and alien genotypes. A comprehensive strategy as well as specific actions, such as an early warning system, should be developed.

The EU and global biodiversity

In order to substantially strengthen the effectiveness of international governance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, the Action Plan suggests focusing on more effective implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and related agreements.

The Action Plan further proposes to substantially strengthen support for biodiversity and ecosystem services in EU external assistance, through funding as well as sector and geographical programs.

Measures to substantially reduce the impact of international trade on global biodiversity and ecosystem services are particularly urgent, particularly to curtail tropical deforestation.

A more coherent EU approach is needed in three areas: governance, trade and development cooperation. Furthermore, effective action in the overseas countries and territories of Member States is vital to the EU’s credibility in this arena.

Biodiversity and climate change

The Action Plan emphasises the potential of biodiversity to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, thanks to carbon capture mechanisms. The impact of climate change on biodiversity is also highlighted; this is why the Action Plan insists on the need to cut greenhouse gas emissions in order to reduce future pressure on biodiversity. It also envisages supporting biodiversity adaptation to climate change by securing coherence of the Natura 2000 network and minimising potential damage to biodiversity arising from climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

The knowledge base

In its Action Plan, the Commission considers it vital to substantially strengthen the knowledge base for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in the European Union and globally. In particular, this requires strengthening the European Research Area, research infrastructures, communication and interoperability of data, and the collection of independent scientific opinion and advice to inform policy development. In this connection, the Commission intends to create a mechanism whereby scientific opinion can be easily collected.

Measures supporting the Action Plan

The Commission has identified four key supporting measures to ensure that the objectives laid down in the Action Plan are achieved:

  • ensuring adequate financing, using the Community instruments available under the Financial Perspectives for 2007-2013;
  • strengthening EU decision-making, in particular improving coordination and complimentarity between European, national and regional levels, taking account of biodiversity and environmental costs in decision-making;
  • building partnerships between government and the finance, educational and private sectors (including landowners and conservation practitioners);
  • building public education, awareness and participation.

A longer-term vision for biodiversity

Beyond the objectives set for 2010 by the Action Plan, the Commission proposes to launch a debate on a longer-term vision for biodiversity as a framework for policy. According to this vision, human interdependence with nature should be recognised in the framing and application of Community policy, as well as the need for a new balance between economic and social development and nature conservation.

The need to protect biodiversity

Biodiversity must be preserved for two kinds of reasons:

  • its intrinsic value: nature is a source of pleasure and inspiration, and provides a basis for many recreational, tourist and cultural activities;
  • the ecosystem services which it provides: nature gives us all the essential elements for human life and well-being (food, medicines, water, air, etc.) There is a limit to the extent to which human technology and creativity can substitute adequately for this natural life support system.

The Commission underlines the alarming rates of degradation of habitats and of extinction of species, and identifies the threats to biodiversity as the following:

  • changes in land use, causing degradation and destruction of habitats. Land-use change is chiefly driven by population growth and growing per capita consumption (two factors which are set to intensify considerably in future, increasing pressures on the environment);
  • climate change, which destroys certain habitats and certain organisms, disrupts reproduction cycles, forces migrating species to move to new territories, etc.;
  • other key pressures, including over-exploitation of biological resources, the spread of invasive alien species, pollution of the natural environment and natural habitats, globalisation, which increases pressures due to trade, and governance failures (the failure to recognise the economic values of natural capital and ecosystem services).

Biodiversity conservation is a key objective of the Sustainable Development Strategy and for the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme.

In addition, the EU has already adopted the following measures on biodiversity:

  • in Community environment policy: the European Community Biodiversity Strategy and Biodiversity Action Plans which provide the general framework for action on biodiversity. Moreover, the Wild Birds and “Habitats” Directives establish the “Natura 2000” network aimed at protecting habitats and species. Other specific provisions protect wild flora and fauna species;
  • in other internal policy areas: biodiversity is a factor taken into account in agricultural policy (the 2003 reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, the 2005 Rural Development Regulation), regional policy (environmental impact assessments (SK) (SL) (FI), strategic environmental assessments) and fishing policy (reform of the Common Fisheries Policy);
  • in EU external policy: the Community and the Member States are signatories to a number of international conventions related to biodiversity, but the implementation of these conventions must be stepped up. The Commission also underscores the need to increase the funding of development projects on biodiversity and to integrate biodiversity concerns into aid projects for non-EU countries.

The objectives and supporting measures defined in the Action Plan are underpinned by widespread consultation of experts and the general public.

Key terms used in the act
  • Biodiversity: comprises all species, ecosystems and their genetic heritage. Biodiversity is defined by the variety and variability of its components.
  • Ecosystem: an autonomous system consisting of one or more habitats and the species which inhabit them. It is regulated by the interrelations between its various components.
  • Ecosystem services: all services provided by ecosystems, e.g. production of food, fuel, fibre and medicines, regulation of water, air and climate, maintenance of soil fertility, cycling of nutrients.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 3 June 2011 – Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 [COM(2011) 244 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean

Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean

Acts

Council Decision 77/585/EEC of 25 July 1977 concluding the Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution and the Protocol for the prevention of the pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by dumping from ships and aircraft.

Council Decision 81/420/EEC of 19 May 1981 on the conclusion of the Protocol concerning cooperation in combating pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by oil and other harmful substances in cases of emergency.

Council Decision 83/101/EEC of 28 February 1983 concluding the Protocol for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution from land-based sources.

Council Decision 84/132/EEC of 1 March 1984 on the conclusion of the Protocol concerning Mediterranean specially protected areas.

Council Decision 2004/575/EC of 29 April 2004 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Protocol to the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution, concerning cooperation in preventing pollution from ships and, in cases of emergency, combating pollution of the Mediterranean Sea.

Council Decision 2010/631/EU of 13 September 2010 concerning the conclusion, on behalf of the European Union, of the Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean to the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean.

Summary

Decision 77/585/EEC enables the Community to accede to the Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution (Barcelona Convention) and the Protocol for the prevention of pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by dumping from ships and aircraft. The purpose of these two instruments, together with the protocols to which the Community has subsequently acceded (by Decisions 81/420/EEC, 83/101/EEC, 84/132/EEC 2004/575/EC and 2010/631/EU), is to limit pollution in the Mediterranean region.

Barcelona Convention

The Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution was adopted in Barcelona on 16 February 1976 and amended on 10 June 1995. Over time, its mandate has been widened to include planning and the integrated management of the coastal region.

The 22 Contracting Parties * to the Convention will individually or jointly take all appropriate measures to protect and improve the Mediterranean marine environment in order to contribute to sustainable development. In order to meet this objective, the Parties undertake to reduce, combat and, as far as possible, eliminate pollution in this area.

The main aims of the Convention consist of:

  • assessing and controlling pollution;
  • carrying out the sustainable management of natural marine and coastal resources;
  • integrating the environment into economic and soci al development;
  • protecting the marine environment and coastal regions through action aimed at preventing and reducing pollution and, as far as possible, eliminating it, whether it is due to activities on land or at sea;
  • protecting natural and cultural heritage;
  • strengthening solidarity between countries bordering the Mediterranean; and
  • contributing to improving quality of life.

The Convention encourages the Parties to:

  • introduce a system of cooperation and information to reduce or eliminate pollution resulting from a critical situation in the Mediterranean;
  • establish a continuous pollution monitoring system;
  • cooperate in the fields of science and technology;
  • work out appropriate procedures for the determination of liability and compensation for damage resulting from pollution deriving from violations of the provisions of the Convention;
  • draft procedures enabling them to monitor application of the Convention.

The Convention lays down mechanisms for the settlement of disputes and for arbitration to settle any disputes between the Parties on the interpretation or application of the Convention.

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) carries out secretariat functions in the framework of the implementation of the Convention (convening and preparing meetings, coordination, etc.).

The Convention was amended in 1995. The main amendments concerned:

  • the extension of the Convention’s geographical field of application to the coast;
  • the application of the precautionary principle;
  • the application of the “polluter pays” principle;
  • the promotion of impact assessments;
  • the protection and preservation of biological diversity;
  • combating pollution from cross-border movements of dangerous waste;
  • access to information and public participation.

Protocol for the prevention of pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by dumping from ships and aircraft

The Protocol covers only pollution of the region of the Mediterranean Sea caused by ships and aircraft.

Dumping of certain types of waste and matter (toxic organohalogen and organosilicon compounds, mercury, cadmium, plastics, crude oil, etc.) is prohibited.

Dumping of other matter or types of waste (arsenic, lead, copper, zinc, chrome, nickel, containers, scrap metal, certain types of pesticides, etc.) is subject to the prior issue of a permit by the competent national authorities.

Such permits may be issued only after careful consideration of a number of factors (characteristics and composition of the matter, characteristics of dumping site and method of deposit, general considerations and conditions).

Ships and aircraft used for other than governmental and non-commercial purposes are excluded from the scope of the Protocol.

Since 1995, a number of amendments have been added to the Protocol. These amendments concern, in particular, the clarification of terms defined by the Protocol, waste or other matter authorised for dumping subject to the issue of a special permit, the ban on incineration at sea, and the procedure to follow in the event of a critical and exceptional situation.

Protocol concerning cooperation in combating pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by oil and other harmful substances in cases of emergency

This Protocol stipulates that the Parties will cooperate when a huge quantity of oil and/or other harmful substances in the Mediterranean Sea, whether accidental or cumulative, presents a serious and imminent danger to the marine environment, the coast or the economic, health or ecological interests of one or more Parties.

This cooperation focuses on drawing up emergency plans, promoting measures for combating oil pollution in the sea, monitoring and exchanging information regarding the state of the Mediterranean Sea, disseminating information on the organisation of resources and on new methods to prevent and combat pollution, and developing research programmes on the subject.

The Protocol requires all Parties facing a critical situation to carry out the necessary, precise evaluations concerning the nature and the size of the accident, take all measures likely to reduce or eliminate the effects of this pollution, and inform other Parties, either directly or through the Regional Centre for the Mediterranean Sea created by the Barcelona Convention, of these evaluations and actions undertaken.

Protocol for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution from land-based sources

The purpose of this Protocol is to combat pollution in the Mediterranean Sea caused by discharges from rivers, outfalls, canals or other watercourses, or pollution emanating from any other source or activity within the territory of the States Party to the Protocol.

The Protocol lists the substances of which discharge is prohibited, and the factors which should be taken into account in order to eliminate pollution from these substances. It also lists substances for which discharge is subject to authorisation by the competent national authorities. This authorisation must take particular account of the characteristics and composition of the waste, the characteristics of the elements in the waste in terms of harmfulness, the characteristics of the place where the waste is discharged and the marine environment it is entering, the techniques available to manage the waste, as well as possible damage to marine ecosystems and its effect on sea water usage.

The Protocol also stipulates cooperation regarding research and information, and the adoption of appropriate programmes, measures and standards aimed at reducing or eliminating the targeted substances.

Since 1996, a number of amendments have been added to the Protocol. These amendments concern, in particular, the application of the precautionary principle, the extension of the scope of the Protocol to airborne pollution of land-based origin, the regulatory system for waste discharge, the continued monitoring of pollution levels, and technical assistance to developing countries.

Protocol concerning specially protected areas and biological diversity in the Mediterranean

The Protocol concerning specially protected areas in the Mediterranean, to which the Community acceded in 1984, protects natural resources in the Mediterranean region, preserves the diversity of the gene pool and protects certain natural sites by creating a series of specially preserved areas.

The Protocol as amended in 1995 makes a distinction between specially protected areas (already provided for in the former Protocol) and specially protected areas of Mediterranean importance. It stipulates that the Parties develop guidelines for establishing and managing protected areas and lists a certain number of appropriate measures which the Parties must adopt, including:

  • prohibiting the discharge or unloading of waste;
  • regulating shipping operations;
  • regulating the introduction of any non-indigenous or genetically modified species;
  • any other measures protecting the ecological and biological processes and the countryside.

Furthermore, it introduces national or local measures which the Parties must take in order to protect animal and plant species throughout the Mediterranean area.

The Protocol also provides for exemptions to be granted because of traditional activities carried out by local populations. However, these exemptions must not compromise the preservation of the protected ecosystems, nor the biological processes making up these ecosystems, nor must they cause the extinction or a substantial fall in numbers of any species or animal or plant populations included within the protected ecosystems.

The annexes to the new Protocol include a list of common criteria which the Parties must respect when choosing which marine and coastal areas are to be protected under the system of specially protected areas of Mediterranean importance. The annexes also list threatened or endangered species as well as including a list of species whose exploitation is regulated.

Protocol concerning cooperation in preventing pollution from ships and, in cases of emergency, combating pollution of the Mediterranean Sea

This Protocol updates the legal mechanisms in the Barcelona Convention by incorporating in it measures concerning cooperation between Parties regarding prevention and, in cases of emergency, combating pollution in the Mediterranean caused by ships. It also endeavours to promote the development and implementation of international regulations adopted in the framework of the International Maritime Organization.

Cooperation focuses on maintaining and promoting emergency plans and other means for preventing and combating pollution from ships, adequate monitoring of the Mediterranean Sea, efforts to recover harmful and potentially dangerous substances, as well as disseminating and exchanging information.

The Protocol also stipulates operational measures which the Parties must take in the event of pollution caused by ships (evaluation, elimination/reduction, information measures), as well as emergency measures which must be taken on board ships, in offshore installations and in ports (in particular the availability of and compliance with emergency plans).

Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean

This Protocol, which aims at establishing a common framework for Integrated Coastal Zone Management * (ICZM) in the Mediterranean, entered into force on 24 March 2011. It is the first instrument of international law to be entirely and solely devoted to ICZM.

ICZM has six aims:

  • sustainable development of coastal zones by rational planning of activities;
  • preservation of coastal zones;
  • sustainable use of natural resources;
  • preservation of ecosystems and coastlines;
  • prevention and reduction of natural disasters and climate change;
  • improvement of cooperation.

Furthermore, the Protocol defines the general principles of ICZM, the coordinating procedures required for its implementation, its founding pillars, and the instruments of ICZM.

Key terms of the Act
  • Contracting Parties: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Cyprus, the European Community, Croatia, Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Monaco, Montenegro, Slovenia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey.
  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management: a dynamic process for the sustainable management and use of coastal zones, taking into account at the same time the fragility of coastal ecosystems and landscapes, the diversity of activities and uses, interactions between the latter, the maritime vocation of some of the latter, and their impact both on land and sea.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 77/585/EEC

25.7.1977

OJ L 240, 19.9.1977

Decision 81/420/EEC

19.5.1981

OJ L 162, 19.6.1981

Decision 83/101/EEC

28.2.1983

OJ L 67, 12.3.1983

Decision 84/132/EEC

1.3.1984

OJ L 68, 10.3.1984

Decision 2004/575/EC

29.4.2004

OJ L 261, 6.8.2004

Decision 2010/631/EU

13.9.2010

OJ L 279, 23.10.2010