Tag Archives: Commercial vehicle

EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles.

Summary

The European Union (EU) is revising the system of EC type-approval for motor vehicles. The Directive retains (in revised form) the majority of the provisions of Directive 70/156/EEC and also introduces some entirely new concepts and requirements. It repeals and replaces Directive 70/156/EEC in order to have a clearer, more coherent text based on the principle of proportionality.

Scope

The requirement for EC type-approval for access to the internal market used to apply to private cars, motorcycles, mopeds and agricultural tractors. The European Union is extending this system to all categories of motor vehicles designed and constructed in one or more stages for use on the road and also to the systems, components and separate technical units designed and constructed for such vehicles. More precisely, the Directive is aimed at commercial vehicles (vans, lorries, semi-trailers, trailers), buses and coaches.

Type-approval system

The EC type-approval system is the only system in place for ensuring permanent monitoring of the conformity of output. Type-approval is based on the principle that manufacturers must issue a certificate of conformity for each vehicle manufactured, attesting that it conforms to the approved type. The manufacturer can opt for one of the following procedures: step-by-step type-approval *, single-step type-approval * or mixed type-approval *.

The Directive introduces a new EC type-approval method known as “multi-stage type-approval”. Each manufacturer involved in manufacturing a vehicle will fill in the part of the certificate relating to its own stage. The aim of this is to adapt the process to the specific nature of commercial vehicle manufacturing. The multi-stage procedure will generally involve two steps:

  • firstly, the initial manufacturer will obtain type-approval for a chassis (including the engine, wheels, shock absorbers, brakes, etc.) and a first EC type-approval certificate will be issued;
  • subsequently, the second manufacturer will assemble the bodywork and present the finished vehicle for type-approval. Where the same manufacturer is responsible for both chassis and bodywork, the vehicle may be type-approved using the time-honoured procedure for passenger cars.

The Directive is based on the principle of total harmonisation. EC type-approval procedures are compulsory and replace the national procedures with which they have co-existed up until now. The type-approval process is therefore noticeably simplified for manufacturers. It is enough for one Member State to type-approve a vehicle in order for all vehicles of that type to be registered throughout the Community solely on the basis of their certificate of conformity.

Improving road safety and environmental protection

The Directive aims to improve road safety by making a number of devices compulsory. These include ABS (anti-lock braking system), new and more effective rear-view mirrors (including the new front rear-view mirror), improved lights, side protection to prevent cyclists or pedestrians from being dragged under vehicles and anti-spray devices.

Furthermore, it lays down additional requirements for buses and coaches (emergency exits must be adapted to the number of people which the vehicle can hold, greater ease of access for persons with reduced mobility, sufficient “survival space” in the event of the vehicle rolling over etc.).

The Directive also focuses on various environmental obligations such as CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, engine power and smoke from diesel engines.

Timetable

The provisions of the proposal will be implemented from 2009 and will be phased in gradually until 2014, depending on the category of vehicle. The aim of the transition periods is to enable the industry to gradually adapt its production systems to the new requirements and enable governments to deal progressively with the increased number of requests for type-approval.

Background

Since 1970, Directive 70/156/EEC has been the main legal instrument for implementing the single market in the motor vehicle sector. It has been amended many times in order to keep pace with this sector’s constant development. It therefore seemed appropriate to increase its clarity by recasting it. Doing so also provides an opportunity to extend the scope of the established principles to new categories of motor vehicles.

The first stage of the revision, Directive 2001/116/EC, put in place the technical provisions needed for the practical implementation of the type-approval of commercial vehicles. This Directive marks the second stage of the revision of Directive 70/156/EEC.

Key terms of the act
  • Step-by-step type-approval: a vehicle-approval procedure consisting in the step-by-step collection of the whole set of EC type-approval certificates for the systems, components and separate technical units relating to the vehicle, and which leads, at the final stage, to the approval of the whole vehicle.
  • Single-step type-approval: a procedure consisting in the approval of a vehicle as a whole by means of a single operation.
  • Mixed type-approval: a step-by-step type-approval procedure for which one or more system approvals are achieved during the final stage of the approval of the whole vehicle, without it being necessary to issue the EC type-approval certificates for those systems.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2007/46/EC

29.10.2007

29.4.2009

OJ L 263, 9.10.2007

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2007/46/EC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version is for reference purpose only.

LAST AMENDMENTS TO THE ANNEXES

Annex IV – List of requirements for the purpose of EC type-approval of vehicles
Commission Regulation (EU) No 183/2011 [Official Journal L 53 of 26.2.2011].

Annex VI
Commission Regulation (EU) No 183/2011 [Official Journal L 53 of 26.2.2011].

Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness test

Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness test

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness test

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Road transport

Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness test

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2009/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers (Recast).

Summary

Motor vehicles registered in a European Union (EU) country and their trailers must undergo periodic roadworthiness tests. Annexes I and II to this directive detail the categories of vehicles to be tested, the frequency of the roadworthiness tests and the items which must be tested. The roadworthiness tests must be undertaken by the EU countries, or by a public body that has been entrusted with the task, or by bodies or establishments designated and directly supervised.

Annex I details the categories of motor vehicles that will be subject to roadworthiness tests and the required frequency of the tests for each category. The minimum testing frequency for the different categories of motor vehicles and their trailers is:

  • One year after the date on which the vehicle was first used, and thereafter annually for:
    • motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and with more than eight seats, excluding the driver’s seat;
    • motor vehicles used for the carriage of goods and having a maximum permissible mass exceeding 3 500 kg;
    • trailers and semi-trailers with a maximum permissible mass exceeding 3 500 kg;
    • taxis, ambulances;
  • Four years after the date on which the vehicle was first used, and thereafter every two years for:
    • motor vehicles having at least four wheels, normally used for the road carriage of goods and with a maximum permissible mass not exceeding 3 500 kg, excluding agricultural tractors and machinery;
    • motor vehicles having at least four wheels, used for the carriage of passengers and with not more than eight seats excluding the driver’s seat.

Annex II sets out which items must be compulsorily tested. The tests covered by Annex II should be undertaken using techniques and equipment available without the use of tools to disassemble or remove any part of the vehicle. Where the motor vehicle is found to be defective with regard to the test items below, the competent authority in the EU country concerned must set specific conditions under which the particular vehicle may be used before passing another roadworthiness test. The test must cover the items listed in the annex, provided that these are related to the equipment of the vehicle being tested in the EU country concerned. The compulsory test items include:

  • vehicle identification;
  • braking equipment;
  • steering;
  • visibility;
  • lighting equipment and parts of electric system;
  • axles, wheels, tyres and suspension;
  • chassis and chassis attachments;
  • other equipment – safety belts, fire extinguisher, locks and anti-theft device, warning triangle, first-aid kit, speedometer, etc;
  • nuisance – noise, exhaust emissions, etc;
  • supplementary tests for public transport vehicles – emergency exit(s), heating and ventilation systems, seat layout, interior lighting;

The vehicle operator or driver must be informed in writing of any defects, the result of the test and the legal consequences. EU countries will take the necessary measures to make it possible to prove that a vehicle has passed a roadworthiness test. Other EU countries and the Commission will be informed of these measures. All EU countries will mutually recognise the proof issued in another EU country showing that a vehicle registered in that other EU country, together with its trailer or semi-trailer, has passed a roadworthiness test in compliance with the provisions of this directive. EU countries will also implement all appropriate measures to establish that the brake performance of motor vehicles registered in their country complies with the requirements of this directive.

Exceptions

Notwithstanding the provisions of Annexes I and II, EU countries have the right to:

  • bring forward the date for the first compulsory roadworthiness test and, where appropriate, require the vehicle to be submitted for test prior to registration;
  • shorten the interval between two successive compulsory tests;
  • make the testing of optional equipment compulsory;
  • increase the number of items to be tested;
  • extend the periodic test requirement to other categories of vehicles;
  • prescribe special additional tests;
  • require vehicles registered on their territory to have higher minimum standards for braking efficiency than those specified in Annex II and include a test on vehicles with heavier loads, provided such requirements do not exceed those of the vehicle’s original type-approval.

EU countries also have the right to exclude vehicles belonging to the armed forces, the forces of law and order and the fire service from the scope of this directive. After consultation with the Commission, EU countries may exclude from the requirements of this directive certain motor vehicles operated or used in exceptional conditions, and motor vehicles which are never, or hardly ever, used on public highways. Following consultation with the Commission, EU countries also have the right to set their own testing standards for vehicles considered to be of historic interest.

The Commission will adopt all necessary directives to define the minimum standards and methods for testing the items listed in Annex II of this directive, as well as any amendments necessary to adapt to technical progress in these areas.

Within three years from the introduction of regular testing of speed limitation devices, the Commission will re-examine whether the tests laid down are sufficient to detect defective or manipulated speed limitation devices or whether the rules need to be modified.

This directive repeals Directive 96/96/EC.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2009/40/EC

26.6.2009

OJ L 141 of 6.6.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2009/40/EC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Commission Recommendation 2010/378/EU of 5 July 2010 on the assessment of defects during roadworthiness testing in accordance with Directive 2009/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers [Official Journal L 173 of 8.7.2010].

Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers

Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 76/759/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles and their trailers [See amendingacts].

Summary

Each Member State must grant component EC type-approval for any type of direction indicator lamp which satisfies the construction and testing requirements laid down in the Annexes to the Directive, and issue an EC component type-approval mark conforming to the model shown in the Annex to the Directive for each type. The Member State which has granted EC component type-approval must take the measures required in order to verify that production models conform to the approved type.

According to the system of granting approval set out in the Directive, Member States may not:

  • prohibit the placing on the market of direction indicator lamps on grounds relating to their construction or method of functioning if they bear the EC component type-approval mark;
  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval of any vehicle on grounds relating to its direction indicator lamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC;
  • refuse or prohibit the sale, registration, entry into service or use of any vehicle on grounds relating to its direction indicator lamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.

Nevertheless, a Member State may prohibit the placing on the market of direction indicator lamps bearing the EC component type-approval mark which consistently fail to conform to the approved type.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 76/759/EC

30.7.1976

1.7.1977

OJ L 262 of 27.9.1976

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 1999/15/EC

2.5.1999

1.10.1999

OJ L 97 of 12.4.1999

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 76/759/EC have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version  is for reference only.

Braking devices of certain motor vehicles

Braking devices of certain motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Braking devices of certain motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Braking devices of certain motor vehicles (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 71/320/EEC of 26 July 1971 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the braking devices of certain categories of motor vehicles and of their trailers [See amendingacts].

Summary

This Directive lays down the procedures relating to EC type-approval for the braking devices of certain vehicles.

This Directive concerns any motor vehicle intended for use on the road, with or without bodywork, having at least four wheels and a maximum design speed exceeding 25 km/h, and its trailers, falling into categories M (M1, M2, M3), N (N1, N2, N3) and O (O1, O2, O3, O4).

Braking device means the combination of parts whose function is progressively to reduce the speed of a moving vehicle or to bring it to a halt, or to keep it stationary if it is already halted.

The braking device defined must fulfil the following conditions:

  • Service braking: allows the driver to control the movement of the vehicle without removing his hands from the steering control,
  • Secondary braking: allows the driver to halt the vehicle while keeping at least one hand on the steering control.
  • Stationary braking: enables the vehicle to be held stationary.

A braking device must have at least two controls which are independent of each other. The control of the service braking device must be independent of the control of the parking braking device.

The Directive also lays down safety requirements, a procedure for testing the efficiency of braking devices and a system of vehicle testing.

No Member State may refuse to grant EC type approval or national type approval of a vehicle on grounds relating to its braking devices if that vehicle is fitted with the devices specified in the Annexes to the Directive and if the devices satisfy the requirements set out therein.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 71/320/EEC

30.7.1971

30.0.1973

OJ L 202 of 6.9.1971

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 85/647/EEC

23.12.1985

10.10.1986

OJ L 380 of 31.12.1985

Directive 98/12/EC

7.4.1998

31.12.1998

OJ L 81 of 18.3.1998

The successive amendments and corrections to Council Directive 71/320/EEC have been integrated into the original text. This consolidated version is for reference only.

Emissions from heavy duty vehicles : certification rules

Emissions from heavy duty vehicles : certification rules

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Emissions from heavy duty vehicles : certification rules

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Air pollution

Emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI): certification rules

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 595/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on type-approval of motor vehicles and engines with respect to emissions from heavy duty vehicles (Euro VI) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 and Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 80/1269/EEC, 2005/55/EC and 2005/78/EC (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation defines the legal framework for type-approval of motor vehicles, engines and replacement parts with respect to their emissions. It also establishes rules on:

  • in-service conformity of vehicles and engines;
  • durability of pollution control devices;
  • on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems and accessibility of information;
  • measurement of fuel consumption;
  • CO2 emissions.

This Regulation applies to motor vehicles of categories M1, M2, N1 and N2 (see Annex II of Directive 2007/46/EC).

Obligations of the manufacturers

Manufacturers must be able to demonstrate that all new vehicles, engines or spare parts sold, registered or put into service within the Community have been EC type-approved.

Manufacturers must also implement technical measures to guarantee effective limitation of tailpipe emissions.

This Regulation also establishes conditions for pollution control devices according to a mileage and life cycle specific to each vehicle category.

Requirements and tests

Manufacturers must equip their vehicles or engines with components that ensure compliance with the emission limits laid down in Annex I of this Regulation.

The European Commission lays down provisions to ensure compliance with emission limits – mainly measures concerning tailpipe emissions *, pollution control devices, reference fuels and the measurement of engine power.

Access to information

Vehicle manufacturers must guarantee independent operators * access to information on on-board diagnostic (OBD) * systems, and on diagnostic equipment, tools or software.

Manufacturers are also responsible for providing information on vehicle repairs and maintenance *. The final manufacturer shall be responsible for communicating information about the whole vehicle.

The information should be made available on the websites of manufacturers, or, if this is not feasible, in another appropriate format.

Timetable

National authorities shall no longer grant Community or national type-approval for vehicles that do not comply with this Regulation as from 31 December 2012. They are also to prohibit the registration of new vehicles that do not comply with this Regulation as from 31 December 2013.

Financial incentives

Member States may grant financial incentives for the purchase of motor vehicles produced in series which comply with this Regulation until 31 December 2013. Retrofitting measures may also be considered either to adapt in-use motor vehicles or for scrapping.

The amount of the financial incentives shall be equal to the additional cost of the technical measures introduced to ensure compliance of the vehicle with emission limits.

This Regulation repeals Directives 80/1269/EEC, 2005/55/EC and 2005/78/EC with effect from 31 December 2013.

Context

The Sixth Community Environment Action Programme highlights the need to reduce air pollution. This Regulation contributes to the Union’s objectives in terms of air quality by establishing a system which constrains the automobile industry to limit the vehicle emissions that it produces.

Key terms of the Act
  • Tailpipe emissions: emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants;
  • On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) system: a system on board a vehicle or connected to an engine which has the capability of detecting malfunctions, and, if applicable, of indicating their occurrence by means of an alert system, of identifying the likely area of malfunction by means of information stored in computer memory, and of communicating that information off-board;
  • Vehicle repair and maintenance information: all information required for diagnosis, servicing, inspection, periodic monitoring, repair, re-programming or re-initialising or the remote diagnostic support of the vehicle and which the manufacturers provide for their authorised dealers and repairers, including all subsequent amendments and supplements to such information. This information includes all information required for fitting parts or equipment onto vehicles;
  • Independent operator: undertakings other than authorised dealers and repairers which are directly or indirectly involved in the repair and maintenance of motor vehicles, in particular repairers, manufacturers or distributors of repair equipment, tools or spare parts, publishers of technical information, automobile clubs, roadside assistance operators, operators offering inspection and testing services, operators offering training for installers, manufacturers and repairers of equipment for alternative fuel vehicles.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 595/2009

7.8.2009

OJ L 188 of 18.7.2009

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness testing of heavy goods vehicles

Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness testing of heavy goods vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness testing of heavy goods vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Road transport

Motor vehicles and their trailers: roadworthiness testing of heavy goods vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2000/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 June 2000 on the technical roadside inspection of the roadworthiness of commercial vehicles circulating in the Community.

Summary

This directive sets out the legal framework for roadside roadworthiness checks on commercial vehicles that are intended to carry passengers or goods. It supplements Directive 96/96/EC which introduces a mandatory annual roadworthiness test at a testing station for on-road commercial vehicles.

A wide range of advantages are expected in terms of reducing the number of accidents and pollution (reducing carbon dioxide CO2 emissions) and of energy saving (lowering fuel consumption).

Roadside checks are unannounced checks on a commercial vehicle travelling within a European Union (EU) country. They are carried out by the authorities on roads, in ports, or anywhere else considered appropriate.

This directive provides that a technical roadside inspection shall comprise one, two or all of the following aspects:

  • a visual check on the state of maintenance of the vehicle running on the road network;
  • a check on the documents relating to the compliance of the vehicle with a technical roadside inspection and if the driver presents it a recent roadside technical inspection report;
  • a check to uncover poor maintenance (smooth tyres, faulty braking system, etc.). In this instance, the inspector should take the most recent documents and any other safety certificate into consideration.

The directive provides for the introduction by the EU countries of regular, appropriate roadside checks to be carried out without discrimination as to the driver’s nationality or vehicle registration, and which every year covers a significant, representative cross-section of commercial vehicles of all categories.

Every two years the EU countries must send the Commission information on the two previous years concerning the number of commercial vehicles checked.

The roadside checks provided for in the directive shall be carried out in accordance with a checklist (Annex 1). A certificate setting out the results of the spot check is to be handed to the driver of the vehicle, who must be in a position to present this on request in order to simplify or avoid subsequent checks.

If the extent of poor maintenance requires a more detailed examination, the vehicle may be subjected to a closer inspection in an approved roadworthiness testing station.

If the results of a roadside check show that a commercial vehicle does not meet the standards set out in the directive (Annex 2: Braking systems, exhaust emissions), or if it is not shown to comply with Directive 96/96/EC during a subsequent roadworthiness test at an approved testing centre and if it therefore constitutes a major risk to its occupants or other road users, the use of that vehicle on the public highway will immediately be banned.

Serious or repeated offences by a vehicle belonging to a non-resident shall be reported to the authorities in the EU country where the vehicle or company is registered. The country in which the offence has been repeated may then request that action be taken against the offender. Where such action is taken, the country of vehicle or company registration shall inform the country in which the offences have been noted of the action taken against the carrier or company concerned.

The Commission is assisted by the Committee on adaptation to technical progress introduced by Directive 96/96/EC.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2000/30/EC

10.8.2000

9.8.2002

L 203 of 10.8.2000

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2000/30/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference only.

Annexes 1 and 2
Directive 2010/47/EU [OJ L 173 of 8.7.2010].

Related Acts

Commission Recommendation 2010/379/EU of 5 July 2010 on the risk assessment of deficiencies detected during technical roadside inspections (of commercial vehicles) in accordance with Directive 2000/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [Official Journal L 173 of 8.7.2010].