Tag Archives: Data collection

Road safety: Policy orientations on road safety 2011-20

Road safety: Policy orientations on road safety 2011-20

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Road safety: Policy orientations on road safety 2011-20

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Transport > Road transport

Road safety: Policy orientations on road safety 2011-20

rd road safety action programme, the Commission has published policy orientations on road safety to provide a general framework, under which concrete action can be taken at European, national, regional or local levels from 2011 until 2020.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Communication of 20 July 2010 to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – “Towards a European road safety area: policy orientations on road safety 2011-2020” [COM(2010) 389 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Although progress was made on road safety in the European Union (EU) during the 3rd European road safety action programme (2003-10), the Commission highlights that efforts to improve road safety need to be further strengthened. This 3rd road safety action programme (RSAP) included an ambitious target to halve the number of road deaths by 2010 as well as numerous proposals for concrete actions in vehicle safety, safety of infrastructure and users’ safety. Although the Commission accepts that the initial target was not likely to be met by the end of 2010, the RSAP has encouraged EU countries to be more proactive in improving road safety and has gone a long way to dramatically reduce the number of fatalities on EU roads.

The European road safety policy orientations 2011-20 aims to provide a general framework and challenging objectives to guide national and local strategies, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity. Within the general framework, the Commission highlights the need to:

  • create a cooperation framework based on the exchange of best practices across the EU;
  • adopt a strategy for injuries and first aid to address the need to reduce the number of road injuries;
  • improve the safety of vulnerable road users.

Principles and target

The Commission sets out three main principles:

  • striving for the highest road safety standards throughout Europe – by encouraging EU citizens to take primary responsibility for their own safety and the safety of others on EU roads, and by focusing on improving the safety of more vulnerable road users;
  • an integrated approach to road safety – through cooperation with other EU policy areas, such as energy, environment, education, innovation and technology, and justice.
  • subsidiarity, proportionality and shared responsibility – through the concept of shared responsibility, commitment and concrete actions at all levels from EU countries and their authorities to regional and local bodies.

Following the RSAP 2003-10, the Commission proposes to maintain the target of halving the overall number of road deaths in the EU between 2010 and 2020. This ambitious target demonstrates the EU’s clear commitment towards road safety and having a common objective is intended to provide EU citizens with a more uniform level of road safety within the EU. The Commission encourages individual EU countries to contribute to the achievement of this common target through their own national road safety strategies.

During the public consultation for these policy orientations, which took place between July and December 2009, a target for reducing road traffic severe injuries was proposed. Once a common definition exists for ‘severe injuries’, the Commission will propose to add a common “injuries reduction target” to these European road safety policy orientations up to 2020.

Strategic objectives

The Commission has identified seven objectives, for which actions will be proposed at both EU and national level:

  • improve education and training of road users – the quality of the licensing and training system needs to be improved, with emphasis on young drivers. The Commission will work with EU countries to develop a common educational and training road safety strategy including pre-test learning, the driving licence test, and post-licence training;
  • increase enforcement of road rules – the Commission, the European Parliament and the Council will work together to establish a cross-border exchange of information in the area of road safety. The Commission will also work towards a common road safety enforcement strategy which will involve enforcement campaigns, national enforcement objectives, and vehicle technology to assist enforcement, including the possibility of speed limiters in light commercial vehicles and alcohol interlock devices;
  • safer road infrastructure – the Commission will ensure that European funds will only be granted to infrastructure that complies with the EU safety requirements. The Commission will also promote the application of the relevant principles of safe management to the secondary road network of EU countries, in particular through the exchange of best practices.
  • safer vehicles – as well as continue to encourage the progress of vehicle safety, the Commission will also evaluate and propose actions in the area of harmonisation and progressive strengthening of EU legislation on roadworthiness tests and on technical roadside inspections;
  • promote the use of modern technology to increase road safety – the Commission will continue to promote the use of Intelligent Transport Systems to improve road traffic safety. The effectiveness and speed of rescue will be enhanced by the adoption of the European emergency call service fitted to vehicles, ‘eCall’;
  • improve emergency and post-injuries services – the Commission will propose the establishment of a global strategy of action on road injuries and first aid. The Commission will in particular examine the means to improve the efficiency of first aid intervention and post-care handling in order to reduce the impact of road accidents.
  • protect vulnerable road users – the Commission will work to improve the safety of motorcyclists, addressing behaviour, as well as vehicle and infrastructure safety. It will also encourage the establishment of adequate infrastructures to increase the safety of cycling and other vulnerable road users.

Implementation of the European road safety policy orientations 2011-20

A framework for open cooperation between EU countries and the Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation of the EU road safety policy. Parallel to this, EU countries should also develop national road safety plans including specific national objectives which are individual to their particular situation.

The Commission will pursue the improvement of the existing tools for data collection and analysis, such as CARE, the EU database on road accidents established in accordance with Council Decision 93/704/EC, as well as the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO), which makes publicly available through the Internet road safety data and knowledge at European level.

Rail transport statistics

Rail transport statistics

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Rail transport statistics

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Rail transport

Rail transport statistics

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 91/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on rail transport statistics [See amending acts].

Summary

The Commission requires statistics on freight transport and rail transport passengers in order to ensure the monitoring and development of the common transport policy and the preparation of measures in the field of transport safety.

The scope of this regulation covers all railway undertakings in the European Union (EU). Each EU country must report statistics which relate to rail transport on its national territory. EU countries may exclude from the scope of this regulation:

  • railway undertakings which operate entirely or mainly within industrial and similar installations;
  • railway undertakings which provide local tourist services.

The statistics to be collected are set out in Annexes A to H to this regulation. The main tables setting out the annual statistics on goods and passenger transport are shown in Annexes A to D, and the quarterly statistics are shown in Annex E. Annexes F and G show the regional statistics and statistics on traffic flows on the rail network and Annex H shows statistics on accidents.

For each type of data, the corresponding annex specifies:

  • the list of variables and the corresponding units of measurement;
  • the reference periods and frequency;
  • the list of tables with the breakdown for each table;
  • the deadlines for transmission of data;
  • the first reference period for which data are to be transmitted;
  • where necessary, additional comments.

EU countries must also provide a list of the railway undertakings for which statistics are provided, as specified in Annex I. Goods must be classified in accordance with Annex J and dangerous goods must additionally be classified in accordance with Annex K. The contents of the annexes may be adapted by the Commission.

Although the national authorities (national statistical institutes) are responsible for the coordination and quality control of the statistics transmitted to Eurostat, EU countries may designate any public or private organisation to participate in collecting the data. Different sources (surveys, administrative data, etc.) may be used in any combination to obtain the required statistics. The statistics are transmitted to Eurostat by the EU countries.

The regulation provides for the dissemination of all data specified in Annexes A to H, so long as the data is already available to the EU public or approval has been explicitly given in advance for such disclosure by the undertakings concerned. Information reported under Annex I may not be disseminated.

Eurostat will develop and publish methodological recommendations (taking account of the best practices in the rail sector) to assist EU countries in maintaining the quality of statistics in this domain. The quality of the statistical data will be evaluated by Eurostat.

After data have been collected over three years, the Commission will send a report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the quality and costs of the statistics, the benefits of their availability and the burden on undertakings.

The Commission will be assisted by the Statistical Programme Committee.

EU countries must provide results for the year 2002 in accordance with Directive 80/1177/EEC. Directive 80/1177/EEC is repealed with effect from 1 January 2003.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 91/2003

10.2.2003

OJ L 14 of 21.1.2003

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 1192/2003

24.7.2003

OJ L 167 of 4.7.2003

Regulation (EC) No 219/2009

20.4.2009

OJ L 87 of 31.3.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 91/2003 have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on experience acquired in the application of Regulation (EC) No 91/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on rail transport statistics [COM(2007)832 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Regulation (EC) No 332/2007 of 27 March 2007 on the technical arrangements for the transmission of railway transport statistics [Official Journal L 88 of 29.3.2007].

Development of statistics on education and lifelong learning

Development of statistics on education and lifelong learning

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Development of statistics on education and lifelong learning

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Lifelong learning

Development of statistics on education and lifelong learning

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 concerning the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning.

Summary

In order to develop education and lifelong learning strategies, and to monitor the implementation of these strategies, the production of comparable statistical data is of utmost importance. It is also essential that the statistical data production is based on a framework of consistent concepts. Consequently, this calls for the establishment of an integrated statistical information system on education, training and lifelong learning at the European Union (EU) level.

DOMAINS

This regulation applies to the production of EU level statistics on education and lifelong learning, covering the following domains:

Education and training systems

Comparable data is sought especially on the participation in and completion of educational programmes and on costs and resources used for education and training. The data covers domestic educational activities and includes all student types and age groups. It also allows for the calculation of indicators on education and training systems. EU countries must supply data falling under this domain annually.

Adult participation in lifelong learning

The comparable data collected on the participation and non-participation of adults in lifelong learning concerns individuals in the 25-64 age group. The supplementary collection of data on participation in social and cultural activities is on a voluntary basis only. Data for this domain must be supplied every five years, beginning in 2010 at the earliest.

Other statistics on education and lifelong learning

This concerns comparable data that support specific EU policies not covered by the above two domains, such as statistics on human capital or on the social and economic benefits of education. This data is obtained from existing EU level sources.

STATISTICAL ACTIONS

Individual statistical actions are used to implement the production of EU level statistics. These include the following:

  • for the first two domains, regular and timely delivery of statistics by EU countries;
  • within the scope of the third domain, provision of supplementary variables and indicators through other statistical information systems and surveys;
  • developing, improving and updating standards and manuals that define frameworks, concepts and methods;
  • within the context of the quality framework, improving data quality.

The Commission will take into consideration the existing capacities of EU countries with regard to the above actions. For the collected data, consideration will be given to the regional and gender aspects whenever possible.

The Commission (Eurostat) will also strive to collaborate, where appropriate, with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) Institute for Statistics (UIS), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and other international organisations to guarantee the comparability and avoid the duplication of data at an international level.

When new data requirements arise, or when the quality of the data is insufficient, the Commission will first launch voluntary pilot studies to be implemented by EU countries before the actual data collection.

IMPLEMENTING MEASURES

In order to supplement the regulation, certain additional implementing measures are used to amend its non-essential elements. These include measures that provide for economic and technical developments in data collection, transmission and processing. If, on the basis of these measures, the need for supplementary data collection arises, any decisions will be taken only after a cost-benefit analysis is effectuated.

For EU countries, limited derogations and transition periods may be granted if need be, provided that these are based on objective reasons.

The Statistical Programme Committee assists the Commission in its work with regard to the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 452/2008

24.6.2008

OJ L 145 of 4.6.2008

Related Acts

Commission Regulation (EU) No 88/2011 of 2 February 2011 implementing Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning, as regards statistics on education and training systems [Official Journal L 29 of 3.2.2011].

Commission Decision 2010/786/EU of 17 December 2010 granting derogations for implementing Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning with regard to Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Finland and the United Kingdom [Official Journal L 335 of 18.12.2010].

Commission Regulation (EU) No 823/2010 of 17 September 2010 implementing Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning, as regards statistics on the participation of adults in lifelong learning [Official Journal L 246 of 18.9.2010].
This regulation establishes the implementing measures for individual statistical actions to produce statistics on adult participation in lifelong learning.
The first Adult Education Survey covers the participation of adults in education and training during the period 1 July 2010 – 30 June 2011 and any related aspects, such as difficulties encountered. The data is collected during the period 1 July 2011 – 30 June 2012 and then every five years. The survey covers the 25-64 age group, though the 18-24 and 65-69 age groups may also be covered.
In close collaboration with EU countries, the Commission produces an “Adult Education Survey Manual” to ensure a high level of harmonisation between their survey results.
The regulation establishes minimum requirements in order to ensure that the data to be transmitted is of high quality. Its annexes specify the variables concerning the survey subjects and the sample and precision requirements. EU countries must submit quality reports on the survey to the Commission, to which end quality requirements are also set out in the annex to the regulation.

European schedule of occupational diseases

European schedule of occupational diseases

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European schedule of occupational diseases

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Health hygiene and safety at work

European schedule of occupational diseases

Document or Iniciative

Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC of 19 September 2003 concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases.

Summary

The Commission recommends, without prejudice to more favourable national laws or regulations, that the Member States:

  • introduce into their national legislation the European schedule in Annex I. This list covers the diseases which have been scientifically recognised as being occupational in origin, which are liable for compensation and which must be the subject of preventive measures;
  • work to introduce into their national legislation a law on compensation for occupational diseases whose origin and occupational nature can be proved, particularly if the disease is listed in Annex II;
  • progressively make their statistics concerning occupational diseases compatible with the schedule in Annex I;
  • develop preventive measures, by involving all interested parties and, where appropriate, by exchanging information, experience and good practice through the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work;
  • establish national quantified objectives with a view to reducing the rate of recognised occupational diseases, particularly those mentioned in Annex I;
  • take special account of medical information notices on diseases in the European schedule and supply other Member States, on request, with all the relevant information on diseases or agents recognised in their national legislation;
  • encourage national health systems to contribute actively towards disease prevention, in particular by raising the awareness of medical personnel in order to improve knowledge and diagnosis of these diseases;
  • introduce a system for the collection and exchange of data on the epidemiology of diseases, especially those listed in Annex II, and promote research.

The Member States themselves determine the criteria for recognising each occupational disease.

Context

This recommendation replaces Commission Recommendation 90/326/EEC of 22 May 1990 concerning the adoption of a European schedule of occupational diseases.
This new recommendation is required in order to take account of data deriving from scientific and technical progress in this field, to have an up-to-date instrument in the run-up to the European Union’s impending enlargement, and to do justice to the special interest the ” new Community strategy on safety and health at work 2002-2006 ” places on enhanced prevention of occupational diseases.

References

Act

Entry into force

Deadline for transposition in the Member States

Official Journal

Recommendation 2003/670/CE

OJ L 238 of 25.09.2003

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 20 September 1996 concerning the European schedule of occupational diseases [COM(96) 454 final].

In the light of information provided by the Member States, the Commission has reviewed progress in implementing the 1990 recommendation: the Member States have made great efforts to conform to Annex I to the recommendation. The Commission takes the view that at present it would be premature to propose binding legislation to replace the recommendation. However, it does intend to consider this option when the European schedule of occupational diseases is updated. This is due to take place in the first half of 2001 and is designed to take account of technical and scientific progress and the results of the work and projects currently under way to improve, inter alia, the collection, comparability and epidemiological analysis of statistics on occupational diseases.

Commission Recommendation 90/326/EEC of 22 May 1990 concerning the adoption of a European schedule of occupational diseases.

Infrastructure for Spatial Information

Infrastructure for Spatial Information

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Infrastructure for Spatial Information

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > General provisions

Infrastructure for Spatial Information (INSPIRE)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE).

Summary

This Directive lays down the rules for establishing, within the European Union (EU), an Infrastructure for Spatial Information (INSPIRE) whose purpose is to make it possible for interoperable spatial and environmental data and services related to these data to be exchanged, shared, accessed and used. INSPIRE aims to coordinate users and suppliers of information in such a way that information originating from different sectors will be combined and disseminated.

INSPIRE deals with spatial information such as environmental observations, statistics, etc. that are held in electronic form by or on behalf of public authorities and concern the areas where a Member State has or exercises a jurisdictional right. The information covers themes such as administrative borders, air, soil and water quality observations, biodiversity, land use, transport networks, hydrography, altitude, geology, population and species distribution, habitats, industrial facilities and natural risk zones (for the complete list, see Annexes I, II and III to the Directive).

This information should be accompanied by complete metadata * on, inter alia, the conditions under which targeted spatial information can be accessed and used, the quality and validity of such information, limitations on public access and the public authorities in charge of that information.

To make sure that this information is interoperable, the Commission must establish implementing rules no later than 15 May 2009 or 15 May 2012 (for information corresponding to Annex I, or Annex II and III, respectively). New spatial information must conform with these implementing rules within two years of their adoption, and existing information within seven years. The implementing rules must include the definition and classification of spatial objects relevant to the information covered in this Directive, and the ways in which those data are geo-referenced.

Member States will make network services available to users so that they will be able to search for, view and download spatial information. These services will be accessible via an INSPIRE geo-portal managed by the Commission at Community level, and possibly via additional access points operated by the Member States. A fee may be charged for some services. Member States may limit public access to spatial information when such access could have an adverse effect on international relations, public security, national defence, the confidentiality of the proceedings of public authorities, the confidentiality of certain commercial or industrial information, intellectual property rights, personal data or environmental protection.

Member States must share the data in their possession and allow public authorities to access, exchange and use those data for public tasks that may have an impact on the environment. A fee may be charged for access, except for information required to fulfil reporting obligations under Community legislation. Member States may limit such access when it could obstruct the course of justice or adversely affect public security, national defence or international relations.

INSPIRE will be coordinated by the Commission at EU level and by appropriate structures and mechanisms designated by the Member States at their level.

The Member States and the Commission must prepare reports by 15 May 2010 and 15 May 2014, respectively, on the content and implementation of INSPIRE.

Key terms used in the act
  • Metadata: information describing spatial data sets and spatial data services and making it possible to search for, inventory and use them.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2007/2/EC

15.5.2007

15.5.2009

OJ L 108 of 25.4.2007

Related Acts

Regulation (EU) No 911/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the European Earth monitoring programme (GMES) and its initial operations (2011-2013) [Official Journal L 276 of 20.10.2010].
The GMES system is a network for collecting and disseminating information concerning the environment and security obtained from monitoring the Earth from space and in-situ. This system will assist decision-making by public and private authorities in Europe and support research.

A coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks for monitoring the Lisbon objectives

A coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks for monitoring the Lisbon objectives

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks for monitoring the Lisbon objectives

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education and training: general framework

A coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks for monitoring the Lisbon objectives

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 21 February 2007 – “A coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks for monitoring progress towards the Lisbon objectives in education and training” [COM(2007) 61 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Indicators and benchmarks are needed to monitor the progress that is essential to the Lisbon process. The current framework is based on the Education and Training 2010 programme and consists of a set of 20 essential indicators (the “core indicators”), which are supported by context indicators, and five benchmarks.

This framework facilitates the sharing of experiences and best practice and makes it possible to:

  • provide statistical underpinning for key policy messages;
  • analyse progress towards the Lisbon objectives, at both European Union (EU) and national level;
  • identify examples of good performance that can be disseminated in EU countries;
  • compare EU performance with that of non-EU countries, such as the USA and Japan.

FRAMEWORK OF INDICATORS AND BENCHMARKS

The framework of indicators and benchmarks consists of core indicators, which are of a general nature, and context indicators, which allow a greater degree of precision.

The indicators and benchmarks are centred around eight key policy domains identified in the Education and Training 2010 strategy, namely:

  • making education and training fairer;
  • promoting efficiency in education and training;
  • making lifelong learning a reality;
  • key skills for young people;
  • modernising school education;
  • modernising vocational education and training (the Copenhagen process);
  • modernising higher education (the Bologna process);
  • employability.

Making education and training fairer

European education and training systems must be fair. Fairness is assessed by looking at the extent to which individuals take advantage of education and training in terms of opportunities, access, treatment and outcomes. Certain key themes, such as the promotion of gender equality and the integration of ethnic minorities and disabled persons, need to be monitored.

In order to ensure effective participation in lifelong learning, the proportion of early school-leavers must be reduced. The Council has therefore set a benchmark of limiting to 10% the proportion of early school-leavers.

Progress in this area will be assessed on the basis of the following core indicators:

  • participation in pre-school education;
  • special needs education;
  • early school-leavers.

The indicator on the stratification of education and training systems will make it possible to assess the impact of the structure of education and training systems and differences between educational establishments.

Promoting efficiency in education and training

It has been shown that improving efficiency is not necessarily detrimental to the fairness of education systems. Efficiency and fairness can go hand in hand.

The efficiency of European education and training systems is mainly a matter of making the best possible use of resources. Private and public investment must be supported, as must investment in higher education. Indeed, the latter receives less funding than in some non-EU countries.

Efficiency will be assessed in the light of investment in education and training.

Making lifelong learning a reality

Lifelong learning is crucial for competitiveness, employability, economic prosperity, social inclusion, active citizenship and the personal fulfilment of people living and working in the knowledge-based economy.

In order to have a career and participate fully in lifelong learning, it is essential to complete upper secondary education. In view of this, the Council has adopted two benchmarks, namely that by 2010, 85% of young people should complete upper secondary education and that by 2010, 12.5% of the adult population should participate in lifelong learning.

The core indicators for monitoring progress in this area are:

  • participation of adults in lifelong learning;
  • adults’ skills.

What is more, the indicator on upper secondary completion rates will make it possible to assess the degree to which young people are ready to participate in lifelong learning.

Key skills for young people

Acquiring basic skills is an essential prerequisite for working in a knowledge-based society. This is why the Council has set a benchmark aimed at reducing by at least 20% the number of low-achieving 15-year-olds in reading as compared to the 2000 level.

The core indicators allowing an overall assessment of basic skills are based on the following key skills:

  • literacy in reading, mathematics and science;
  • language skills;
  • ICT (information and communication technologies) skills;
  • civic skills;
  • learning to learn.

Modernising school education

The quality of school education depends on improving the initial training of teachers and the participation of all teachers in continuing professional development. The Council has also deemed that tools such as school self-evaluation are essential. Accordingly, training in the management and use of these tools must be promoted.

Progress in this area will be monitored using the following core indicators:

  • early school-leavers;
  • school management;
  • schools as multi-purpose local learning centres;
  • professional development of teachers and trainers.

Modernising vocational education and training (VET)

In line with the Copenhagen process, the image and appeal of vocational training for employers must be improved, levels of participation in VET must be increased and quality and flexibility in initial vocational education and training must be encouraged.

Progress will be assessed using the core indicator on upper secondary completion rates among young people, with particular attention being given to vocational streams.

The indicator on the stratification of education and training systems measures the degree to which initial vocational education and training is available in the structure of the education and training system.

Furthermore, the context indicator on participation in continuing vocational education and training will allow an assessment of the role of businesses in the participation of their employees in continuing vocational training and its financing.

Modernising higher education

Modernising higher education and increasing funding to university research will contribute to the EU’s objective of becoming a competitive knowledge-based economy. Moreover, the Bologna process has the aim of creating, by 2010, a European Higher Education Area with a common degree structure so as to encourage mobility among students and workers.

The benchmarks for assessing the modernisation of higher education are that of devoting at least 2% of GDP (including both public and private funding) by 2015 to modernising higher education and that of increasing by 15% the number of graduates in mathematics, science and technology by 2010.

Progress will be measured using the following three core indicators:

  • higher education graduates;
  • transnational mobility of students in higher education;
  • investment in education and training.

Employability

In order to meet the challenge of achieving a higher level of employment, the Council has set objectives for overall employment rates, employment rates for older workers and employment rates for women.

People’s employability and capacity to adapt throughout their life depend on their level of education and their key skills.

The indicators used for employability are:

  • educational attainment of the population;
  • adults’ skills;
  • results produced by education and training.

DATA SOURCES SUPPORTING THE COHERENT FRAMEWORK

The framework of indicators and benchmarks is based on data that mainly come from the European Statistical System (ESS).

Data provided by the ESS

Several different sources are used within the ESS to produce data on education and training and establish indicators. These can be divided into two groups.

The first group encompasses the annual UNESCO/OECD/Eurostat (UOE) data collection on formal education systems in EU countries, the five-yearly Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS), which collects information on training at enterprise level and the five-yearly Adult Education Survey (AES), which provides information on adult learning habits.

The second group includes general sources of information such as the Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the EU Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). There are also other specific sources (surveys on the use of ICT in households and companies).

Acquiring internationally comparable data is a matter of interest for individual countries. Various countries are thus making their statistical infrastructures better equipped to produce information on the schools and students whose work the EU is tracking.

Data produced outside the ESS

The ESS cannot provide the full statistical infrastructure required for the framework of indicators and benchmarks. Eurydice and Cedefop, in cooperation with Eurostat, are responsible for the data and context indicators that support this framework.

Furthermore, the Commission may decide to put forward its own procedures for creating data-collection tools, such as in the field of language knowledge. It has also prepared a recommendation on the creation of a survey tool in the area of “learning to learn”, and a transnational pilot survey is planned for 2007.

The Commission also cooperates with international organisations such as the OECD, which produce their own indicators, and with EU countries.

BACKGROUND

In 2002, the Heads of State and Government agreed to make European education and training systems a world quality reference by 2010. As part of the Lisbon strategy, common objectives for improving education and training systems were adopted by the Ministers of Education. The Education and Training 2010 work programme was drawn up so as to achieve these objectives.

The coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks covered by this communication will make it possible to assess the progress made. It replaces the framework that was in place for the 2004-06 period, in comparison with which it is more streamlined. Indeed, the 2004-06 framework was made up of 29 indicators and five benchmarks intended to measure progress in the 13 objectives then in place.

Related Acts

Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the establishment of a European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training [Official Journal C 155 of 8.7.2009].

Regulation (EC) No 452/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 concerning the production and development of statistics on education and lifelong learning [Official Journal L 145 of 4.6.2008].

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 3 August 2007 – “Improving the quality of teacher education” [COM(2007) 392 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning [Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006].

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 8 September 2006 – “Efficiency and equity in European education and training systems” [COM(2006) 481 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 20 October 2005 – “European values in the globalised world – Contribution of the Commission to the October Meeting of Heads of State and Government” [COM(2005) 525 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 12 October 2005 – “More Research and Innovation – Investing for Growth and Employment: A Common Approach” [COM(2005) 488 final – Official Journal C 49 of 28.2.2006].

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 1 August 2005 – “The European Indicator of Language Competence” [COM(2005) 356 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and to the Council of 25 May 2005 on the independence, integrity and accountability of the national and Community statistical authorities [COM(2005) 217 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 20 April 2005 – “Mobilising the brainpower of Europe: enabling universities to make their full contribution to the Lisbon Strategy” [COM(2005) 152 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 10 January 2003 – “Investing efficiently in education and training: an imperative for Europe” [COM(2002) 779 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 20 November 2002 – “European benchmarks in education and training: follow-up to the Lisbon European Council” [COM(2002) 629 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 on lifelong learning [Official Journal C 163 of 9.7.2002].

Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2001 on European cooperation in quality evaluation in school education [Official Journal L 60 of 1.3.2001].

 

Statistics on tourism

Statistics on tourism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Statistics on tourism

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enterprise > Industry

Statistics on tourism

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EU) No 692/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2011 concerning European statistics on tourism and repealing Council Directive 95/57/EC (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation aims at introducing a common framework for the development, production and dissemination of European statistics on tourism. It forms part of the provisions of the Regulation on European statistics.

The role of the Member States is to collect, draw up, process and transmit harmonised statistics on supply and demand in tourism.

What sort of data do the Member States have to collect?

Member States have to collect data relating to internal tourism * in terms of the capacity of tourist accommodation establishments
*. Information enabling the capacity of accommodation establishments to be determined includes:

  • number of establishments;
  • number of bed places;
  • number of rooms.

Some of these variables are collected at regional NUTS level 2 and apply to:

  • the type of accommodation (hotels, tourist accommodation, camping grounds);
  • the type of locality (densely populated, intermediate or thinly populated areas, coastal or non-coastal areas);
  • size (small, medium-sized or large establishments).

Member States also have to collect data on the number of establishments having one or more bedrooms accessible for persons with reduced mobility, including wheelchair users.

Variables relating to the occupancy of establishments concern the number of overnight stays and arrivals of residents and non-residents, as well as the occupancy rate of bedrooms and bed places. Some of these variables are collected at regional NUTS level 2 and apply to:

  • the type of accommodation (hotels, tourist accommodation, camping grounds);
  • the type of locality (densely populated, intermediate or thinly populated areas, coastal or non-coastal areas);
  • size (small, medium-sized or large establishments);
  • countries and geographical areas.

Member States may also collect data relating to internal tourism in non-rented accommodation
*, namely the number of tourism nights spent by residents and non-residents in non-rented accommodation.

In addition, Member States collect data concerning national tourism
*
 in terms of tourist demand for participation in tourism and the characteristics of trips. This data is based on variables including the duration and destination of trips for personal purposes, and socio-demographic data such as age group, education level, employment situation, etc.

Member States also compile triennial data presenting the main reasons for non-participation in tourism for personal purposes (financial reasons, lack of time, health reasons, etc.).

Variables concerning the trip itself must also be transmitted, namely:

  • the month of departure;
  • the duration of the trip;
  • destination;
  • the purpose of the trip;
  • means of transport;
  • means of accommodation;
  • expenditure;
  • profile of the visitor.

Lastly, Member States collect data on national tourism in terms of tourism demand concerning the characteristics of same-day visits within the Member State or abroad. This data is based on variables relating to:

  • the number of same-day visits (for personal or professional reasons);
  • expenditure;
  • the destination country (visits abroad);
  • the socio-demographic information described above.

Once a year, Member States send Eurostat a report on the quality of data collected. Eurostat has to create and update a methodological manual containing guidelines on the statistics produced.

What sort of programmes have to be implemented?

The Commission wishes Member States to put in place pilot programmes (on a voluntary basis) in order to prepare the development, production and dissemination of harmonised tables for tourism satellite accounts. The Commission also intends to draw up a programme of pilot studies to determine the effects of tourism on the environment.

This Regulation repeals Directive 95/57/EC.

Key terms of the Act
  • Domestic tourism: visits within a Member State by visitors who are residents of that Member State.
  • Inbound tourism: visits to a Member State by visitors who are not residents of that Member State.
  • Outbound tourism: visits by residents of a Member State outside that Member State.
  • National tourism: domestic and outbound tourism.
  • Internal tourism: domestic and inbound tourism.
  • Tourist accommodation establishment: a local kind-of-activity unit providing short-stay accommodation services as a paid service.
  • Non-rented accommodation: accommodation provided without charge by family or friends, and accommodation in owner-occupied vacation homes, including time share properties.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EU) No 692/2011

11.8.2011

OJ L 192 of 22.7.2011

Community framework relating to scientific data and advice

Community framework relating to scientific data and advice

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Community framework relating to scientific data and advice

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Maritime Affairs And Fisheries > Management of fisheries resources and the environment

Community framework relating to scientific data and advice

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 199/2008 dated 25 February 2008 concerning the establishment of a Community framework for the collection, management and use of data in the fisheries sector and support for scientific advice regarding the Common Fisheries Policy.

Summary

This Regulation establishes a Community framework for the collection, management and use of data in the fisheries sector and to obtain the necessary scientific advice for the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).

These biological, technical, environmental and socio-economic data relates to fleets and their activities as well as catches and the impact of fishing activities on the marine ecosystem. The data concerns all fishing activities, namely: commercial fisheries, recreational fisheries *, aquaculture activities and industries processing fisheries products.

Framework for the collection, management and use of data

Multi-annual national and Community programmes constitute the framework for the collection, management and use of data. They are adopted for a period of three years.

The Commission, assisted by the Committee for Fisheries and Aquaculture, establishes the Community programmes. On this basis, Member States develop national programmes, consisting of:

  • Multiannual sampling programmes which enable evaluation of the fisheries sector and activities based on biological, ecosystem and socio-economic data. Collection relates to vessels and companies in the sector, at landing locations or by consulting registers and economic data;
  • A data collection programme on board commercial and recreational fishing vessels, if necessary. Observation activities at sea are undertaken on board the vessels by scientists or, for practical or security reasons, by the vessel’s crew for a self-sampling programme;
  • A programme of research surveys at sea in order to measure the impact of fishing on the environment and the abundance and distribution of fisheries resources;
  • A programme for managing and using the data for scientific purposes.

Member States provide protocols and methods for the collection and analysis of data in their national programmes.

Member States cooperate with each other and with third-party countries if they are in the same marine region. For this reason, Member States coordinate their national programmes, particularly by Regional Coordination Meetings organised by the Commission, so as to avoid a duplication of data collection.

The Commission approves the national programmes and monitors their implementation. Both are based on assessments by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) as regards compliance and scientific and technical execution of national programmes. The Commission also estimates the associated costs. In cases of non-compliance, Member States amend their national programmes when requested by the Commission.

The European Union (EU) contributes 50% of the finance for data collection. A maximum sum of €300 million is earmarked for the period from 2007 to 2013, within the framework of Community financial measures for the implementation of the CFP.

The Commission may suspend or recover financial assistance if the execution of the national programme does not comply with the stipulated rules, such as compliance with deadlines, control of quality, and validation and transmission of data collected. A reduction of aid is also stipulated under certain conditions, but this is proportionate to the degree of non-compliance and must not exceed 25% of the annual cost of the national programme.

Management and use of data within the framework of the CFP

The data collected are stored in secure computerised national databases. These data, whose quality is controlled by Member States, are not only primary data * but also detailed data * and aggregated data * which results from processing the primary data.

Transmission of these data to end-users for scientific analysis is regulated. These data may also be used to support discussions in Regional Advisory Councils within the framework of the CFP for policy development and for scientific publications by researchers. Data-processing methods can be provided.

The deadline for data transmission depends on the type of use, which needs to be specified in the request. In certain cases, Member States can refuse to provide these data. The Commission can examine refusals. If they are not justified, the Member State must provide the data to the end-user within one month. Should they fail to do this, the refusal may constitute a reason for reducing financial assistance. End-users may also have their access to data restricted or prohibited if they do not comply with certain obligations.

The data collected as part of research surveys at sea are transmitted to the international scientific organisations and to scientific committees for the relevant Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (RFMO).

Support for scientific advice

National experts are encouraged to participate in RFMO and international scientific authorities’ meetings, in which the Community participates.

For this purpose, Member States and the Commission work together to improve the reliability of scientific advice and the quality of RFMO programmes and working methods within a context of openness and impartiality.

Background

This Community framework is the result of an extensive consultation with Member States, national scientific institutes responsible for data collection and key end-users, such as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES).

It is part of the EU’s integrated maritime policy and replaces the Community framework implemented in 2000 with effect from 1 January 2009.

Key terms in the act
  • Primary data: data associated with vessels, natural or legal persons or individual samples.
  • Detailed data: data based on primary data, in a form which does not permit the identification, either directly or indirectly, of natural or legal persons.
  • Aggregated data: summarised data established from primary or detailed data for specific analytical purposes.
  • Recreational fisheries: non-commercial fishing activities exploiting living aquatic resources for recreation or sport.

References

Act Entry into force Timescale for transposition into Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 199/2008

12.3.2008

OJ L 60, 5.3.2008

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2010/93/EU of 18 December 2009 adopting a multiannual Community programme for the collection, management and use of data in the fisheries sector for the period 2011-2013 [Official Journal L 41 of 16.2.2010].
This Decision establishes a Community programme for the collection, management and use of data in the fisheries sector for a period of three years. The programme contains four modules and defines precision levels and sampling intensities. This Decision will replace Decision 2008/949/EC on 1 January 2011.

Commission Decision 2008/949/EC of 6 November 2008 adopting a multiannual Community programme pursuant to Council Regulation (EC) No 199/2008 establishing a Community framework for the collection, management and use of data in the fisheries sector and support for scientific advice regarding the common fisheries policy [Official Journal L 346 of 23.12.2008].
The multiannual Community programme covers the collection of information with a view to using it to carry out scientific analysis, and the management of this information. The programme contains four modules and defines levels of precision and sampling intensities. The modules are as follows:

  • module of evaluation of the fishing sector;
  • module of evaluation of the economic situation of the aquaculture and processing industry sectors;
  • module of evaluation of the effects of the fishing sector on the marine ecosystem;
  • module for management and use of the data covered by the data collection framework.