Tag Archives: Animal disease

Animal by-products

Animal by-products

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Animal by-products

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal nutrition

Animal by-products

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 laying down health rules as regards animal by-products and derived products not intended for human consumption and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002.

Summary

This Regulation facilitates the efficient management of animal by-products whilst maintaining the high level of protection that is currently in place against risks to public and animal health and to the environment.

Products concerned

This Regulation shall apply to:

  • animal by-products * and derived products * which are not intended for human consumption;
  • products intended for purposes other than human consumption:
    • products of animal origin which may be destined for human consumption;
    • raw materials for the production of products of animal origin.

End point in the manufacturing chain

This Regulation introduces the notion of an “end point” in the manufacturing of animal by-products, beyond which they are no longer subject to the rules governing this type of product, since potential risks have been eliminated. Instead, the general rules on product safety are to apply. As an example, where animal fat produced by an incinerating factory is processed and the product of that transformation is used to produce plastics, the probability that the final product might transmit a significant biological risk is very slight.

Essential guarantees for public and animal health

Products of animal origin may be used outside the food chain for various purposes: skins for leather production, powdered milk to feed animals, and blood products in diagnostic medical devices. Such by-products may be a vector of diseases affecting human beings or animals when they are used in animal feedingstuffs or to produce technical products.

This Regulation preserves the basic guarantees introduced in 2003 against such risks. In particular, it maintains:

  • a risk-based categorisation of animal by-products which determines whether they may be used as animal feedingstuffs, for the manufacture of technical products or for other purposes, or whether they must be destroyed;
  • an obligation for Member States and operators to ensure that animal by-products are collected and disposed of as soon as possible;
  • the exclusion of products that are unfit for hum an consumption from the feed chain for farmed animals; and lastly
  • a ban on feeding animals of one species with material derived from the same species (“intra-species recycling ban”).

A more coherent legal framework

Animal by-products are used to produce cosmetics, medicines and diagnostic medical devices. When they are used for the manufacture of such products, they are subject to other provisions of European law. Slaughterhouses, milk factories and other food establishments manufacturing animal by-products are already bound by European legislation on human food or animal feedingstuffs, and are the subject of inspections in this regard.

This Regulation aims at improving coherency between other provisions of European law and the health rules applying to animal by-products. The potential risks are tackled with respect to the appropriate legislation, which avoids operators being exposed to unnecessary constraints.

Being based on experience gained, this Regulation clarifies under which circumstances and in what way environmental legislation shall apply to operations involving animal by-products. This legislation applies for example where the spreading of manure as a fertiliser has effects on soil and the groundwater table.

Comitology

The current categorisation of animal by-products may now be amended by the Commission under the comitology procedure. Prior to any change, a scientific organisation such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) or the Scientific Committee for Consumer Products (SCCP) must assess the possible risks of a specific animal by-product for public and animal health.

Repeal

Regulation (EC) No 1774/2002 shall be repealed with effect from 4 March 2011.

Key terms of the Act
  • Animal by-products: entire bodies or parts of animals, products of animal origin or other products obtained from animals, which are not intended for human consumption, including oocytes, embryos and semen.
  • Derived products: products obtained from one or more treatments, transformations or steps of processing of animal by-products.
Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 41/2009

10.2.2009

OJ L 16 of 21.1.2009

Bluetongue

Bluetongue

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Bluetongue

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Bluetongue

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2000/75/EC of 20 November 2000 laying down specific provisions for the control and eradication of bluetongue [See amending act(s)].

Summary

This Directive lays down measures to control and eradicate bluetongue.

Suspected or confirmed cases of the bluetongue virus must be notified to the competent authority of the Member State concerned before implementing the required measures.

Measures for suspected cases of the disease

Where the presence of the disease is suspected in a flock, the official veterinarian is to place the holding(s) concerned under surveillance and undertake a certain number of investigative measures (surveillance of the holding, inventory of the animals and the premises, epidemiological survey, etc.) and protective measures (ban on movements of animals, treatment of animals with insecticide, destruction and disposal of animal carcases, etc.).

Measures for confirmed cases of the disease

If the presence of the disease is confirmed, the official veterinarian will extend the measures introduced on suspicion to all holdings within a 20-km radius around the infected holding(s). He will also carry out an epidemiological survey and may launch a vaccination programme around the outbreaks of bluetongue.

Where the presence of the disease is confirmed, the competent authority must establish a protection zone and a surveillance zone around the holdings.

Protection zone and surveillance zone

The protection zone will extend over a radius of at least 100 kilometres around the infected holding(s). Within that zone, all holdings with animals must be identified and the animals may not leave the zone. The competent authority must establish an epidemiological surveillance programme. A vaccination programme may also be set up within the protection zone.

The surveillance zone will extend for at least 50 kilometres beyond the protection zone. Within that zone, the measures for identification, restriction of movement and epidemiological surveillance applicable within the protection zone must be implemented. However, the vaccination of animals against bluetongue is forbidden.

The protection and surveillance zones may be extended or reduced depending on the epidemiological, geographical, ecological or meteorological circumstances.

Derogations and supplementary measures

The Commission, assisted by the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health may adopt supplementary or derogatory measures. In particular provisions may be adopted to allow animals to leave the protection and surveillance zones under certain conditions.

National laboratories

Each Member State designates a national laboratory responsible for carrying out the laboratory tests provided for by this Directive and then informs the other Member States and the public of the laboratory’s contact details. Each national laboratory must cooperate with the Community reference laboratory located at Pirbright (United Kingdom).

Context

The outbreak of bluetongue at the end of the 1990s demonstrated that the Community legislation then in force did not deal with the specific features of the disease. This Directive takes over a number of measures laid down by Directive 92/35/EEC concerning African horse sickness, which were adaptable to cover bluetongue.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2000/75/EC

22.12.2000

1.1.2002

OJ L 327 of 22.12.2000

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2008/73/EC

12.12.2006

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2000/75/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

African swine fever

African swine fever

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about African swine fever

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

African swine fever

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [See amending acts].

Summary

The Directive lays down the minimum control measures where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed.

Any suspected or confirmed case of the disease must be notified to the competent authority. The Member State concerned informs the Commission and the other Member States of cases of swine fever, outbreaks of the disease and the results of epidemiological inquiries.

Suspected cases of African swine fever on a holding

Where a case is suspected, the Member State must immediately open an official investigation to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease. If the presence of African swine fever on a holding cannot be ruled out, the holding must be placed under official surveillance and restrictions must be placed on the movement of pigs, carcasses, and products that might spread the disease, as well as the movement of persons and vehicles to and from the holding.

An epidemiological inquiry must be carried out.

Confirmation of African swine fever on a holding

If the presence of African swine fever is officially confirmed, all the pigs on the holding are to be killed and their carcasses processed. All material (meat, semen, ova) or waste that might be contaminated must be destroyed, processed or treated to ensure destruction of the virus.

In the case of holdings consisting of two or more separate production units, derogations may be granted for healthy production units on specific, strict conditions.

In addition, all premises, vehicles and equipment that might be contaminated must be cleaned and disinfected under official supervision.

The competent authority must also establish around the outbreak site:

  • a protection zone with a radius of at least three kilometres, itself included in a
  • surveillance zone of a radius of at least 10 kilometres.

Special security measures must be implemented in these zones, in particular a census of all the holdings, a ban on the movement and transport of pigs and cleansing and disinfection measures. The competent authority may authorise, on strict conditions, the removal of pigs from a holding in the surveillance or protection zones within no less than 30 and 40 days respectively after the completion of the preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and, if necessary, disinsectisation of the infected holding.

Where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed in a slaughterhouse or means of transport

Where there is a suspicion of the disease, it must be officially confirmed or ruled out.

Where the presence of the disease is confirmed, all susceptible pigs must be killed and all material (carcases, offal and waste) from animals that might be contaminated must be processed to ensure that the virus is destroyed.

Cleansing, disinfection and, if necessary, disinsectisation of buildings and equipment, including vehicles, must take place under official supervision.

An epidemiological inquiry is carried out. The measures provided for in suspected cases are carried out on contact holdings *. The measures provided for in confirmed cases are applied on the holding of origin of the infected pigs.

Pigs may not be introduced into a holding, slaughterhouse or vehicle that has been affected by the disease until after a minimum period.

Where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed in feral pigs

Where the disease is suspected in feral pigs, the Member State must take all appropriate measures to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease.

Where African swine fever is confirmed in feral pigs, the competent authority of the Member State concerned must establish an expert group to provide assistance, which then defines the infected area and establishes the measures to be applied.

The Member State must immediately place pig holdings in the defined area under official surveillance and order that an official census be carried out of all categories of pigs on all holdings, all pigs on holdings be kept isolated from feral pigs and no pigs enter or leave holdings, except where authorised.

Within 90 days of confirmation of a case of African swine fever, Member States must submit to the Commission a plan of the measures to be taken to eradicate the disease in the infected area. When they have been approved by the Commission, these measures replace those laid down previously. 18. Every six months, the Member State concerned must send the Commission and the other Member States a report concerning the results of the eradication plan and the epidemiological situation in the defined area.

Diagnostic procedures

A diagnostic manual sets out all obligations, criteria and procedures to be applied to diagnostic tests and clinical examinations. These operations must take place exclusively in approved national laboratories.

Each Member State shall designate a national laboratory and then communicate the contact details for their laboratory to the other Member States and to the public. This laboratory is responsible for coordinating the standards and methods of diagnosis aiming at detecting the presence of African swine fever. All national laboratories shall work in cooperation with the Community Reference Laboratories located in Valdeolmos (Spain).

Vectors and vaccines

To prevent any risk of propagation, investigations and measures to eradicate the vectors of the disease (ticks) must be carried out on holdings on which it is confirmed.

The use of African swine fever vaccines is prohibited in the territory of the European Union.

Contingency plans

Each Member State must draw up a contingency plan specifying the national measures to be implemented in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever. The plan is to be drawn up in accordance with the criteria and requirements set out in the Directive.

Member States must ensure that a fully functional national disease control centre can be immediately set up in the event of any outbreaks of African swine fever.

Context

This Directive fills a gap in the control of the most dangerous animal diseases. It is based on the rules on classical swine fever adopted in 2001.

Key Terms of the Act
  • Contact holding: a holding where African swine fever may have been introduced, whether as a result of the location, movement of persons, pigs or vehicles or in any other way.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2002/60/EC

9.8.2002

30.6.2003

OJ L 192 of 20.7.2002

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2002/60/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2003/422/CE of 26 May 2003 approving an African swine fever diagnostic manual [notified under number C(2003) 1696] [Official Journal L 143 of 11.6.2003].

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Veterinary checks animal health rules food hygiene

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 64/432/EEC of 26 June 1964 on animal health problems affecting intra-Community trade in bovine animals and swine [See amending act(s)].

Summary

The Directives apply to intra-Community trade in bovine animals or swine for breeding, production or slaughter.

The transport of bovine animals and swine to another Member State is only authorised if the animals:

  • do not display any clinical sign of disease;
  • have not been obtained from a holding subject to prohibition for animal health reasons;
  • are identified in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2008/71/EC for swine and in accordance with the provisions of Regulation (EC) No 1760/2000 for bovine animals;
  • are accompanied by a health certificate (see Annex F) during transport to the country of destination;
  • come from a bovine herd officially free of tuberculosis, brucellosis or enzootic bovine leukosis (this condition only affects bovine animals).

During transport the animals must not come into contact with other animals which do not conform to the same health conditions.

Furthermore, the vehicles used to transport animals must guarantee their well-being and meet the following additional conditions. They must:

  • be designed in such a way as to prevent the dispersal of droppings, litter or fodder;
  • be cleaned and disinfected after each transportation of animals, in line with the methods and procedures approved by the competent authority;
  • hold a register including information on the location, date and time of the loading and delivery of animals, the type and quantity of animals transported, the length of the journey, the date and location of when the vehicle was disinfected, etc. This information must be kept for at least three years.

In accordance with animal health requirements, animals for slaughter, which have been transported directly to an abattoir on their arrival in the destination country, must be slaughtered within the 72 hours following their arrival. If the animals are transported directly to an approved assembly centre on their arrival in the destination country before being transported to the abattoir, their slaughter must take place within the three working days following their arrival in the assembly centre.

A Member State which has a national control programme for one of the contagious diseases not referred to in Annex E for the whole or part of its territory may submit the said programme to the Commission.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal
Directive 64/432/EEC

30.06.1964

30.06.1965

 L 121 of 29.07.1964

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal

Directive 80/1098/EEC

20.11.1980

1.7.1981

OJ L 325 of 1.12.1980

Directive 80/1274/EEC

31.12.1980

1.1.1981

OJ L 375 of 31.12.1980

Directive 81/476/EEC

1.7.1981

OJ L 186 of 8.07.1981

Directive 82/61/EEC

10.2.1982

1.1.1982

OJ L 29 of 6.02.1982

Directive 82/893/EEC

29.12.1982

1.1.1983

OJ L 378 of 31.12.1982

Directive 83/336/EEC

30.6.1984

OJ L 177 of 4.7.1984

Directive 84/643/EEC

30.06.1984

30.09.1985 (Ireland – United Kingdom)

OJ L 339 of 27.12.1984

Directive 84/644/EEC

30.09.1985

OJ L 339 of 27.12.1984

Directive 85/586/EEC

24.12.1985

01.01.1986

OJ L 372 of 31.12.1985

Directive 87/231/EEC

10.04.1987

OJ L 99 of 11.04.1987

Directive 87/489/EEC

30.10.1987

31.12.1988

OJ L 280 of 03.10.1987

Directive 89/662/EEC

22.12.1989

31.12.1991

31.12.1992 (for Greece)

OJ L 395 of 30.12.1989

Directive 90/423/EEC

26.7.1990

1.1.1992

OJ L 224 of 18.08.1990

Directive 90/425/EEC

26.7.1990

1.7.1992

OJ L 224 of 18.08.1990

Directive 91/687/EEC

19.11.1992

1.1.1992 (for Article 1 point 3 and Article 2 point 1)

1.7.1992 (for all other articles)

OJL 377 of 31.12.1991

Directive 92/65/EEC

29.7.1992

1.1.1994

OJ L 268 of 14.9.1992

Directive 92/102/EEC

08.12.1992

1.2.1993 (registration of bovine animals according to national measures)
1.10.1993 (Community system of registering bovine animals)
1.1.1994 (swine)
1.1.1995 (ovine and caprine)

OJ L 355 of 5.12.1992

Directive 97/12/EC

25.4.1997

30.6.1998

OJ L 109 of 25.4.1997

Directive 98/46/EC

15.7.1998

30.6.1999

OJ L 198 of 15.7.1998

Directive 98/99/EC

31.12.1998

1.1.1999 (Article 2)

1.7.1999 (Article 1)

OJ L 358 of 31.12.1998

Directive 2000/15/EC

3.5.2000

OJ L 105 of 3.5.2000

Directive 2000/20/EC

4.7.2000

1.12.1999

OJ L 163 of 4.7.2000

Regulation (EC) No 535/2002

13.4.2002

OJ L 80 of 23.3.2002

Regulation (EC) No 1226/2002

29.7.2002

OJ L 179 of 9.7.2002

Regulation (EC) No 21/2004

29.1.2004

OJ L 5 of 9.1.2004

Regulation (EC) No 1/2005

25.1.2005

OJ L 3 of 5.1.2005

Decision 2006/911/EC

29.12.2006

OJ L 346 of 9.12.2006

Directive 2006/104/EC

1.1.2007

OJ L 363 of 20.12.2006

Decision 2007/729/EC

OJ L 294 of 13.11.2007

Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.10.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 64/432/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purpose only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2008/185/EC of 21 February 2008 on additional guarantees in intra-Community trade of pigs relating to Aujeszky’s disease and criteria to provide information on this disease [Official Journal L 59 of 4.3.2008].
See consolidated version

Commission Decision 2004/558/ECOfficial Journal L 249 of 23.07.2004 of 15 July 2004 implementing Council Directive 64/432/EEC as regards additional guarantees for intra-Community trade in bovine animals relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the approval of the eradication programmes presented by certain Member States.
See consolidated version

Commission Decision 2003/467/EC of 23 June 2003 establishing the official tuberculosis, brucellosis, and enzootic-bovine-leukosis-free status of certain Member States and regions of Member States as regards bovine herds [Official Journal L 156 of 25.6.2003].
See consolidated version