Tag Archives: ECHO

Framework Partnership Agreement with humanitarian organisations

Framework Partnership Agreement with humanitarian organisations

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Framework Partnership Agreement with humanitarian organisations


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

Framework Partnership Agreement with humanitarian organisations (2008-2012)

Document or Iniciative

Framework Partnership  Agreement with humanitarian organisations.


The Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid of the European Commission (DG ECHO) does not intervene directly in the field; its assistance is distributed and implemented by its partners. As a result, Framework Partnership Agreements (FPAs) form the basis of its work. Since its creation in 1992 ECHO has always made use of FPAs and two types are currently in force: a framework agreement with international organisations and a framework agreement with non-governmental organisations (NGOs). There is also a Financial and Administrative Framework Agreement between the European Community and the United Nations (FAFA) governing ECHO-financed humanitarian aid operations carried out by UN humanitarian services.

This new FPA with NGOs is in force from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 and it may be renewed tacitly by the Commission for a maximum of one year. It is the fourth FPA in the history of DG ECHO, following the FPAs adopted in 1993, 1998 and 2003, and aims to simplify and to increase flexibility of the contractual instruments with the partners, as well as to improve the implementation of humanitarian aid using a result-oriented approach. With this in mind, the two key objectives of “continuity” and “high-quality partnership” have been taken from the previous FPA.

General provisions

The humanitarian aid of the European Union (EU) is provided through programmes and projects supported by the European Community, which can finance the purchase and delivery of all products, materials and services necessary for their implementation in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1257/96, the legal basis for DG ECHO and FPAs.

The FPA defines the common principles governing the partnership between ECHO and NGOs and establishes rules and procedures applicable to humanitarian operations carried out in partnership. It also defines the criteria for the selection of partners and aims to establish long?term cooperation between ECHO and NGOs in order to ensure quick, effective and efficient aid. The signing of a partnership agreement is, in principle, the precondition for making financial grants in support of specific humanitarian operations, but the FPA is not a financing agreement as such.

The principal aims of the FPA are:

  • to optimise the results and implementation of humanitarian aid operations, with principles of economy and efficiency in addition to well-defined objectives and performance indicators;
  • to simplify procedures and clarify rules;
  • to promote the idea of high-quality partnership through carefully chosen partners and a commitment to improvement.

The quality of the partnership must be manifested when carrying out the humanitarian project. This quality must be based on transparency and accountability towards the parties concerned, formulation of strategies seeking efficiency of the humanitarian response, access to fair working conditions for humanitarian workers and the promotion of a culture of learning linked to best practice. Information and communication must flow between partners.

Selection and evaluation of partners

All NGOs that adhere to ECHO’s values, principles and objectives are eligible partners after verification that they meet predetermined criteria. The eligibility criteria are:

  • to be an autonomous non-profit organisation with its head office in a Member State. The Commission will verify the organisation’s act of incorporation and status with national authorities;
  • to provide audited financial statements for the two previous financial years. The Commission will verify annual activity reports for the two last years certifying a minimum of three years of operational experience in the field;
  • to demonstrate sufficient and verifiable administrative capacity, both by the organisation chart and the list of management board members;
  • to be able to certify the moral integrity of the organisation and its management board;
  • to have endorsed a voluntary code of conduct or charter stipulating adhesion to the principles of impartiality, independence and neutrality in delivering humanitarian assistance.

After eligibility, aptitude is also evaluated. Technical and logistical capacities, administrative and financial management capacities, experience, previous results, implementation capacity and impartiality will be taken into consideration for selection and verified with national authorities on-site.

Monitoring and control

In order to control NGO activities in a more effective way, two control mechanisms have been set out in the new FPA:

  • mechanism “A” (A for action) for monitoring of the implementation of actions, in?depth checks of the final report and ex post audits of actions;
  • mechanism “P” (P for prior evaluation and for internal procedures), based on ex ante evaluation of internal control procedures, risk management and the award of contracts by the NGOs, as well as ex post audits of the implementation of their rules and procedures.

The Commission periodically assesses the NGOs which are party to FPAs using the following two-stage procedure:

  • the first stage, which is carried out annually and is compulsory for all NGOs, aims to verify the eligibility and aptitude criteria. In this context, the Commission is to receive a copy of the annual accounts, an external audit report and a copy of the annual activity report for the previous financial year, as well as any additional documentation considered relevant;
  • the second stage consists of an in-depth evaluation, which is to be performed at least once every three years.

Suspension or termination of the partnership agreement

Following the annual evaluation, the Commission can either confirm its partnership with the NGO or suspend the FPA or terminate it by giving prior notice. In the event of non-compliance with the criteria, the Commission may suspend the partnership with 45 days’ written notice. In the event of suspension, the NGO is no longer eligible for new financing during the suspension period but it may see its active status restored if it can show that it once again meets the aptitude criteria. Where there are grounds for suspecting an infringement of the contractual obligations by the NGO, the Commission may suspend the FPA with immediate effect.

After one year’s suspension, the partnership agreement will be terminated. Other cases of termination result from non-compliance with the eligibility requirements set out above, breach of the values, principles or objectives of FPAs and cases of substantial irregularity which cause or may cause loss to the Community budget. Here too, 45 days’ written notice must be given.

Actions eligible for Community financing

Humanitarian assistance involves supplying food, water and sanitation, shelter and health services, short-term rehabilitation, reconstruction work, protection of victims of conflict, and disaster-preparedness operations.

These operations must conform to the fundamental principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence *. They must be focused on the beneficiaries, be based on the needs of the population in distress and use best practice in the humanitarian field. To this end, NGOs must:

  • allocate funds according to need;
  • foster participation of the beneficiaries;
  • base their operations on local capacity while respecting culture, structure and tradition;
  • establish a link between emergency assistance, rehabilitation and development;
  • cooperate to support affected communities’ capacity to respond to future humanitarian crises.

The operations may be launched on the initiative of the Commission or the NGO; they may be financed wholly or in part by the European Community.

Key terms in the act
  • Principle of humanity: humankind must be treated humanely in all circumstances; it is necessary to save lives and alleviate suffering, while ensuring respect for the individual.
  • Principle of neutrality: neutrality means not taking sides in hostilities or engaging at any time in controversies of a political, racial, religious or ideological nature.
  • Principle of impartiality: provision of humanitarian aid must not be based on nationality, race, religion or political point of view.
  • Principle of independence: humanitarian agencies must formulate and implement their own policies independently of government policies or actions.

DG ECHO: Annual Report 2005

DG ECHO: Annual Report 2005

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about DG ECHO: Annual Report 2005


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

DG ECHO: Annual Report 2005

Document or Iniciative

Report from the Commission of 4 August 2006 – Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO): Annual Report 2005 [COM(2006) 441 final – Not yet published in the Official Journal].


Main interventions

In 2005, DG ECHO allocated a total of 652.5 million,. of which, 629.33 million was financed from the Commission’s budget and the rest was drawn from the European Development Fund (EDF). African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States were the biggest recipients of aid, followed closely by Asia.

The most important actions in the ACP countries took place in Sudan (Darfur crisis), the Democratic Republic of Congo, Coastal West Africa (Guinea, Liberia and Ivory Coast), Niger and Mali. In Latin America, ECHO’s activity focused on the populations affected by the violence in Colombia. In the Mediterranean and the Middle East, ECHO continued to provide financial assistance to the Palestinian population in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, and to Sahrawi refugees in Algeria. In Asia, most aid went to the countries hit by the tsunami in December 2004 (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, the Maldives and Thailand) and to Pakistan and India, which were struck by a devastating earthquake in October 2005.

ECHO continued to pay particular attention to forgotten crises *, notably in Algeria (Western Sahara), Indonesia, Myanmar/Thailand, Nepal, the Northern Caucasus (Chechnya), Tajikistan, Somalia and Uganda. It also strove, wherever possible, for an exit from humanitarian aid and a transition towards development activities, notably in Angola, Tajikistan and Cambodia.

With regard to disaster preparedness activities, action plans were adopted in the context of the DIPECHO programme for the Andean Community, Central Asia, South Asia and the Caribbean, regions chosen because of their high risk of natural disasters, the high vulnerability of their populations, and their lack of local resources and coping capacities.

To implement its operations, ECHO relied on some 200 partners in the field, most of them NGOs (54 %), UN agencies (32 %) and other international organisations (11 %).

Relations with other actors

During 2005 ECHO provided input to the discussions on reforming the international humanitarian aid system that were launched in the wake of the experience of crises like the tsunami and the earthquake in Pakistan. In this context, the United Nations endorsed a reform programme aimed at improving the predictability, timeliness and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, strengthening coordination and ensuring predictable funding.

DG ECHO continued to follow the work of the Good Humanitarian Donorship Initiative – GDH, among other things by participating in the meeting held to take stock of the progress made in the two years since the adoption of the initiative in 2003.

ECHO also continued to support the institutional capacities of the main international humanitarian agencies through thematic funding programmes, e.g. WHO’s capacity to respond to health emergencies.

Other activities

In order to boost its disaster response capacity, ECHO increased the number of experts in the field in 2005 and reinforced its Regional Support Offices. It also helped shape EC communications in this sector.

During the course of the year ECHO continued to develop policy guidelines on children affected by humanitarian crises and on water and sanitation in emergency situations. It also looked into ways to help NGOs ensure the safety of their field staff, through a follow-up security review to that completed in 2004.

Regarding its communication strategy, ECHO continued to use the mass media to inform wide audiences about its mission and activities, and also launched a pilot awareness-raising campaign in the Czech Republic.

Finally, ECHO conducted 142 financial audits at the headquarters of humanitarian organisations and 24 operational audits in the field or in their offices. It also conducted evaluations of its own operations, in the framework of its partnership with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR).

Key terms used in the act
  • Forgotten crises: Crises that receive little or no media attention and whose victims receive relatively little or no international assistance.
Key figures given in the act
  • Total aid allocated in 2005: 652.5 million.
  • Main aid recipients: ACP countries (244.2 million / 37 %), Asia (239.25 million / 37 %) and Russia, the Mediterranean and the Middle East (84 million / 13 %).
  • Aid to areas with the greatest needs (according to the GNA classification): 312 million (48 %).
  • Aid to medium-need areas: 136.8 million (21 %).
  • Aid to low-need areas (“pockets of need”): 6.9 million (1 %).
  • Balance (196.6 million / 30 %): allocated to tsunami response activities, disaster preparedness activities (the DIPECHO programme), thematic funding, and technical assistance and support expenditure.

ECHO: 2007 Annual Report

ECHO: 2007 Annual Report

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ECHO: 2007 Annual Report


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

ECHO: 2007 Annual Report

Document or Iniciative

Report from the Commission of 9 July 2008 – Annual Report 2007 of the Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO) [COM(2008) 449 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


In 2007 the Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid (DG ECHO) allocated a budget of €722 million. Financed actions made it possible to respond quickly to natural and man-made disasters and crises in non-EU member countries.

Main Interventions

DG ECHO allocated 55 % of its budget to African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states, with a particular focus on Africa (Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Chad, Zimbabwe, Sahel, Uganda and Ethiopia).

20 % of the budget was allocated to Asia and Latin America in light of the crises and natural disasters which occurred in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Myanmar and Latin America (Peru, Nicaragua, Bolivia, Colombia).

Countries in the Middle East and New Independent States (NIS) received 16 % of the budget to support vulnerable populations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Jordan and Syria, and vulnerable populations affected by the crisis in Chechnya.

DG ECHO continued to support victims of forgotten crises like Sahrawi refugees in Algeria, Bhutanese refugees, victims of the Maoist insurrection in Nepal and populations affected by conflict in India (Jammu and Kashmir).

In 2007 the linkage between relief, rehabilitation and development strategy (LRRD) was reinforced through the adoption of the 2007-2013 Development Co-operation Instrument (DCI) and the 2007-2013 Instrument for Stability.

Disaster preparedness remained a main priority achieved by the implementation of DIPECHO projects at local and regional levels to increase awareness about potential risks among highly vulnerable populations.

Non-governmental and international organisations as well as United Nations agencies who signed Framework Partnership Agreements and Partnership Agreements received specific program funding.

Detailed information about interventions financed in 2007 appears in the appendix to the report.

Other interventions

DG ECHO ensured the mobilisation and quality of humanitarian aid, paying particular attention to the safety of field staff, rapid response and enhanced monitoring at every phase of an intervention.

The Commission also deepened its relationships with other European institutions, national institutions of Member States, international institutions and non-European donors.


DG ECHO operates within the framework of the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid adopted in 2007 by the European Parliament, Council and Commission. In 2008 the Consensus should be followed by an operational action plan.

ECHO Annual Report 2008

ECHO Annual Report 2008

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ECHO Annual Report 2008


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

ECHO Annual Report 2008

Document or Iniciative

Report from the Commission of 1 July 2009 – Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO) – Annual Report 2008 [COM(2009) 290 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


In 2008 the budget of the Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid (ECHO) was increased to Euro 937 million due to the increase in the number of natural disasters and soaring food prices. The budget for emergency food assistance was doubled in order to help over 25 million people.

Main operations

Man-made crises affected many regions of the world in 2008. This was the case in South Ossetia due to the conflict between Georgia and the Russian Federation, in Kenya due to the political turmoil that led to the displacement of 500,000 people, in the Philippines following the failure of the peace agreement between the Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, which led to the displacement of 550,000 people, and in Yemen and Sri Lanka due to the internal conflicts in those States.

A number of worsening humanitarian crises required special management due to their protracted or complex emergency nature; this was the case in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The Commission’s strategy is also focused on the management of forgotten humanitarian crises (those where the needs are great yet which receive little attention on the part of donors and the media).

The Commission notes an increase in the frequency and extent of natural disasters.In 2008 it had to conduct relief operations in several regions of the world to help suffering populations who in some cases had already been affected by other types of crises. Cyclones, hurricanes and typhoons affected the Caribbean region, Madagascar, Burma/Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam.The Horn of Africa, Sahel, Republic of Moldova, Paraguay, Honduras and Palestinian territories experienced periods of drought and Peru and Bolivia periods of extreme cold.China was affected by an earthquake and Benin, Latin America and the Caribbean region by epidemics. In addition, there were floods in Latin America, Bangladesh, Nepal, Namibia, India and Yemen.

The EU’s strategy for disaster risk reduction in developing countries, including the DIPECHO programmes, aims to make local communities more aware of the risks they face and to increase their resilience.

ECHO action is short-term oriented but the Commission encourages linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LLRD). It thereby helps populations affected by crises to return quickly to self-sufficiency.

Effectiveness of aid

ECHO action contributes to the definition of a humanitarian policy that is best adapted to situations of vulnerability. It aims to ensure the effectiveness and quality of the aid delivered. To this end the Commission recommends:

  • developing the safety of staff involved in the delivery of aid;
  • reinforcing partners’ capacities;
  • strengthening rapid response capacity by organising multi-sectoral teams;
  • extending communication and information strategies;
  • supporting the training of staff involved in the delivery of aid, in particular via the ‘Network on Humanitarian Assistance’ (NOHA).

In 2008 humanitarian aid was delivered by UN agencies (46%), non-governmental organisations (44%) and international organisations (10%).

ECHO Annual Report 2009

ECHO Annual Report 2009

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ECHO Annual Report 2009


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

ECHO Annual Report 2009

Document or Iniciative

Annual Report of 9 April 2010 on Humanitarian Aid Policy and its Implementation in 2009 [COM(2010) 138 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Humanitarian crises are increasingly frequent and complex, due to the growing number of:

  • refugees and displaced persons following conflicts;
  • natural disasters related to climate change;
  • persons made vulnerable by the economic crisis.

During 2009, 115 million persons benefited from European humanitarian aid. The budget initially planned had to be increased twice, using the ECHO emergency aid reserve. The EDF budget was also used to assist ACP countries.

Key operations

The number of natural disasters is rising. They are mainly weather-related. In response, ECHO leads emergency operations and also disaster preparedness actions in the most vulnerable areas.

In 2009, interventions concerned:

  • floods in Afghanistan, India, Tajikistan and West Africa;
  • cyclones, tropical storms and hurricanes in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Bangladesh, India, Philippines, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Cuba, Fiji and Papua New Guinea;
  • droughts in the Greater Horn of Africa, the Sahel, Madagascar, the Palestinian territories and the Syrian Arab Republic;
  • earthquakes in Indonesia;
  • epidemics in West Africa, Southern Africa and Papua New Guinea;
  • crop failures in Uganda, Laos and Bangladesh.

“Man-made” crises led to:

  • population displacement following conflicts in Sri Lanka, Yemen, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Pakistan;
  • an increase in the need for basic essentials particularly in terms of health, food and water/sanitation in the Gaza Strip, following the attack by the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF);
  • an increase in population vulnerability in Afghanistan and Somalia due to a deterioration in safety conditions, drought and soaring food prices.

Most funding was allocated to the Sudan due to the Darfur crisis which led to the displacement of more than 6.5 million persons; and to the Democratic Republic of Congo, where almost 3 million persons were displaced due to border conflicts.

The report highlights the bad working conditions of humanitarian workers who are increasingly restricted by the authorities of certain countries, violations of human rights, as well as attacks and hostage-taking in conflict zones.

However, the humanitarian situation has improved in certain countries. This is the case in North-Uganda where the Peace, Recovery and Development Plan was implemented in 2009. Zimbabwe also made progress in terms of health services, water supply, liberalisation of the economy, agriculture and employment. Finally, in Sri Lanka, many of the persons displaced following conflict have been able to return to their places of origin.

Political and institutional developments

A Working Group has been created within the Council, to deal with humanitarian aid and food aid (COHAFA). It should facilitate the implementation of the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid.

The Commission has also established close working relationships with the new Committee on Development (DEVE) which has been elected within the new European Parliament.

Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection

Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO)

Since the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, the EU has had an exceptional shared competence in the area of humanitarian action, i.e. it has the power to conduct operations and a European policy in addition to those of the Member States. The Commission ensures the smooth coordination of action at European and national level.

Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid is specifically intended for developing countries. It is implemented via the instrument for humanitarian aid which finances emergency operations, in particular with the aim to:

  • provide assistance, relief and protection for the local population;
  • provide food aid and assistance to displaced persons;
  • support disaster preparedness and crisis rehabilitation actions.

These operations are conducted depending on the needs and interests of the victims, in accordance with international law and the principles of impartiality, neutrality and non-discrimination laid down by the European Consensus on humanitarian aid.

ECHO intervenes in partnership with organisations that have signed a framework partnership agreement with the Commission, such as the specialised agencies of the United Nations, the Red Cross, the Red Crescent and numerous non-governmental organisations.

Civil protection

ECHO also intervenes in the event of natural or man-made disasters (earthquakes, floods, industrial accidents, etc.) occurring in the EU. Its action is implemented via the Civil Protection Financial Instrument in response to requests for assistance from the countries affected.

The EU’s action involves encouraging cooperation between national civil protection services, principally with the aim of:

  • supplementing and supporting Member States’ prevention, preparedness and response activities;
  • faciliting rapid operational cooperation between Member States.

The EU can also conduct civil protection operations in non-Member States, more specifically with the accession candidate countries and the Mediterranean partner countries.


The EU is one of the world’s biggest providers of humanitarian aid funding. Since 1992, operations directed by ECHO have channelled aid to regions in crisis in more than 85 countries.

2001 report on ECHO

2001 report on ECHO

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about 2001 report on ECHO


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

2001 report on ECHO

To assess the activity of the European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) in 2001.

2) Document or Iniciative

Report from the Commission- Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) – Annual Report 2001 [COM(2002)322 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

3) Summary

This report is published in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1257/96 concerning humanitarian aid. This stipulates that after each budget year, the Commission must submit an annual report to the European Parliament and the Council on the measures financed during the year.

The report states that in 2001, ECHO made significant progress, particularly with respect to its role in the linking of relief, rehabilitation and development, improving its relations with the United Nations and implementing its administrative reform.

As outlined in the Communication on linking relief, rehabilitation and development, adopted in April 2001, ECHO will focus more clearly on its core mandate, i.e. providing immediate life-saving relief in emergencies. A working paper setting out the criteria for the phase-out of humanitarian assistance and the hand-over to development cooperation was drawn up by the Commission.

ECHO developed a methodology to better define forgotten crises and unstable post-crisis situations. This methodology is based on an analysis of media reporting and coverage of needs through other donors. The crises thus identified in 2001 through this new tool were Angola, Western Sahara and Chechnya and they were allocated considerable funding.

ECHO’s methodology for assessing humanitarian needs was also improved in 2001. With this tool, ECHO has been able to demonstrate that its operations focus on the areas of greatest need.

With regard to its administrative reform, ECHO concentrated on restructuring its internal organisation and working methods, and developing instruments to measure and improve its results. Thus, in June 2001, a fast-track decision-making procedure was adopted, enabling ECHO to approve urgent projects within 24 to 72 hours.

In the course of 2001, a web-based crises information system was developed, which provides daily updates. A new local information system is being studied.

Operations carried out by ECHO

The global trend towards more frequent and more damaging disasters continues. The most important events in 2001 were: the earthquakes in El Salvador and India, the floods in India and the droughts in Central Asia. The global situation concerning man-made disasters remains very poor. It is estimated that 2.2 million people were killed in conflicts since 1991. The number of wars and violent crises is increasing and totalled 38 at the end of 2001.

ECHO allocated EUR 543.7 million to humanitarian crises in 2001. It signed 1 031 operation contracts and its aid funded projects in over 60 countries.

This report reviews the aid granted to the various parts of the world and their situation from a humanitarian point of view. The African, Caribbean and Pacific region was the largest recipient of funds in 2001 (EUR 173 320 million). The funds allocated to the Balkans were lower than the previous year due to the stabilisation in the region. However, the aid allocated to Asia increased. The Palestinian territories once again remained one of the major spheres of ECHO’s intervention.

In 2001, the Humanitarian Aid Office implemented two action plans under the DIPECHO programme (disaster preparedness activities within a regional framework): one in South-East Asia and one in Central America. The programme was extended to South Asia.

Cross-cutting issues

In 2001, ECHO signed the Framework Partnership Agreement (FPA) with 27 new partners. The operation of the FPA was revised, taking account of the quality of aid.

Throughout 2001, ECHO granted EUR 1.6 million for the programme to subsidise initiatives on training, studies and networks in the humanitarian field.

In 2001, ECHO’s new information and communication strategy, adopted in 2000, was first implemented. It aims to define target audiences more clearly, develop the use of the Internet, define more structured objectives and establish closer links between ECHO headquarters and field offices. This approach was reflected in an EU-wide opinion poll aimed at gauging the level of public knowledge of ECHO and humanitarian issues. The poll revealed considerable support for the principle of humanitarian assistance but relatively low recognition levels for the role played by ECHO and a desire for more information on this issue.

In 2001, the rate of budget implementation in terms of commitment appropriations was 100% and 90.5% in terms of payment appropriations.

Outlook and perspectives

There are three major humanitarian challenges in the world: the persistence of protracted man-made crises; emerging crisis theatres in areas considered more or less stable in the past; and increasingly adverse effects of natural disasters.

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work