Tag Archives: Data transmission

Stepping up cross-border cooperation

Stepping up cross-border cooperation

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Stepping up cross-border cooperation

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Police and customs cooperation

Stepping up cross-border cooperation (Prüm Decision)

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2008/615/JHA of 23 June 2008 on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime.

Summary

The purpose of this decision is to step up cross-border police and judicial cooperation between European Union (EU) countries in criminal matters. In particular, it aims to improve the exchanges of information between the authorities responsible for the prevention and investigation of criminal offences. The decision sets out provisions with regard to:

  • the automated access to DNA profiles *, dactyloscopic data * and certain national vehicle registration data;
  • supply of data in relation to major events;
  • supply of information in order to prevent terrorist offences;
  • other measures for stepping up cross-border police cooperation.

Establishment of national databases and automated access to data

EU countries are to establish national DNA analysis files for the purpose of investigating criminal offences. Reference data, consisting of the non-coding part of the DNA * and of a reference number that does not enable an individual to be identified, must be made available to other EU countries to carry out automated searches *. These searches are performed via national contact points by comparing DNA profiles, but only on the basis of individual cases and in a hit/no-hit * manner. If the search provides a match, the national contact point carrying out the search receives the reference data in an automated manner. If no profile is found for a particular individual who is under investigation or against whom criminal proceedings have been brought, the requested EU country may be obliged to establish a DNA profile for that individual.

EU countries must also make available reference data from the national automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS). For this purpose, the reference data will consist only of dactyloscopic data and a reference number. The searches are carried out by comparing dactyloscopic data and, similarly to DNA searches, only in individual cases on a hit/no-hit basis. Confirmation of the match is conducted by the national contact point of the requesting EU country. Supply of further available personal data for matching DNA or dactyloscopic data and other information relating to the reference data is governed by national law, including the mutual legal assistance (MLA) in the requested EU country.

The national contact points shall also be given access to certain national vehicle registration data via automated online searches. These searches may only be conducted with a full chassis or registration number.

Supply of data in relation to major events

In relation to any major events that have a cross-border dimension, EU countries must provide each other non-personal data via their national contact points, as required for the purpose of preventing criminal offences and maintaining public order and security. Personal data may be supplied only if the data subjects are considered a threat to public order and security or if it is believed that they will commit criminal offences at the events. However, this data may only be used in relation to the event it was provided for and must be deleted once it has served its purpose, but no later than a year after it was supplied.

Supply of information to fight terrorism

For the purpose of preventing terrorist offences, but only in individual cases and to the extent required by the conditions leading to the supposition that criminal offences will be committed, EU countries may provide the following data to each other via the national contact points:

  • surname and first names;
  • date and place of birth;
  • description of the conditions leading to the supposition that criminal offences will be committed.

The country providing this data may impose certain binding conditions on the receiving country for the data usage.

Other measures for enhancing cross-border police cooperation

EU countries may effectuate joint patrols and other joint operations to prevent criminal offences and to maintain public order and security on a given EU country’s territory. In such cases, designated officers and officials from the seconding country participate in the hosting country’s operations. The seconding officers may be conferred executive powers, or they may be allowed to exercise their executive powers, but only under the guidance and in the presence of the host officers. The competent authority of the host country is responsible for the command and actions of the seconding officers.

With regard to mass gatherings and other comparable major events, disasters and serious accidents, EU countries are to provide mutual assistance to each other. This assistance should consist of information exchanges, coordination of police measures and contribution of material and physical resources.

An EU country must provide assistance and protection to the other country’s officers on duty, which is equivalent to that provided for its own officers.

Provisions on data protection

EU countries must guarantee that personal data processed according to this decision is protected by their national laws. Only the relevant competent authorities may process personal data. They must ensure the accuracy and current relevance of the data. Steps must be taken to rectify or delete incorrect data or data that was supplied when it should not have been. Personal data must be deleted if no longer needed for the purpose it was made available or if the storage time, as provided by national law, has expired.

The relevant authorities must take technical and organisational measures to protect personal data against destruction, loss, unauthorised access, alteration or disclosure. For the purpose of verifying the permissibility of the non-automated processing of personal data, this processing must be logged. Similarly, the automated processing of personal data must be recorded. The independent data protection authorities in EU countries are responsible for the legal examinations of the processing of personal data.

Any individual has the right to information on the data that has been processed in relation to his/her person, including information on the origin of the data, the recipients of the data and the purpose and legal basis for the processing of the data. The individual may request corrections to or the deletion of inaccurate or unlawfully processed data. If the individual’s rights with regard to data protection have been violated, he/she may lodge a complaint with an independent court or a tribunal and claim for damages or other legal compensation.

Background

The conclusions of the Tampere European Council of October 1999 asserted the need to enhance the exchange of law enforcement information between EU countries, which was further confirmed by the Hague Programme of November 2004.

The Prüm Treaty of 27 May 2005 on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly on combating terrorism, cross-border crime and illegal migration, signed between Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Austria, lays down procedures for more efficient exchanges of information in the framework of criminal investigations. This decision aims to incorporate the provisions of that Treaty into the EU legal framework.

Key terms used in the act
  • Dactyloscopic data: fingerprint images, images of fingerprint latents, palm prints, palm print latents and templates of such images that are stored and dealt with in an automated database.
  • Non-coding part of DNA: chromosome regions that are not expressed genetically.
  • DNA profile: a letter or number code that represents a set of identification characteristics of the non-coding part of an analysed human DNA sample.
  • Automated searching: an online access procedure for consulting the databases of one, several, or all of the EU countries.
  • Hit/no-hit procedure: in this procedure the parties grant each other limited access to the reference data in their national DNA and fingerprint databases and the right to use these data to conduct automated checks of fingerprints and DNA profiles. The personal information related to the reference data is not available to the requesting party.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2008/615/JHA

26.8.2008

26.8.2009
(26.8.2011 for Chapter 2 provisions)

OJ L 210 of 6.8.2008

Related Acts

Council Decision 2008/616/JHA of 23 June 2008 on the implementation of Decision 2008/615/JHA on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime [Official Journal L 210 of 6.8.2008].

This decision provides the administrative and technical provisions that are indispensable for implementing Decision 2008/615/JHA. The focus is especially on the automated exchanges of DNA, dactyloscopic and vehicle registration data, as well as on other forms of cooperation. The technical provisions are set out in the annex to the decision.

Council Decision 2010/482/EU of 26 July 2010 on the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Union and Iceland and Norway on the application of certain provisions of Council Decision 2008/516/JHA on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime and Council Decision 2008/616/JHA on the implementation of Decision 2008/615/JHA on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime, and the Annex thereto [Official Journal L 238 of 9.9.2010].

Statistics on tourism

Statistics on tourism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Statistics on tourism

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enterprise > Industry

Statistics on tourism

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EU) No 692/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2011 concerning European statistics on tourism and repealing Council Directive 95/57/EC (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation aims at introducing a common framework for the development, production and dissemination of European statistics on tourism. It forms part of the provisions of the Regulation on European statistics.

The role of the Member States is to collect, draw up, process and transmit harmonised statistics on supply and demand in tourism.

What sort of data do the Member States have to collect?

Member States have to collect data relating to internal tourism * in terms of the capacity of tourist accommodation establishments
*. Information enabling the capacity of accommodation establishments to be determined includes:

  • number of establishments;
  • number of bed places;
  • number of rooms.

Some of these variables are collected at regional NUTS level 2 and apply to:

  • the type of accommodation (hotels, tourist accommodation, camping grounds);
  • the type of locality (densely populated, intermediate or thinly populated areas, coastal or non-coastal areas);
  • size (small, medium-sized or large establishments).

Member States also have to collect data on the number of establishments having one or more bedrooms accessible for persons with reduced mobility, including wheelchair users.

Variables relating to the occupancy of establishments concern the number of overnight stays and arrivals of residents and non-residents, as well as the occupancy rate of bedrooms and bed places. Some of these variables are collected at regional NUTS level 2 and apply to:

  • the type of accommodation (hotels, tourist accommodation, camping grounds);
  • the type of locality (densely populated, intermediate or thinly populated areas, coastal or non-coastal areas);
  • size (small, medium-sized or large establishments);
  • countries and geographical areas.

Member States may also collect data relating to internal tourism in non-rented accommodation
*, namely the number of tourism nights spent by residents and non-residents in non-rented accommodation.

In addition, Member States collect data concerning national tourism
*
 in terms of tourist demand for participation in tourism and the characteristics of trips. This data is based on variables including the duration and destination of trips for personal purposes, and socio-demographic data such as age group, education level, employment situation, etc.

Member States also compile triennial data presenting the main reasons for non-participation in tourism for personal purposes (financial reasons, lack of time, health reasons, etc.).

Variables concerning the trip itself must also be transmitted, namely:

  • the month of departure;
  • the duration of the trip;
  • destination;
  • the purpose of the trip;
  • means of transport;
  • means of accommodation;
  • expenditure;
  • profile of the visitor.

Lastly, Member States collect data on national tourism in terms of tourism demand concerning the characteristics of same-day visits within the Member State or abroad. This data is based on variables relating to:

  • the number of same-day visits (for personal or professional reasons);
  • expenditure;
  • the destination country (visits abroad);
  • the socio-demographic information described above.

Once a year, Member States send Eurostat a report on the quality of data collected. Eurostat has to create and update a methodological manual containing guidelines on the statistics produced.

What sort of programmes have to be implemented?

The Commission wishes Member States to put in place pilot programmes (on a voluntary basis) in order to prepare the development, production and dissemination of harmonised tables for tourism satellite accounts. The Commission also intends to draw up a programme of pilot studies to determine the effects of tourism on the environment.

This Regulation repeals Directive 95/57/EC.

Key terms of the Act
  • Domestic tourism: visits within a Member State by visitors who are residents of that Member State.
  • Inbound tourism: visits to a Member State by visitors who are not residents of that Member State.
  • Outbound tourism: visits by residents of a Member State outside that Member State.
  • National tourism: domestic and outbound tourism.
  • Internal tourism: domestic and inbound tourism.
  • Tourist accommodation establishment: a local kind-of-activity unit providing short-stay accommodation services as a paid service.
  • Non-rented accommodation: accommodation provided without charge by family or friends, and accommodation in owner-occupied vacation homes, including time share properties.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EU) No 692/2011

11.8.2011

OJ L 192 of 22.7.2011

Fisheries control system

Fisheries control system

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Fisheries control system

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Maritime Affairs And Fisheries > Management of fisheries resources and the environment

Fisheries control system

The control system applies to all fishing activities in Community waters, and to the fishing activities of Community vessels and European Union nationals in Community and non-Community waters. It also applies to the processing and marketing of fishery products, recreational fishing involving sensitive stocks, and aquaculture.

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009 of 20 November 2009 establishing a Community control system for ensuring compliance with the rules of the common fisheries policy.

Summary

The restructuring of the Community fisheries control system has modernised the Community system for the control, inspection and execution of common fisheries policy (CFP) measures throughout the marketing chain.Generally, all aspects relating to the control and monitoring of fishing activities have been rendered more effective.

Control and monitoring of fishing activities

Member States are to carry out inspections of activities throughout the production chain for fishery products, in particular landing, processing, transport and marketing. The use of modern inspection technologies such as the Satellite-based Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), electronic logbooks and the electronic notification of catch data has been extended. The collection, processing and analysis of fishing data have been considerably enhanced. A systematic catch weighing system has been introduced. A new system of traceability for fishery products will allow fishery products to be monitored from the vessel to the retailer.

New measures, such as risk analysis largely based on systematic and full cross-checks of all relevant data, aimed at concentrating inspection activities where the risk of illegal behaviour is highest, will strengthen the effectiveness of controls.

Among the other new fields covered by the Regulation is the monitoring of certain criteria of fleet management by Member States, such as fishing capacity and engine power. General standards are established for specific control measures concerning multiannual plans and recovery, restricted fishing areas and discards. The principles of a new system of control observers have been established.

Inspection powers

The Regulation broadens the Commission’s powers of inspection. The Commission can now, under certain conditions, carry out independent inspections without giving prior notice to the Member State concerned.

Sanctions

The Regulation introduces dissuasive sanctions the extent of which is fixed in a harmonised way throughout the European Union (EU) according to the value of the fishery products obtained when a serious offence is committed. The Regulation provides for a system of penalty points for serious offences concerning holders of fishing permits and masters, who will, as a last resort and after several suspensions of the fishing permit, have their permit withdrawn if they have committed a certain number of serious offences. Measures are also laid down against Member States which do not comply with CFP rules and thus endanger fish stocks. These measures include the possibility of suspending or reducing EU financial aid, the closure of fisheries and deduction of quotas.

Cooperation between Member States

The Regulation establishes a system of mutual assistance and systematic information exchange as regards controls between Member States. It also proposes a new approach to managing and communicating data relating to controls through secure national websites with direct remote access for the Commission.

Coordination authority

The Regulation extends the competences of the Community Fisheries Control Agency in order that it may provide more concrete assistance in the uniform implementation of the new control system. When facing a serious risk for the CFP, it may also, if appropriate, set up an emergency unit.

Under the CFP, control and enforcement fall within the exclusive jurisdiction of Member States. The Regulation also reaffirms the distinct roles of the Commission and Member States in order to avoid overlapping and to ensure that the Commission concentrates its efforts on its main activities – controlling and verifying the implementation of CFP rules by Member States. The new Regulation replaces the existing legal framework established in Council Regulation (EEC) No 2847/93.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009

1.1.2010

OJ L 343 of 22.12.2009

RELATED ACTS

Specific control and inspection programme

Commission Decision 2010/210/EU of 6 April 2010 amending Decision 2009/296/EC establishing a specific control and inspection programme related to the recovery of bluefin tuna in the Eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean [Official Journal L 89 of 9.4.2010].

Agreement between the European Union and the United States on the transfer of financial messaging data

Agreement between the European Union and the United States on the transfer of financial messaging data

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Agreement between the European Union and the United States on the transfer of financial messaging data

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Industrialised countries

Agreement between the European Union and the United States on the transfer of financial messaging data

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2010/412/EU of 13 July 2010 on the conclusion of the Agreement between the European Union and the United States of America on the processing and transfer of Financial Messaging Data from the European Union to the United States for the purposes of the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program.

Summary

For the purpose of preventing, investigating, detecting or prosecuting terrorism or terrorist financing, this agreement between the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (U.S.) provides for the transfer of:

  • financial payment messages that refer to financial transfers and related data, which are stored in the EU by international financial payment messaging service providers (designated providers), to the U.S. Treasury Department;
  • relevant information acquired from the U.S. Treasury Department’s Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP) to EU countries’ law enforcement, public security or counter terrorism authorities, or to Europol or Eurojust.

To obtain the necessary data stored in the EU, the U.S. Treasury Department makes a request, and sends any supplemental documents, to a designated provider on U.S. territory. At the same time, it provides a copy of these documents to Europol, which verifies the compliance of the request with the requirements of the agreement and notifies the designated provider accordingly. Once the compliance of the request is confirmed, it will have binding legal effect and the designated provider is required to transfer the requested data to the U.S. Treasury Department.

The U.S. Treasury Department must ensure that certain safeguards, particularly in relation to the protection of personal data, are applied when the provided data is processed. The data may only be processed for the purpose of preventing, investigating, detecting or prosecuting terrorism or terrorist financing. It must be secured from unauthorised access, disclosure and loss, as well as from any unauthorised form of processing. A search of the provided data may only be initiated where there is pre-existing information or evidence indicating that the subject of the search might be connected to terrorism or its financing. All searches and the reasons thereof must be recorded.

The U.S. Treasury Department must delete non-extracted data:

  • no longer necessary for the fight against terrorism, based on (at least) an annual evaluation;
  • transmitted without having been requested;
  • by 20 July 2012 at the latest, if it was received before 20 July 2007;
  • no later than five years after receipt, if it was received after 20 July 2007.

Extracted data may be retained for only as long as is necessary to fulfil the purpose for which it was requested. The agreement also defines safeguards to limit the onward transfers of extracted data.

The U.S. Treasury Department must make information obtained through the TFTP that may contribute to the EU’s actions against terrorism available to the relevant authorities of the EU countries concerned and, as appropriate, to Europol and Eurojust. If any follow-on information is deemed as necessary to the U.S.’s fight against terrorism, it must be similarly conveyed back. To facilitate these exchanges of information, a Europol liaison officer may be delegated to the U.S. Treasury Department.

A relevant EU country authority, Europol or Eurojust may provide the U.S. Treasury Department with a request to search data acquired through the TFTP and to transfer relevant information if there is reason to believe that a person or entity is connected to terrorism or its financing as defined by the framework decision on combating terrorism and the directive on the prevention of the use of the financial system for money laundering.

During the term of the agreement, the Commission will examine the options available for establishing an EU system equivalent to the U.S. TFTP. Once the European system is established, there will be the need to review and possibly modify this agreement and ensure the complementariness of the two systems.

Independent overseers will monitor compliance with the limitations and safeguards of the agreement. They have the authority to review, query and block searches of provided data, as well as to request for additional justifications on the connection to terrorism. One of these overseers will be appointed by the Commission.

Via the national data protection authority, a person has the right to request confirmation that his/her personal data has been processed in compliance with data protection rights. Disclosure of this information may be refused or restricted if necessary for the fight against terrorism or the protection of public or national security. In such cases, a written explanation will be given to the person, together with information on the possibility to seek administrative and judicial redress in the U.S. A person also has the right to request the rectification, erasure or blocking of inaccurate or wrongly processed personal data. To maintain the accuracy of information received or transmitted under this agreement, the data may be supplemented, deleted or corrected by each party. The U.S. Treasury Department provides information on the TFTP on a public website, including on the right of redress.

This agreement enters into force on 1 August 2010 and will remain in force for a period of five years. Afterwards, it will be automatically extended for subsequent periods of one year, unless one of the parties notifies of its intention not to extend it.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2010/412/EU

13.7.2010

OJ L 195, 27.7.2010