Tag Archives: Crime

Rights of victims of crime

Rights of victims of crime

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Rights of victims of crime

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Judicial cooperation in criminal matters

Rights of victims of crime (Proposal)

Proposal

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime [COM(2011) 275 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Commission proposes a Directive aimed at ensuring that victims * of crime have the same level of protection, support and access to justice in all European Union (EU) countries. It will replace Framework Decision 2001/220/JAI on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings and forms part of a series of measures aimed at strengthening victims’ rights.

The Directive will accord the status of victim not only to persons harmed by the offence, but also to certain family members * if the person dies as a result of the offence.

Information and support for victims

To enable them to fully access their rights, victims must receive sufficient information in a comprehensible form. They must also have access to psychological support and practical assistance. The Proposal aims to guarantee:

  • the right to receive information from first contact with a judicial authority, specifically on how to make a complaint of a criminal offence, details of the proceedings and how to obtain protection if required;
  • the right to receive information about their case, in particular on the decision to end or proceed with an investigation, on the time and place of the trial, and, under certain conditions, on the release of the person prosecuted for the offence;
  • the right to understand and to be understood;
  • the right to interpretation and translation: if victims do not speak the language of the criminal proceedings, they shall be provided with interpretation free of charge and shall receive a translation of the complaint made, of any decision ending the proceedings, and of information concerning their rights;
  • the right to access victim support services: these services must be free of charge and also accessible to certain family members. They provide emotional and psychological support, as well as practical assistance, for example concerning financial issues and the role of the victim in criminal proceedings.

Participation of victims in criminal proceedings

Victims have a legitimate interest in seeing that justice is done. Furthermore, they should be able to participate in the criminal proceedings which concern them. To this end, the Commission’s Proposal includes a number of rights which victims should be assured of:

  • the right to have their complaint acknowledged;
  • the right to be heard during the proceedings;
  • the right to request a revision in the event of a decision not to prosecute;
  • rights to safeguards in the event of using mediation and other restorative justice services; the aim is to protect victims from any intimidation or further victimisation during the process. These services can only be used with victims’ consent and after they have been properly informed. Consent may be withdrawn at any time;
  • the right to legal aid and to reimbursement of costs where the victim participates in criminal proceedings;
  • the right to the return of property seized in the course of criminal proceedings;
  • the right to a decision on compensation from the offender in the course of criminal proceedings;
  • concerning victims resident in another EU country, the difficulties connected with these cases should be reduced, specifically by taking a statement from the victim immediately after the complaint of the criminal offence is made and by using video conferencing and telephone conference calls as much as possible for the purpose of interviewing victims. Where victims were unable to make a complaint of a criminal offence in the State where the offence took place, they should be able to do so in their Member State of residence which will then send the complaint to the Member State concerned.

Recognition of vulnerability and protection of victims

The Commission proposes that measures should be available to protect the safety of victims and their family members from possible retaliation or intimidation by the offender. The authorities will therefore ensure that contact with the latter is reduced, particularly in premises where the criminal proceedings are conducted.

During the investigation, victims will be interviewed quickly and only as many times as is necessary. If they wish, they may be accompanied by a legal representative or by a person of their choice. Their private life as well as that of their family must be protected.

The Proposal for a Directive recognises that certain people have a particularly high risk of suffering further during criminal proceedings. After an assessment of their individual needs, these vulnerable victims shall be accorded certain additional rights and services. This Proposal considers children, disabled people and victims of sexual violence or human trafficking to be vulnerable victims.

It is important that justice professionals, police officers and members of the victim support services receive appropriate training so that they are better able to meet the needs of victims.

Key terms of the Act
  • Victim: any natural person who has suffered harm, including physical or mental injury, emotional suffering or economic loss directly caused by a criminal offence; also any family members of a person whose death has been caused by a criminal offence.
  • Family member: the spouse, non-marital cohabitee, registered partner, the relatives in direct line, the brothers and sisters, and the dependants of the victim.

Reference

Proposal Official Journal Procedure

COM(2011) 275

2011/129/COD

Related Acts

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on mutual recognition of protection measures in civil matters [COM(2011) 276 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The aim of the proposed Regulation is that any protection measure issued by a Member State will be easily recognised in the rest of the EU without any further formality other than a standardised, multi-lingual certificate.

Co-decision procedure (2011/0130/COD)

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 18 May 2011 – Strengthening victims’ rights in the EU [COM(2011) 274 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

The rights of crime victims

The rights of crime victims

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The rights of crime victims

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Fight against terrorism

The rights of crime victims

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee of 14 July 1999 – Crime victims in the European Union – Reflexions on standards and action [COM(1999) 349 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 1998 action plan on how best to achieve an area of freedom, security and justice provides for a comparative analysis of victim compensation schemes and an assessment of the feasibility of taking EU action within five years. However, the Commission considers that victims’ rights also cover other aspects. The number of people (EU and non-EU country nationals living in the Union) travelling, living or studying in another EU country, and who are therefore potential victims of crimes committed in a country other than their own, is steadily increasing. This communication was prepared as a contribution to the discussions at the Tampere European Council of 15 and 16 October 1999 on establishing an area of freedom, security and justice.

Prevention of victimisation

One of the main ways of preventing victimisation is to make information circulate, especially at points throughout the transport infrastructure network (airports, stations, underground stations, etc.). Some EU countries have set up special services for foreign crime victims. In general, the Commission is advocating the exchange of best practices between EU countries and the development of appropriate training for staff.

Assistance to victims

Most EU countries have services offering some kind of first aid to crime victims. However, travellers may need a broader range of assistance than locals (e.g. language, social and psychological support). Assistance is provided by the police, social services or NGOs. Europe-wide cooperation has increased through associations, and the European Forum for Victims’ Services has formulated guidelines on victims’ rights. The police play an important role as they are often the first contact for victims. However, language and lack of information may present problems for victims, especially if they wish to lodge a complaint or obtain additional assistance. The Commission suggests introducing minimum standards for the reception of victims so that they can obtain the information and, if necessary, the assistance they need. This could be done by setting up a network of EU assistance services to deal with language, information and training problems, which are often related.

Standing of victims in the criminal procedure

It is difficult for foreign victims to follow proceedings concerning them at a distance. There are a number of solutions that should be adopted generally, such as fast-track procedures and the acceptance of statements submitted in advance or from abroad. In general, victims should be able to receive appropriate assistance so that they can follow the progress of the case, be treated with consideration and have the right to protection of their private life. Swifter procedures for the restitution of stolen property should be introduced. In certain cases, the development of mediation systems could speed up the process and improve the handling of complaints.

Compensation

This aspect will be looked at in the context of the implementation of the action plan on freedom, security and justice. To reduce disparities between EU countries, the Commission is proposing that they ratify the 1983 European Convention on the Compensation of Victims of Violent Crimes (Council of Europe) and examine ways of speeding up compensation. Other measures could also be adopted to help victims obtain compensation and to develop cooperation between EU countries with a view to facilitating claims procedures.

General issues

The communication asserts that victims are faced with inter-related problems at every stage: information, training of staff with whom they come into contact and language. The Commission would like to conduct a survey among travellers who have been victims of crime to highlight potential problems, develop training for the staff concerned and exchange good practices. Lastly, it is planning to provide multilingual information for crime victims on its website.

Related Acts


Council Directive 2004/80/EC of 29 April 2004 relating to compensation to crime victims [Official Journal L 261 of 6.8.2004].


Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA of 15 March 2001 on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings [Official Journal L 82 of 22.03.2001].

Compensation to crime victims

Compensation to crime victims

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Compensation to crime victims

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Fight against terrorism

Compensation to crime victims

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2004/80/EC of 29 April 2004 relating to compensation to crime victims.

Summary

Crime victims should be entitled to fair and appropriate compensation for the injuries they have suffered, regardless of where in the European Union (EU) the crime was committed. This directive contributes to this by:

  • requiring Member States to provide in their national legislation for a compensation scheme for victims of violent intentional crime committed in their territories;
  • setting up a system facilitating access to compensation for victims of crimes in cross-border situations (possibility of making an application in the Member State of residence, designation of central contact points in Member States, etc.).

Guaranteeing adequate compensation for victims of crime throughout the EU

It is often difficult to obtain compensation for victims either because the offender does not have the necessary financial resources or because it has not been possible to identify or prosecute the offender (the possibility of obtaining compensation from the offender is dealt with in the framework decision on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings). Most Member States are aware of this fact and have already introduced state-funded compensation schemes. However, these schemes differ greatly, and these differences have engendered substantial inequalities in terms of full coverage of all EU citizens and amount of compensation.

Following the entry into force of the directive, it will be possible for the victim of a crime to be compensated in cross-border and national situations irrespective of the victim’s country of residence or the Member State in which the crime was committed. The amount of compensation to be paid to individual victims is left to the discretion of the Member State in which the crime was committed, but it must be fair and appropriate.

Facilitating claims for compensation by victims in cross-border situations

This directive sets up a system of cooperation to facilitate access to compensation for victims of crimes in cross-border situations. This system is to operate on the basis of Member States’ compensation schemes for victims of violent intentional crime committed in their respective territories. All Member States must therefore set up a compensation mechanism and introduce national legislation providing for a compensation scheme for victims by 1 July 2005.

Providing for the setting up of a compensation scheme and reinforcing cooperation between Member States

All Member States must ensure that their national legislation provides for the existence of a compensation scheme ensuring that victims of violent intentional crime committed in their respective territories receive fair and appropriate compensation.

This directive sets up a system of cooperation between national authorities to facilitate access to compensation for victims in cross-border situations. Victims of crimes committed outside their Member State of habitual residence may ask an authority in the Member State in which they are residing (assisting authority) to provide information on how to apply for compensation. The authority in the Member State of habitual residence transmits the application directly to the authority in the Member State where the crime was committed (deciding authority), which is responsible for assessing the application and paying out the compensation.

The Commission has established standard forms for the transmission of applications and decisions relating to compensation to victims (see “Related acts”).

With a view to implementation, the directive makes provision for the drawing up and publishing of a manual for the assisting authorities on the internet. The directive also provides for the setting up of a system of central contact points in each Member State to facilitate cooperation in cross-border situations. Additional information is available on the website of the European Judicial Atlas in Civil Matters.

Member States are required to implement the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this directive by 1 Janaury 2006 at the latest.

Not later than 1 January 2009, the Commission will submit a report on the implementation of this directive to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee.

Background

In 1999, the Commission presented a communication with a view to improving the situation of crime victims in the EU. In addition, at the Tampere European Council, Member States recognised the need to lay down minimum standards on the protection of victims of crime in the Union. On 15 March 2001, the Council adopted a framework decision on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings. This framework decision contains provisions on compensation by the offender, but does not otherwise address the matter of compensation of crime victims.

Subsequently, on 28 September 2001, the Commission presented a green paper on the compensation of victims of crime, which targeted two main areas for potential action:

  • the adoption of minimum standards with regard to compensation at European level by requiring Member States to guarantee victims a reasonable level of state compensation;
  • the adoption of measures making access to compensation easy in practice, irrespective of where in the EU the crime was committed.

This directive follows on from the green paper. After the terrorist attacks in Madrid in March 2004, the Commission called for the adoption of the directive before 1 May 2004 in its declaration on combating terrorism.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2004/80/EC

26.8.2004

1.1.2006

OJ L 261, 6.8.2004.

Related Acts

Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee of 20 April 2009 on the application of Council Directive 2004/80/EC relating to compensation to crime victims [COM(2009) 170 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
This report evaluates the application of the directive in Member States during the period of 1 January 2006 – 31 December 2008. Only 15 Member States met the deadline for the transposition of the directive (1 January 2006). Subsequent notifications have been received from 11 Member States. The evaluation is thus not complete.
In any case, 25 Member States have put in place schemes for victims to submit applications, established the responsible authorities and implemented the provisions concerning administrative procedures. Most have also notified of their measures and methods for providing applicants information on compensation schemes.
Due to the recent implementation of the directive in some Member States, language barriers that some have encountered as well as a lack of knowledge of other legal systems and procedures, the number of cross-border applications and actions has remained very low. Furthermore, the processing and transmitting of applications and decisions varies greatly from one Member State to another.
All but one Member State have in place fair and appropriate national compensation schemes. Most compensate victims for personal injury, long-term disability and death, as well as close relatives in cases of homicide, but exclude unintentional injuries from their scope. However, the offences must have been reported to the police. Most Member States impose time limits for applications and upper limits for compensations. Most also provide for reduced compensations when the victim contributed to his/her injury.
Only 13 Member States transmitted to the Commission full details of the assisting and deciding authorities, the languages in which information may be transmitted between these authorities, the measures for providing information to applicants and the application forms. Consequently, the manual containing these details, which is published in the Atlas, will be updated regularly.

Commission Decision 2006/337/EC of 19 April 2006 establishing standard forms for the transmission of applications and decisions pursuant to Council Directive 2004/80/EC relating to compensation to crime victims [Official Journal L 125 of 12.5.2006].
The Commission has established standard forms for the transmission of applications and decisions relating to compensation. These forms are attached as an annex to the decision.

European Police Office – Europol

European Police Office – Europol

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European Police Office – Europol

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security > Police and customs cooperation

European Police Office – Europol (from 1.1.2010)

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2009/371/JHA of 6 April 2009 establishing the European Police Office (Europol).

Summary

This decision establishes the European Police Office (Europol) to support and strengthen mutual cooperation between Member States in preventing and combating terrorism and organised crime, including other forms of serious crime. Europol is based in The Hague, the Netherlands, and has legal personality.

Europol has competence in situations where two or more Member States are in need of a common approach to tackle organised crime, terrorism and other forms of serious crime. These also include related criminal offences.

Tasks of Europol

The main tasks of Europol are to:

  • collect, store, process, analyse and exchange information;
  • notify Member States of any connections between criminal offences concerning them;
  • assist Member States in investigations and provide intelligence and analytical support;
  • request Member States to initiate, conduct or coordinate investigations in specific cases and suggest the setting up of joint investigation teams;
  • draft threat assessments and other reports.

Based on Decision 2005/511/JHA on protecting the euro against counterfeiting, Europol is also designated as the central office to combat counterfeiting of the euro.

In matters where Europol has competence, its staff may participate in joint investigation teams. However, they may act only in a supportive capacity and may not take any coercive measures. The staff may provide information processed by Europol directly to the members of joint investigation teams.

National units

Each Member State is to designate a national unit to act as the sole liaison body between the competent authorities of its Member State and Europol. Only under conditions determined by the Member State in question may direct contact be permitted. Each national unit is to second at least one liaison officer to Europol, who will make up a national liaison bureau. These officers are to represent the interests of their national units and facilitate information exchanges between these units and Europol.

Information processing systems

Europol may process information and intelligence, including personal data, for the purpose of carrying out its tasks. To this end, a Europol Information System and analysis work files are established. Data entered into the system may concern persons who either have committed or are suspected of planning a criminal offence. It may consist of data relating directly to the person (name, nationality, social security number, etc.) and the offence committed. National units, liaison officers and Europol staff may input and retrieve data directly from the system. The designated competent authorities of Member States may merely search the system to ascertain that the data which they are requesting is available. Analysis work files may be opened by Europol to assemble, process and use data needed to assist in criminal investigations. In addition to the data on persons who have committed or are suspected of committing an offence, the files may contain data on witnesses, victims as well as contacts and associates of the offender.

Personal data

Any personal data retrieved from Europol may only be used by the competent authorities of Member States for the purpose of preventing and combating crimes. Europol may only use personal data to carry out its tasks. A Member State or third country or body may lay down further restrictions to the use of certain types of data it has communicated.

Europol may only hold data in data files for as long as is necessary for the performance of its tasks. Three years after input at the latest, the necessity for storing the data is reviewed. A data protection officer will ensure that personal data is processed lawfully.

Any person has the right to request a check of or access to personal data concerning him/her. In case the data is incorrect, the data subject has the right to request that it be corrected or deleted.

A national supervisory body in each Member State monitors that the input, retrieval and communication of personal data by its Member State is lawful. The joint supervisory body ensures the lawfulness of the storage, processing, use and transmission of personal data by Europol.

Relations with partners

Europol may cooperate with other European Union (EU) or Community institutions, bodies, offices and agencies when carrying out its tasks, in particular with Eurojust, the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF), the European External Borders Agency (Frontex), the European Police College (CEPOL), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA).

As determined by the Council, Europol may also cooperate with third countries and organisations, including the International Criminal Police Organisation (Interpol).

Organisation

The management board is the decision-making body of Europol. It consists of one representative from each Member State and one representative from the Commission, with each member having one vote. The director, who is the legal representative of Europol, is in charge of the organisation’s daily management. S/he is appointed by the Council for a period of four years, extendable once.

Europol is financed from the general budget of the EU.

Background

Europol was originally established on the basis of the Europol Convention of 1995. In order to simplify the administration of Europol and to reform it when necessary, a proposal was adopted in 2006 to replace the convention by this decision.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2009/371/JHA

4.6.2009

1.1.2010 (4.6.2009 for the second subparagraph of Article 57(2) and Articles 59, 60 and 61)

OJ L 121 of 15.5.2009

The prevention of and fight against organised crime in the financial sector

The prevention of and fight against organised crime in the financial sector

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The prevention of and fight against organised crime in the financial sector

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Single market for capital

The prevention of and fight against organised crime in the financial sector

Proposal

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the prevention of and fight against organised crime in the financial sector [COM(2004) 262 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The European Commission intends to develop and enhance a series of measures to prevent and fight either organised financial crime or general organised crime which influences organised financial crime.

Money laundering

The fight against money laundering has been a top political priority of the European Union (EU) for a number of years. The need to protect the financial system from misuse and the fear that the application of radically different measures in this area could prejudice the proper functioning of the Internal Market provided the European Commission with the legal basis under the Treaty for proposing Community legislation. Current legislation is basically composed of two Community Directives adopted in 1991 and 2001.

The Commission has announced its intention of tabling a proposal for a third Directive determining the changes to be made to the 1991 and 2001 Directives needed to take account of the revised 40 FATF Recommendations.

The Commission has already presented a proposal for a Regulation on the prevention of money laundering by means of customs cooperation. The proposal aims to set up a uniform approach to cash control based on a declaration system for amounts greater than EUR 15 000. It supplements the money-laundering Directives which govern, inter alia, the control of financial resources moving via financial institutions. There is indeed a risk that this control mechanism could be undermined by large-scale movements of cash which are not uniformly subject to control in the Community.

The Commission also proposes:

  • case tracking: Member States are encouraged to develop systems capable of tracking data provided by entities subject to reporting requirements;
  • the establishment of asset recovery bodies at national level: the Commission supports Europol’s efforts to set up an “Asset Seizure Knowledge Centre” to facilitate the identification of criminal assets in the course of major criminal investigations conducted by Member States;
  • criminalising gross negligence resulting in a failure to comply with reporting obligations;
  • a study on the feasibility of Member States’ establishing a database of currency exchange transactions which could be accessed by police and judicial authorities in money-laundering investigations;
  • giving consideration to an appropriate mechanism to facilitate an EU-wide response where financial havens are considered to represent a significant money laundering threat;
  • promoting rapid information exchange between law enforcement, FIUs and other organisations concerned with a view to detecting underground bank transactions, which generally leave no paper trail;
  • reinforcing Europol’s anti-money-laundering efforts by implementing the computerised evaluation of the Suspicious Transaction Reports sent to their analysis system (SUSTRANS);
  • pursuing the FIU-NET project, which aims to link up financial intelligence units.

Fraud

Non-cash means of payment represent an important source of illicit revenue for organised crime groups through fraud and counterfeiting.

The Commission will:

  • publish in 2004 a report on progress achieved under the three-year Action Plan to prevent fraud. This plan was adopted in 2001 and aims to foster a more coherent approach to prevention in this field;
  • propose further initiatives. In particular, it will explore the possibility of drafting clear guidelines as to how public and private agencies may work together to combat fraud more effectively.

In addition to what has recently been achieved in this field, there is a need to explore the establishment of a common and comprehensive EC concept of fiscal fraud and the harmonisation of penal sanctions. The Commission intends to launch a comparative study of the respective definitions of fiscal fraud and their penal consequences.

Fraud affecting the financial interests of the Community also represents an important source of illicit revenue. The Community’s own resources suffer huge losses as a result. To combat this problem, the Commission recommends:

  • enhanced cooperation between Member States, the Commission (OLAF), Eurojust and possibly Europol;
  • the creation of an independent European Public Prosecutor responsible for detecting and prosecuting offences directed against the Community’s financial interests.

Transparency of certain legal entities

There is a general need to enhance transparency and integrity standards in public administrations and private entities to prevent and discourage financial crime in general and thus contribute to the more effective tracing of organised financial crime.

The Commission proposes:

  • speeding up work on the role of independent non-executive or supervisory directors;
  • carrying out cost benefit analyses in connection with the enhancement of transparency measures to help combat organised financial crime;
  • exploring new ways of preventing and combating financial malpractice, with a particular focus, inter alia, on companies’ use of complex and opaque structures, subsidiaries and other special-purpose vehicles to commit and to conceal malpractices in the financial and taxation fields. One of the objectives could be to recommend a comprehensive and consistent EU approach for tackling such malpractices.

The Commission also intends to promote:

  • the development of cooperation between the private and public sectors, not only via the EU Forum for the Prevention of Organised Crime but also by encouraging greater research work in this area. It will also explore the scope for coordination between law enforcement/government officials and representatives of the financial and other business communities affected by organised financial crime.
  • the elaboration of a common policy on the development and implementation of financial investigations as an investigative technique. Standard rules for financial investigation bodies throughout the EU should also be considered, notably in connection with funding, training requirements and cooperation mechanisms of such bodies;
  • the setting of minimum standards for national criminal intelligence systems, in order to facilitate effective strategic and tactical analysis, forward planning and operations. To this end, the Commission proposes setting up a working group of representatives of the European Commission (including OLAF), Europol and Eurojust;
  • relevant data collection and statistical mechanisms with particular regard to organised financial crime;
  • further work on a mechanism to facilitate identification of legislative proposals which may inadvertently create opportunities for crime. At a subsequent stage, the Commission may if need be extend this form of crime risk assessment to areas beyond the legislative process. This could include procedures and processes surrounding such areas as insurance claim forms or credit card applications with a view to reducing opportunities for fraud;
  • a full evaluation of the effectiveness and impact of policy and measures in the fight against organised financial crime in the EU in 2005. The purpose of these evaluation missions will be to identify best practice and areas where additional measures in the fight against organised financial crime could be taken;
  • continued seminars, workshops and studies under its AGIS funding programme;
  • enhancing external action in the fight against organised financial crime, via technical assistance programmes for third countries and by entering into agreements with them (such as the agreement on mutual legal assistance in criminal justice concluded with the United States on 25 June 2003).

Background

This Communication addresses the problem of organised crime in the financial sector. The focus is therefore on non-violent crime generally involving abuse of financial and/or payment systems and resulting in illicit financial gain.

The European Commission sees the fight against organised financial crime as a core priority over the coming years, as financial crime is often wrongly perceived as a “victimless” crime. While organised financial crime may not always impact directly on individuals, the reality is that its broader social impact is considerable in terms of lost revenues, loss of reputation and the fall in public standards.