Tag Archives: AR

A regional policy partnership for the Horn of Africa

A regional policy partnership for the Horn of Africa

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A regional policy partnership for the Horn of Africa

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > African Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

A regional policy partnership for the Horn of Africa

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 20 October 2006 – Strategy for Africa: An EU regional political partnership for peace, security and development in the Horn of Africa [COM(2006) 601 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Horn of Africa, which consists of Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda, is one of the poorest and most conflict-prone regions in the world.

The importance of the Horn of Africa for the EU

The EU plays an important role in the Horn region, where it is the main provider of development and humanitarian assistance.

At the same time, the EU has an interest in the stability of the region. The Horn is embroiled in a regional system of insecurity in which conflicts and political crises feed into and fuel one another The crises in the border region between Eritrea and Ethiopia and in Somalia, together with the conflicts in Sudan and the north of Uganda, create instability and insecurity in the region. The instability is further reinforced by illegal migration and trafficking of arms and drugs, as well as refugee flows.

Nevertheless, the stability of this region is important for the EU in view of its proximity to the Red Sea, which is a crucial waterway for trade with Saudi Arabia – the world’s largest oil producer.

Regional dimension and dynamics

The major conflicts reflect the interconnections characterising the region. These are related to the fact that most of the borders are unstable and many are contested. In addition, this factor undermines relations between countries sharing a common border, with some States providing support to armed groups fighting in neighbouring States.

The crises in this region have several cross-cutting regional issues in common, i.e.

  • interdependence between insecurity, poverty and governance. The marginalisation of certain communities is reinforced by the warlords and the business community who benefit from war economies. In addition, authoritarianism, militarism and the interference of external powers contribute to instability and conflict;
  • religious fundamentalism has taken advantage of weak state institutions to spread. It is also strengthened by the grievances wrought by poverty and conflicts and the influence of extremist fundamentalist ideology;
  • migrants, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are numerous throughout the region. These populations are not only a source of regional instability, but also vulnerable and easily exploited by traffickers and criminal networks;
  • proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons (SALW) contribute to the presence of warlords, militias and criminal networks and also serve as an enabler of terrorism;
  • insecurity of border and peripheral areas;
  • competition for access to natural resources (such as water, timber, fish and fertile land), which are suffering from the consequences of desertification and climate change. In particular, access to limited water resources is of strategic importance. Specifically, five of the seven countries of the Horn share the Nile basin, which is at the centre of potential regional tensions;
  • structural food insecurity mostly affects nomadic pastoralists and agri-pastoralists. Depletion of the natural resources and degradation of pasture areas are potential causes of ethnic tensions and conflicts;
  • the high number of transhumant and cross-border pastoralists are communities which are often marginalised and alienated;
  • the demographic upsurge increases pressure on limited natural resources still further.

Work programme to improve the political stability of the region

The Commission proposes to enhance the partnership between the EU, the AU and regional organisations by means of the following measures:

  • enhancement of cooperation with the IGAD, focusing on three main areas: peace, security and governance; pastoralism and food security; and institutional development;
  • building Africa’s capacities for conflict prevention, mediation and deployment of military peacekeeping operations, with active participation of the AU;
  • fostering of regional integration in the countries of the Horn, in particular by integrating the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and the East Africa Community (EAC) in any long-term strategy to establish peace in the region;
  • supporting African efforts to monitor and improve governance.

In addition, the dialogue between the EU and the Horn must take account of key country-level strategic issues with potential regional ramifications, i.e.:

  • factoring into the dialogue of the interests of the supporters and opponents of the peace process in Sudan, with particular attention paid to the Darfur crisis;
  • putting cross-border state support for armed groups on the political agenda of the EU and the countries of the Horn;
  • finding solutions to border demarcation issues, particularly in relation to the Ethiopian/Eritrean border;
  • taking account of the role of Kenya and Djibouti in regional stability;
  • the participation of Somalia’s neighbouring countries in the Somali peace process, in which they can play a stabilising role;
  • taking account of the regional dimensions of the conflict in northern Uganda in the peace process.

Finally, regional cross-cutting and cross-border concerns should be addressed on the basis of three pillars:

  • improved governance and security, and enhanced dialogue between cultures;
  • enhanced development, trade, security and political participation, and improved management of migration and refugees and prevention of SALW proliferation;
  • improved programmes to address competition for natural resources.

An enabling environment for a successful partnership

The Commission proposes accompanying measures for the successful implementation of the partnership. These measures concern both the EU and the countries of the Horn of Africa.

In particular, the EU must:

  • promote information-sharing and consultation between EU Member States and EU institutions;
  • promote the International Partners Forum (IPF) as a forum for dialogue with IGAD;
  • facilitate political dialogue (Article 8 of the Cotonou Agreement) with key actors, with a strong emphasis on regional issues;
  • tackle issues concerning the Horn of Africa with Egypt, the Arab Gulf States, the League of Arab States, and Central and East Africa;
  • enhance dialogue and coordination with the USA, Norway, Japan, Canada, Russia and China, as well as with the United Nations;
  • strengthen integration into development programmes of human and social rights and gender, demographic issues and the environment;
  • take account of regional and cross-cutting issues in EU strategies and programmes concerning the countries of the Horn region. In addition, the national and regional strategies of the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) for the period 2008-2013 must dovetail with the regional political partnership for the Horn.

For their part, the countries of the Horn must:

  • obtain a coordinated position among Member States, the IGAD Secretariat, regional players and civil society organisations;
  • be open to dialogue on key regional challenges and be engaged in identifying the drivers of change;
  • allocate adequate resources for the dialogue and the work programme;
  • address sources of conflict and promote cross-sectoral cooperation;
  • implement relevant institutional reforms.

The implementation of the partnership starts in 2007 and will be the subject of a joint review in the following two years.

Background

The regional political partnership proposed in this Communication builds on two strategies already being implemented by the EU: the European Consensus for Development and the EU-Africa Strategy. This partnership is in particular a test case for applying the EU-Africa strategy.

 

A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field

A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-18)

Document or Iniciative

Council Resolution of 27 November 2009 on a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-2018) [Official Journal C 311 of 19.12.2009].

Summary

For Europe to attain the objectives regarding growth and jobs set by the Lisbon strategy, it is imperative that its young men and women are socially as well as professionally well integrated. Such integration also promotes young people’s personal fulfilment, social cohesion and active citizenship. However, young people still face challenges in terms of employment, education and training, poverty, health, and participation and democratic representation. Therefore, a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field has been designed to provide better opportunities for Europe’s young people.

This renewed framework is based on the Commission’s communication of April 2009 on the new European Union (EU) Youth Strategy. It aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of European cooperation by establishing a strategy for the next decade that builds on the progress made and lessons learned under the previous framework.

European cooperation in the youth field during 2010-18

European cooperation in the youth field during 2010-18 is motivated by two interrelated objectives:

  • the creation of more and equal opportunities in education and the labour market;
  • the promotion of active citizenship, social inclusion and solidarity.

To this end, specific initiatives targeting young people and mainstreaming initiatives to incorporate youth issues into other policy areas are developed and promoted. The renewed framework outlines eight fields of action in which cross-sectoral initiatives to support young people should be taken:

  • education and training;
  • employment and entrepreneurship;
  • health and well-being;
  • participation;
  • voluntary activities;
  • social inclusion;
  • youth and the world;
  • creativity and culture.

European cooperation in the youth field must uphold a number of guiding principles, particularly:

  • promote gender equality;
  • combat all forms of discrimination;
  • consider differences between young people, especially in terms of disadvantage;
  • provide for the participation of young people in policy-making.

European cooperation should be evidence-based, relevant and concrete with clear and visible results that are regularly presented, reviewed and disseminated. It should be applied through a renewed framework of open method of coordination. This requires political commitment from EU countries and working methods based on:

  • a series of 3-year work cycles (the first cycle covers the years 2010-12);
  • an overall thematic priority for each trio presidency and specific priorities for each presidency country contributing to the overall thematic priority (the priorities for the period from 2010 to mid-2011 are set out in the annex to the resolution);
  • implementation instruments (knowledge building, mutual learning, progress reporting, dissemination of results, monitoring of the process, dialogue with young people, mobilisation of EU programmes and funds).

Within this renewed framework for European cooperation, the role of youth work must be strengthened. It should be supported and recognised for its social as well as economic contribution. The discussion should focus on the training, recognition of skills and mobility of youth workers and leaders, as well as on the promotion of innovative solutions in youth work.

Role of EU countries and the Commission

EU countries are called upon to work together on the basis of this resolution, with a view to improving European cooperation in the youth field. They should adopt national level measures that contribute to achieving the objectives set for this cooperation.

The Commission is invited to work with EU countries as well as to support their cooperation within the framework. The Commission should monitor the achievement of the objectives, in relation to which it should establish a working group to review data on the situation of young people and evaluate the need to develop new indicators for fields related to youth. The Commission should also propose peer-learning activities and initiate relevant studies.

Background

Established in June 2002, the framework for European cooperation in the youth field provided for the application of the open method of coordination in this context as well as for the mainstreaming of youth issues into other relevant policy areas. The European Youth Pact was adopted in March 2005 to contribute to reaching the objectives of growth and jobs of the Lisbon strategy. The renewed social agenda of July 2008 established children and youth as one of its main priority areas for action.

A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Pharmaceutical and cosmetic products

A renewed vision for the pharmaceutical sector

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 21 December 2008 – ‘Safe, Innovative and Accessible Medicines: a Renewed Vision for the Pharmaceutical Sector’ [COM(2008) 666 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Communication lays down objectives relating to the future of the pharmaceutical sector.

The new regulatory framework should contribute to reinforcing the safety of pharmaceuticals, encouraging innovation and making medicines more accessible for European patients.

Making progress towards a single market in pharmaceuticals

Better access to medicines

European patients should be able to benefit from scientific progress and obtain the medicines that they need for therapeutic purposes. Two options have been envisaged:

  • to put the emphasis on smaller markets thanks to cooperation with Member States up to 2010;
  • to identify, by 2010, ways to optimise the functioning of the network of European Union medicines authorities.

Transparency and the exchange of information in the field of pricing and reimbursement should be improved.

Better regulation for a more competitive industry

Regulation should be improved, particularly in the field of clinical trials. The first step towards improving regulation should be an assessment of the application of Directive 2001/20/EC on clinical trials by 2010.

Safer medicines for better informed citizens

The safety of medicines should be reinforced by the legislative proposal on pharmacovigilance. In parallel, it is important to provide the patients who request it with reliable and objective information on the medicines to which they have access.

The environment issue also comes into play via the proposing of measures aimed at reducing the negative effects of pharmaceuticals on the environment and public health.

Taking on the opportunities and challenges of globalisation

Tackling worldwide health challenges

To combat the circulation of illegal medicines, it is necessary to reinforce the exchange of information at international level by 2012 and to help third countries to take appropriate measures.

In the area of pandemics, bilateral and multilateral relations should be strengthened.

Global cooperation and harmonisation

Inspection mechanisms with the United States, Japan and Canada should be established by 2010. In addition, bilateral cooperation with Russia, India and China should be extended.

International harmonisation is advocated, particularly by means of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). It is also recommended that the areas of the Transatlantic Economic Council (TEC) be used for the simplification and convergence of rules between the United States and the European Union.

Finally, for the European Union to be internationally competitive, the Communication encourages it to implement and enforce the framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), as well as the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) in particular as regards the protection of intellectual property rights.

Making science deliver for European patients

Supporting pharmaceutical research

The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) is to accelerate medicine development so as to make new treatment options available to patients earlier.

New horizons in medicine

These new horizons include two main challenges:

  • advanced therapies such as regenerative medicine should be reevaluated by 2012;
  • new technologies such as pharmacogenomics which make it possible to offer patients personalised treatment.

Background

At the beginning of the 21st century, Europe is facing challenges such as pharmaceutical innovation, shortcomings in the availability of medicines, the increasing globalisation of the sector and scientific breakthroughs.

It therefore appears important to shape a Community framework which allows continued progress toward a single and sustainable market in pharmaceuticals to be made, advantage to be taken of the opportunities and challenges associated with globalisation, and European patients to benefit from scientific progress.

ARTEMIS

ARTEMIS

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ARTEMIS

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

ARTEMIS

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 74/2008 of 20 December 2007 on the establishment of the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking to implement a Joint Technology Initiative in Embedded Computing Systems

Summary

From mobile phones to bank cards, cars and planes, integrated computing devices have become part and parcel of our daily lives.

They also represent a growing share in the value of finished goods in many key industrial sectors.

According to recent statistics, these technologies represent a true growth market:

  • 98 % of computers are integrated in other devices;
  • over 4 billion embedded systems were sold in 2007;
  • the world market comes to EUR 60 billion and is continuing to grow at an annual rate of 14 %;
  • by 2010, it is expected that over 16 billion embedded computers will be in circulation (over 40 billion by 2020).

The European Union (EU) has this market in its sights, focusing its efforts on a new Joint Undertaking, known as ARTEMIS.

The ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking implements the Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on Embedded Computing Systems.

This public-private partnership aims essentially to support the co-financing of research initiatives at European level and to improve cooperation between the various operators in the sector.

Based in Brussels, the Joint Undertaking is a Community body with legal personality. It has been set up for a period up to 31 December 2017. The founding members of the Joint Undertaking are the Community (represented by the Commission), Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Hungary, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom and ARTEMISIA, an association representing companies and research and development (R&D) organisations active in the field of embedded computing systems. The ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking is open to new members.

Objectives

ARTEMIS contributes to the implementation of the Specific Programme “Cooperation” of the Seventh Framework Research and Development Programme (7th FRDP).

It aims in particular:

  • to define and implement a “Research Agenda” for the development of key technologies for embedded computing systems;
  • to provide financial support for various R&D activities;
  • to promote a public-private partnership favouring convergence of Community and national efforts (public and private), investments, and collaboration between the various sectors involved;
  • to improve the coordination of R&D efforts in the field of embedded computing systems;
  • to encourage the involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Functioning

The Joint Undertaking bodies are:

  • the Governing Board, which consists of representatives of the members of the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking and the Chairperson of the Industry and Research Committee, has responsibility for the operations of the Joint Undertaking and oversees the implementation of its activities;
  • the Executive Director is appointed for a three-year period by the Governing Board, is responsible for the day-to-day management and is the legal representative of the Joint Undertaking;
  • the Public Authorities Board consists of the public authorities of the Joint Undertaking, each of which appoints its representatives and a lead delegate. Its tasks include approving the scope and the launch of calls for proposals and deciding the selection and funding of the proposals selected;
  • the Industry and Research Committee consists of a maximum of twenty-five members appointed by the ARTEMISIA association. Its tasks include preparing the draft Multiannual Strategic Plan and making proposals regarding the strategy of the Joint Undertaking.

The ARTEMIS resources are made up of contributions from the members and the Community and revenue generated by ARTEMIS itself. Any legal entity which is not a member may make in-kind or cash contributions to the ARTEMIS resources.

The ARTEMIS costs consist of:

  • running costs, borne by its members. ARTEMISIA also makes a contribution of up to EUR 20 million or up to 1 % of the sum of the total cost of all projects. The Community contribution may not exceed EUR 10 million. The ARTEMIS Member States make in-kind contributions;
  • R&D activities. The Community makes a contribution of up to EUR 410 million. The financial contributions from the ARTEMIS Member States amount to at least 1.8 times the Community’s financial contribution and do not pass through the Joint Undertaking, but are paid directly to the research and development organisations participating in the projects. Furthermore, the same bodies make in-kind contributions to the projects, the total value of which over the duration of the Joint Undertaking is equal to or greater than the contribution of the public authorities.

The R&D activities are implemented by means of projects launched following open and competitive calls for proposals. These projects are funded by financial contributions from the Community and the participating Member States and by in-kind contributions by the research and development organisations participating in the projects of the Joint Undertaking.

As a Community initiative, Community legislation applies to the Joint Undertaking, including its staff. The Court of Justice of the European Communities has jurisdiction in any dispute between the members and in actions brought against the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking. The Commission and the Court of Auditors carry out checks among the recipients of the Joint Undertaking’s funding.

Background

The Lisbon Agenda for Growth and Jobs placed the emphasis on investment in knowledge and innovation. In this respect, JTIs, which are public-private partnerships implemented by joint undertakings, have been set up under the 7th FRDP. These JTIs stem from the work of European Technology Platforms set up under the 6th FRDP.

In addition to the “ARTEMIS” initiative, five other JTIs are planned in nano-electronics (ENIAC), innovative medicines (IMI), aeronautics and air transport (CLEAN SKY), hydrogen and fuel cells (FUEL CELL), and global monitoring for environment and security (GMES).

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 74/2008 [adoption: consultation CNS/ 2007/ 088] 7.2.2008 OJ L 30 of 4.2.2008

ARGO

ARGO

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ARGO

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Other

ARGO

ARGO is the new administrative cooperation action programme in the field of asylum, immigration and crossing of external frontiers. It replaces the Odysseus programme.

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision of 13 June 2002 adopting an action programme for administrative cooperation in the field of external borders, visas, asylum and immigration (ARGO) [See amending acts].

Summary

1. The Decision seeks to introduce a new programme for administrative cooperation in the fields of external borders, visas, asylum and immigration since the Odysseus programme has come to an end (given that its budget was exhausted in 2001). This programme (“ARGO”) covers the period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2006.

2. The programme’s objectives are:

  • to promote cooperation between national administrations responsible for implementing Community rules and to ensure that proper account is taken of the Community dimension in their actions;
  • to promote the uniform application of Community law;
  • to increase the transparency and overall effectiveness of the actions taken by the national authorities.

3. The action programme supports activities in the following areas:

  • crossing of external borders (effectiveness of controls);
  • visas (compliance with the principles of Community legislation on issuing visas, harmonisation of rules on the examination of visa applications, harmonisation of exceptions, etc.);
  • asylum (establishment of a Common European Asylum System, determination of the State responsible for examining an asylum application, approximation of rules on the recognition and content of refugee status, etc.);
  • immigration (effective, efficient and homogeneous application of rules on illegal immigration, the return of illegal residents, transit, etc.).

4. In the above areas, the action programme may support the following types of actions:

  • training actions;
  • staff exchange;
  • actions promoting the computerised handling of files and electronic data exchange;
  • setting-up of common operative centres and of teams composed of staff drawn from two or more Member States;
  • studies, research, conferences and seminars;
  • Member States’ activities in third countries.

5. The ARGO programme can also finance national projects in the area of external borders aimed at remedying certain structural shortcomings observed at strategic border crossing points on the basis of objective criteria.

6. The ARGO action programme may finance up to 60% of the cost of the action (or up to 80% in exceptional circumstances). The co-financing of an action by the ARGO action programme is exclusive of any other financing by another programme financed by the budget of the European Communities. The amount earmarked for implementing the programme is EUR 25 million. In addition, the budgetary authority has substantially stepped up the funds allocated to the ARGO programme for 2004, in order to improve management of the external borders.

7. The Commission is responsible for the management and implementation of the ARGO action programme, in partnership with the Member States. It must also prepare an Annual Work Programme and evaluate and select the actions proposed. The actions are evaluated on the basis of specific criteria such as conformity with the Annual Work Programme, the European dimension of the action, the inherent quality of the action, the amount of the support requested, etc.

8. The Commission is assisted by the ARGO Committee. Each year the Commission submits a report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of the ARGO action programme. The Commission must submit the first report in 2003 and the final report by 31 December 2007.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2002/463/EC 19.06.2002 OJ L 161 of 19.06.2002
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2004/867/EC 18.12.2004 OJ L 371/48 of 18.12.2004

Area of freedom, security and justice

Area of freedom, security and justice

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Area of freedom, security and justice

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Lisbon Treaty: a comprehensive guide

Area of freedom, security and justice

The Treaty of Lisbon intends to reinforce the establishment of a European common area within which persons move freely and benefit from effective legal protection. The creation of such an area has implications for areas in which European citizens have high expectations, such as immigration and the fight against organised crime and terrorism. These issues have a significant cross-border dimension and therefore require effective cooperation at European level.

The Treaty of Lisbon divides the themes related to the area of freedom, security and justice into four fields:

  • policies related to border control, asylum and immigration;
  • judicial cooperation in civil matters;
  • judicial cooperation in criminal matters;
  • police cooperation.

Matters relating to criminal judicial cooperation and police cooperation were previously covered by the 3rd pillar of the European Union (EU), governed by intergovernmental cooperation. Under the framework of the 3rd pillar, European institutions did not have any competences and could therefore not adopt regulations or directives. The Treaty of Lisbon puts an end to this distinction and henceforth enables the EU to intervene in all matters related to the area of freedom, security and justice.

BORDER CONTROL, ASYLUM AND IMMIGRATION

The Treaty of Lisbon attributes new competences to the European institutions, which can henceforth adopt measures with a view to:

  • establishing common management of the EU’s external borders; in particular through the strengthening of the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders, known as Frontex;
  • creating a common European asylum system; such a system will be based on a uniform European status and common procedures for the granting and withdrawing of asylum;
  • establishing rules, conditions and rights in relation to legal immigration.

JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CIVIL MATTERS

The Treaty of Lisbon authorises the European institutions to adopt new measures concerning:

  • the implementation of the principle of mutual recognition: each judicial system must recognise decisions adopted by the judicial systems of the other Member States as valid and applicable;
  • effective access to justice;
  • the development of alternative methods of dispute settlement;
  • the training of the judiciary and judicial staff.

JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL MATTERS

With the abolition of the 3rd pillar of the EU, the whole of criminal judicial cooperation becomes a field in which the European institutions may legislate.

Specifically, the European institutions may henceforth establish minimum rules concerning the definition and sanctioning of the most serious criminal offences. In addition, the EU may also intervene in the definition of common rules concerning the functioning of criminal procedure, for example with regard to the admissibility of evidence or the rights of individuals.

Furthermore, the Treaty of Lisbon intends to strengthen the role of Eurojust in the EU. Eurojust’s mission is to help coordinate investigations and prosecutions between the competent authorities of Member States. Currently, Eurojust only has the power to make proposals: it can request national authorities to initiate investigations or prosecutions. Henceforth, the Treaty of Lisbon offers the European institutions the option of extending the missions and powers of Eurojust with the ordinary legislative procedure.

Moreover, the Treaty of Lisbon considers the possible creation of an actual European Public Prosecutor’s Office from Eurojust. Such an office would have significant powers as it could investigate, prosecute and bring to judgment the perpetrators of crimes. In addition, the European Public Prosecutor’s Office would itself be capable of exercising the functions of prosecutor in the competent courts of Member States.

Nevertheless, the Treaty of Lisbon does not yet establish the European public prosecutor’s office, but merely authorises the Council, acting unanimously, to adopt a regulation in this regard. If the Council does not reach unanimity, then nine Member States, at the least, will have the option of establishing a European public prosecutor’s office between them under the framework of enhanced cooperation.

POLICE COOPERATION

As with criminal judicial cooperation, police cooperation benefits from the abolition of the 3rd pillar of the EU. Henceforth, the European institutions will be capable of adopting regulations and directives in this field.

The ordinary legislative procedure is thereby extended to all non-operational aspects of police cooperation. In contrast, operational cooperation will be determined through a special legislative procedure requiring Council unanimity. However, the Treaty of Lisbon also provides for the option of establishing enhanced cooperation if unanimity is not reached by the Council.

Furthermore, the Treaty of Lisbon provides for the gradual strengthening of the European Police Office (Europol). As with Eurojust, the Treaty of Lisbon henceforth authorises the Council and the Parliament to develop the missions and powers of Europol under the framework of the ordinary legislative procedure. Currently, the role of Europol is limited to facilitating cooperation between the authorities of Member States. The Treaty of Lisbon specifies that new tasks could also include the coordination, organisation and implementation of operational actions.

EXEMPTIONS

The United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark benefit from special arrangements, which include all the measures adopted under the framework of the area of freedom, security and justice. These three countries have the option of deciding not to participate in the legislative procedures in this field. They will, therefore, not be bound by the adopted measures.

In addition, two types of derogating clause are applied to the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark:

  • an “opt-in” clause which enables each of them to participate, on a case by case basis, in the adoption procedure for a measure or the application of a measure already adopted. They will then be bound by this measure in the same way as other Member States;
  • an “opt-out” clause enabling them not to apply a measure at any time.

Arrangements for agricultural imports following Chernobyl

Arrangements for agricultural imports following Chernobyl

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Arrangements for agricultural imports following Chernobyl

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Contamination and environmental factors

Arrangements for agricultural imports following Chernobyl

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 733/2008 of 15 July 2008 on the conditions governing imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station [See amending act(s)].

Summary

This Regulation shall apply to agricultural products from third countries covered by:

  • Annex I to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ;
  • Regulation (EC) No 1667/2006 on glucose and lactose;
  • Regulation (EC) No 614/2009 on ovalbumin and lactalbumin;
  • Regulation (EC) No 1216/2009 applicable to certain goods resulting from the processing of agricultural products.

This Regulation lays down the maximum permitted radioactive contamination levels to be complied with in order for agricultural products from third countries to be offered for sale on the European Union (EU) market. The accumulated maximum radioactive level in terms of caesium-134 and -137 shall be 600 Bq/kg. For milk and foodstuffs intended for infants, the maximum radioactive level shall be much lower, namely 370 Bq/kg. The level applicable to concentrated or dried products shall be calculated on the basis of the reconstituted product as ready for consumption.

Member States shall check compliance with these maximum permitted levels, taking into account contamination levels in the country of origin. Depending on the results of the checks carried out, Member States shall take the necessary measures and inform the Commission without delay. In cases of repeated non-compliance with the maximum permitted levels, these measures may take the form of a prohibition of the import of products originating in the third country concerned.

References

Act Entry into force – expiry date Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 733/2008

19.8.2008 – 31.3.2020

OJ L 201 of 30.7.2008

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 1048/2009

7.11.2009

OJ L 290 of 6.11.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 733/2008 have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for information only.

Arrangements for exporting foodstuffs and feedingstuffs following a nuclear accident

Arrangements for exporting foodstuffs and feedingstuffs following a nuclear accident

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Arrangements for exporting foodstuffs and feedingstuffs following a nuclear accident

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Contamination and environmental factors

Arrangements for exporting foodstuffs and feedingstuffs following a nuclear accident

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EEC) No 2219/89 of 18 July 1989 on the special conditions for exporting foodstuffs and feedingstuffs following a nuclear accident or any other case of radiological emergency.

Summary

Foodstuffs and feedingstuffs in which the level of radioactive contamination exceeds the maximum permitted levels applicable on the internal market pursuant to Council Regulation (Euratom) No 3954/87 may not be exported.

Member States shall carry out checks to ensure that these maximum permitted levels are observed.

Each Member State must communicate to the Commission the fullest information on the application of this Regulation. The Commission shall forward this information to the other Member States.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EEC) No 2219/1989

25.7.1989

OJ L 211 of 22.7.1989

Related Acts

Council Regulation (EC) No 733/2008 of 15 July 2008 on the conditions governing imports of agricultural products originating in third countries following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station [Official Journal L 201 of 30.7.2008].