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A European Economic Recovery Plan

A European Economic Recovery Plan

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European Economic Recovery Plan


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Economic and monetary affairs > Stability and growth pact and economic policy coordination

A European Economic Recovery Plan

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Council of 26 November 2008 – ‘A European Economic Recovery Plan’ [COM(2008) 800 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


The European Economic Recovery Plan is a response to the global economic crisis which affected the real economy in 2008. It sets out the broad lines of a coordinated European approach which involves:

  • swiftly stimulating demand;
  • helping the most vulnerable people affected by the economic downturn;
  • preparing Europe to be competitive with a view to future growth;
  • taking advantage of this period of upheaval in order to accelerate the establishment of a cleaner economy with more concern for the environment.

The European Commission proposes that Member States and the European Union agree on an immediate budgetary impetus amounting to EUR 200 billion.

The plan is intended to operate at both European and global level.

Solutions at European level

At financial market and macro-economic level

The instability in the financial markets triggered the crisis in the real economy. It is important that the banks should re-focus on their primary activities of providing liquidity and supporting investment in the real economy.

The European Investment Bank (EIB)will increase its yearly interventions in the European Union by some EUR 15 billion in the form of loans, equity, guarantees and risk-sharing financing, as well as investment from private sources.

Budgetary policy will have a role to play in stabilising economies and sustaining demand. This recovery will take place within the framework of the Stability and Growth Pact and the priorities of the Lisbon Strategy.

At the level of individuals

The Plan aims to help individuals who have lost their jobs and are suffering the social consequences of the crisis. In this perspective, it will reinforce the activation schemes, in particular for the low-skilled and vulnerable, in order to get them into training or even help them to re-train with a view to matching the supply and demand of jobs.

To this end, the Commission will use the European Social Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund in order to finance the costs of training and job placement for those who are made redundant.

In addition, Member States are advised to reduce their employers’ social charges on lower incomes to promote the employability of lower-skilled workers. Similarly, solutions such as service cheques for household and child care, or temporary hiring subsidies for vulnerable groups, are encouraged.

A reduction in the VAT on labour-intensive services is also envisaged.

At the level of businesses

Businesses must have access to financing on the same basis as the banks. Small and medium-sized enterprises and micro-enterprises are the most exposed and must therefore be the focus of urgent steps. It is envisaged that the European Small Business Act will be implemented to this end.

The Commission will put in place a simplification package to speed up its State aid decision-making.

At the level of the environment

It is becoming vital to develop a clean economy. In this perspective, the European Union must equip itself with new businesses and industries, as well as environmentally-friendly infrastructures.

The Commission plans in particular to invest in trans-European transport projects, while the EIB will increase the financing of investment to tackle climate change and to improve energy security and infrastructure.

The Plan also provides for action at the level of research and innovation in order to develop “green products”, particularly in the construction and automobile sectors.

Solutions at global level

The Plan aims to reinforce closer collaboration between the European Union and its international partners in economic and climate matters.

The European Union must also maintain its commitments to developing countries in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), in particular by developing new instruments to help those countries deal with the direct consequences of the crisis whilst maintaining sustainable development.


In the face of the crisis, the European Economic Recovery Plan is designed to create a basis for agreement between Member States to get Europe’s economy moving again. Although the Plan contains short-term action, it also falls within the Lisbon Strategy.

A European strategy for nanotechnology

A European strategy for nanotechnology

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European strategy for nanotechnology


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

A European strategy for nanotechnology

Nanotechnology means the manipulation of atoms or molecules to produce materials, devices and new technologies. It is the building of nanomaterials at nanoscale, atom by atom and molecule by molecule. The principle underlying nanotechnology is simple: instead of reducing matter to work down to the smallest possible particle, the smallest possible particle is extracted from matter. Nanotechnologies (“nano” is derived from the Greek “nannos” meaning “dwarf”) demand enormous effort in terms of basic and applied multidisciplinary research involving a wide variety of specialisations: genomics and biotechnologies, sustainable development, food safety, aeronautics, health, etc.

Communication from the Commission “Towards a European strategy for nanotechnology” [COM(2004) 338 final – Not published in the Official Journal]


Materials have always been extracted from the ground, modified, heated, subjected to pressure, assembled, etc. All these procedures use a great deal of energy and, at the same time, generate a great deal of waste. Current industrial production is based on this manufacturing principle.

Nanotechnology, however, uses the individual atoms directly. It manipulates them and applies assembly processes to form groups of atoms with a view to manufacturing nanomaterials or nanomachines. With the prospect of obtaining greater performance with fewer raw materials, in particular via “bottom-up” manufacturing, nanotechnology has the potential to reduce waste across the whole life-cycle of products.

In this way, nanotechnology or nanoscience can contribute to sustainable development and the goals addressed in “Agenda 21” and the Environmental Technology Action Plan.

Nanoscience is often referred to as “horizontal”, as it frequently brings together different areas of science and draws on an interdisciplinary approach. It may lead to progress in areas such as:

  • healthcare, thanks to miniaturised diagnostics that could be used for early diagnosis of illness;
  • information technologies, through data storage media and innovative displays;
  • energy production and storage, with novel fuel cells or lightweight nanostructured solids that have the potential for efficient hydrogen storage;
  • manufacturing, thanks to the miniaturisation of existing micro-systems and the imitation of nature through the building of structures starting at atomic and molecular level;
  • research into food, water and the environment. In this field, nanotechnologies could be used to repair and clean-up environmental damage and remove pollution from contaminated areas;
  • security, through novel detection systems with a high specificity that can provide early warning against biological or chemical agents.

Five dynamics are identified in the context of nanotechnology: research and development, infrastructure, education and training, innovation and the societal dimension. Joint action is needed at Community level in all of these interdependent areas in order to harness the potential of the European Research Area.

  • Research and development: building the momentum. It is necessary not only to maintain excellence in research and development but also to strengthen investment in research relevant to industry, while reinforcing Community level research and coordinating national policies more closely to build up a critical mass.
  • Infrastructure: European “poles of excellence”. State-of-the-art equipment and instrumentation is increasingly crucial for the development of nanotechnology, and also to demonstrate whether research can be turned into potential products and processes. To accelerate the development of nanosciences, investment in a wide range of advanced facilities, instruments and equipment is essential.
  • Investing in human resources. To harness the potential of nanotechnology, the EU needs an interdisciplinary population of researchers and engineers who can generate knowledge and ensure that this, in turn, is transferred to industry. Post-graduate and life-long training should therefore be encouraged.
  • Industrial innovation, from knowledge to technology. European innovation and entrepreneurship in the field of nanotechnology must be stimulated. Nanotechnology depends on three additional factors: patenting of fundamental knowledge, regulation and metrology.
  • Integrating the societal dimension. The aim is to adopt a proactive stance and fully integrate societal considerations into the research process, exploring its benefits, risks and deeper implications for society. In this context, a dialogue with citizens and consumers on research into nanotechnology is strongly encouraged.

Building upon the experience from the 6th Research Framework Programme, closer international cooperation in nanosciences and nanotechnologies is needed both with economically advanced countries, in order to share knowledge and reap the benefits of a critical mass, and with those that are less economically advanced, in order to give them access to knowledge and new technologies.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee of 17 June 2008, Regulatory aspects of nanomaterials [COM(2008) 366 final – not published in the Official Journal].

The current legislation generally covers the risks to health, safety and the environment which may result from the use of nanotechnologies. However, the existing legislative framework could be improved by enhanced implementation, better sharing of the available information, more in-depth knowledge about the characteristics of nanomaterials and their dangers, as well as risk assessment and management at national and international level. The authorities and agencies responsible for the implementation of the legislation must continue to monitor the market and to use the Community intervention mechanisms in cases where products already on the market represent a risk. Three years after this Communication, the Commission will write a report on the progress made.

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee of 6 September 2007: Nanosciences and nanotechnologies – An action plan for Europe 2005-2009. First Implementation Report 2005-2007 [COM(2007) 505 final – not published in the Official Journal].

This report reviews the implementation of the 2005 Nanotechnology Action Plan at the halfway stage. It highlights the strategic importance of these technologies for Europe, which is leading the world in this field, but also the ways in which these technologies can improve the quality of life and economic welfare of Europeans by making significant contributions to health, the environment and safety, in particular.

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee of 7 July 2005: Nanosciences and nanotechnologies – An action plan for Europe 2005-2009 [COM(2005) 243 final – not published in the Official Journal].
The European Commission has drawn up an action plan with measures to be taken at national and European levels to step up nanotechnology research and develop useful products and services.

Measures in the action plan include:

  • increasing financial support for nanotechnology in the seventh framework programme;
  • developing world-class competitive infrastructure for research and poles of excellence;
  • ensuring that ethical principles are always respected and citizens’ concerns taken into account;
  • addressing public health, safety and environmental risks;
  • promoting the interdisciplinary education & training of researchers and engineers;
  • strengthening international dialogue on common issues.

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 28 January 2004: Stimulating technologies for sustainable development: An environmental technologies action plan for the European Union [COM(2004) 38 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 18 July 2003: Researchers in the European Research Area: one profession, multiple careers [COM(2003) 436 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 4 June 2003: Investing in research: an action plan for Europe [COM(2003) 226 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 16 October 2002: The European Research Area: Providing new momentum – Strengthening – Reorienting – Opening up new perspectives [COM(2002) 565 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 11 September 2002: More Research for Europe – Towards 3 % of GDP [COM(2002) 499 final – not published in the Official Journal].

A European space policy

A European space policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European space policy


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

A European space policy

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 26 April 2007 on the European Space Policy [COM(2007) 212 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Space activities in Europe have been successfully developed for over 30 years within the framework of the ESA. Now, at a time when new powers are emerging with high ambitions and capabilities as regards space, Europe cannot afford to overlook the economic and strategic benefits of space for its citizens.


Europe needs to develop a proper space policy to enable it to exert global leadership in the space sector, which is a 90bn market worldwide, growing at 7 % per annum. This sector is also a driver for the Partnership for Growth and Jobs.

Major sectors of the economy and many citizens are now increasingly dependent on space systems. The areas which will benefit most from an effective space policy are the environment, development, le climate change, security and defence, innovation and growth, and the knowledge-based society.

The EU, the ESA and their Member States will need to focus their activities in three key areas:

  • establishing a European Space Programme and the coordination of national and European level space activities;
  • increasing synergy between defence and civil space programmes and technologies;
  • developing a joint international relations strategy on space.


In order to maximise the investment in terms of political, economic and social returns, it is essential to develop and exploit space applications that meet the objectives of EU policies and the needs of European enterprises and citizens.

Satellite navigation

The GALILEO worldwide satellite radionavigation system, launched by the EU and the European Space Agency (ESA), is a strategic infrastructure for Europe. This initiative, which will grant fair access and the continuity and safety of service, should be deployed without further delay.

Earth observation

Autonomous access to information relating to the environment, climate change and security isconsidered a priority. The GMES programme will improve Europe’s monitoring, assessment and decision-making capacity in a number of areas. For the GMES programme to become fully operational and ensure the provision of sustainable services, the EU and Member States will need to establish appropriate funding mechanisms, infrastructures and management arrangements.

Satellite communications

Satellite communications – broadcasting and telecommunications – account for 40 % of the current revenues of the European space sector and will experience strong growth over the coming years. The EU will support the adoption of innovative services and technology developments to achieve convergence and interoperability between terrestrial and satellite-based networking sectors.

Security and defence

Space assets can make a significant contribution to increasing the security of European citizens. To do so, coordination between the EU’s defence and civilian space programmes needs to be improved, while retaining primary end-user responsibility for funding.


The foundations of the European Space Policy are as follows: science and technology, the International Space Station (ISS) and exploration of the solar system, and access to space.

Science and technology

The EU, ESA and their Member States need to maintain their world leadership in space-based science. The communication states that Europe must commit itself first of all to innovation, identifying critical technologies and guaranteeing their funding, in order to enhance the competitiveness of the industry through technology transfers.

Whilst achieving a better balance between technological independence, strategic cooperation and reliance on market forces, Europe seeks to ensure sustained investment and stresses the importance of attracting young people into science and engineering.

International Space Station (ISS) and exploration of the solar system

Optimum utilisation of the International Space Station should contribute to the creation of new knowledge and thus of innovative applications for the benefit of all Mankind (new materials, new therapies in medicine, future planetary missions, etc.). Europe should therefore prepare for a visible, robust and affordable exploration programme, that is capable of responding to the challenges set by the USA, China and Russia in this sector.

Access to space

Independent and cost-effective access to space remains a strategic goal for Europe. The launcher assets under EU control will be taken into consideration when defining European programmes.


Europe needs a globally competitive European space industry. An effective industry policy which defines clear policy objectives and mobilises the public funds required should give priority to three aspects: the regulatory framework, public investment in space and research and development (R&D).


After having identified user needs, the EU will use its full potential to muster the political will in support of these objectives. The role played by the ESA is crucial, particularly as regards technical expertise and programme management, specifically in the field of R&D.

The Framework Agreement between the EC and the ESAhas provided significant advances as regards cooperation in policy development, and forms a solid base for coordination arrangements between intergovernmental and Community actions. The goal is to pursue closer and more effective cooperation and, in particular, to develop space systems and sustain the supply of associated services responding to relevant EU sectoral policies.

The European Space Programme will become a common, inclusive and flexible programmatic basis for the implementation of all space-related activities. It will help to consistently achieve maximum complementarity and transparency among all space programmes.

The EU will take the lead in the strategic programmes for its own policies (in particular GALILEO and GMES), while the ESA will represent Europe on programmes in the areas of science, launchers, technology and human spaceflight.


In November 2003, cooperation between the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA) was strengthened by the adoption of the EC-ESA framework agreement . This agreement is the follow-up to the publication of the Green Paper and the White Paper on the European Space Policy, which drew on one of the most wide-ranging consultations ever conducted in the field of research and technology.

In May 2005, the Commission set out the preliminary elements of Europe’s space policy in a communication (COM(2005) 208). One month later, the Member States responded by presenting guidance at the ‘Space Council’ (which brought together the EU Competitiveness Council and the Ministerial Council of the ESA) and reaffirming the need to establish a comprehensive European Space Policy. In response, the Commission published this communication which was discussed by the ‘Space Council’. The Council also adopted a Resolution on the European Space Policyon 22 May 2007.

A European Private Company Statute

A European Private Company Statute

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European Private Company Statute


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Social dialogue and employee participation

A European Private Company Statute

Document or Iniciative

Proposal for a Council Regulation of 25 June 2008 on the Statute for a European Private Company.


This Proposal aims to establish a European Private Company Statute (SPE) with limited liability, in order to create a simplified legal form to encourage the setting up and running of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Single Market.


The SPE can be formed ex nihilo by one or several natural persons and/or legal entities. It may also be formed by transforming, merging or dividing existing companies. The latter can have a statute governed by national or Community law, such as those recorded as being a European Company (Societas Europeaea) or SE.

Capital and shareholders

The minimum capital of an SPE can be 1 euro. It is divided into unquoted shares, which cannot be offered to the public or negotiated on a regulated market. Each shareholder is only liable up to the amount for which they have subscribed or agreed to subscribe.

The management body establishes a list of shareholders, which constitutes proof of ownership for the shares. All shareholdings must be notified to the management body which registers them in the list of shareholders. The procedure of excluding a shareholder is subject to a resolution of the shareholders which then leads to a request made by the SPE to the court having jurisdiction. Similarly, shareholders can withdraw from the SPE in order to protect their interests.


The registered office and the central administration or main establishment of the SPE are established in the European Community. The company is registered in the Member State in which the statutory registered office is located. Its subsidiaries are governed by the national law where they are established. An SPE is not bound to establish its central administration or main establishment in the Member State in which the registered office is located. Administrative formalities and registration costs must be reduced as much as possible.

The registered office of the SPE may be transferred to another Member State, without having any consequences on the legal personality or on the rights and obligations created by contracts concluded previously. The transfer takes effect on the date of registration in the host Member State.


The shareholders determine the Articles of Association of the SPE, according to the matters listed in Annex I of the Proposal. Matters not covered by the Articles of Association are subject to the national law of the Member State in which the SPE has its registered office.

The management body is responsible for the management of the SPE, and exercises all prerogatives that are not held by shareholders.

Shareholders are responsible for the organisation of the SPE. They adopt resolutions that are binding upon shareholders, the management body and the supervisory body of the SPE and on third parties.


Accounts management and the preparation, filing, auditing and publication of accounts shall be subject to national law.

Employee participation

Methods for participation are subject to the regulations of the Member State where the SPE has its registered office. Directive 2005/56/EC shall apply in the case of cross-border mergers. In addition, the Proposal for the Regulation provides for a series of specific regulations on this subject if the registered office of a SPE is transferred to another Member State. This is to avoid pre-existing rights concerning employee participation being circumvented.


The existing forms of Community companies are adapted to large enterprises. European SMEs and individuals must therefore benefit from a new form of simplified private company. The Proposal is part of the Commission initiative called the “Small Business Act” (SBA) to encourage the development of SMEs in Europe.

In 2008, SMEs represented 99% of enterprises in the EU, whereas only 8% of them carried out cross-border commercial activities and 5% have subsidiaries or joint companies abroad.

References And Procedure


Official Journal


COM(2008) 396 final

Consultation CNS/2008/0130

A European initiative for growth

A European initiative for growth

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European initiative for growth


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Regional policy > Review and the future of regional policy

A European initiative for growth

Step up efforts to mobilise public and private funds for investing in networks and knowledge-sectors with a high potential for growth.

2) Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission – A European initiative for growth – Investing in Networks and Knowledge for Growth and Jobs – Final Report to the European Council [COM(2003) 690 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

3) Summary

This initiative will help to boost European economic growth. The report sets out the measures required to attract the necessary funds, whether from public or private sources, for investing in networks and knowledge. The initiative responds to the conclusions reached by the European Council of October 2003, which also asked the Member States to maintain sound macroeconomic policies and accelerate structural reform. The initiative was definitively adopted by the Brussels European Council in December 2003.

Action to develop trans-European networks (TENs) in transport, energy and telecommunications and invest in research and innovation is essential. It stimulates the growth and competitiveness of European companies and helps to create an enlarged internal market in keeping with the objectives of economic and social cohesion policy.

The European initiative focuses on three areas:

  • launching the “Quick-start” programme;
  • coordinating the existing and new Community financing instruments;
  • introducing regulatory and administrative measures to encourage investment.

A “Quick-start” programme has been launched

The “Quick-start” programme lies at the heart of the European initiative for growth and has resulted in the compilation of a list of 54 priority projects of European interest which can be launched within three years. The total volume of investment should reach EUR 62 billion by 2010. The priority projects have been identified on the basis of four criteria: maturity, trans-frontier dimension, impact on growth and innovation, and benefits for the environment.

The 54 priority projects cover the following areas:

  • networks;

    The Commission has identified 29 trans-European transport networks requiring investment of EUR 38 billion between now and 2010. One important objective is to redress the balance between modes of transport in favour of rail and sea routes. The projects selected include the GALILEO satellite navigation system.
    In the field of energy (electricity and natural gas), 17 energy links have been identified, which will involve investment of EUR 10 billion up to 2010. The aim is to diversify energy provision within the EU and place it on a secure footing in the run-up to enlargement. In the field of broadband communications, three projects will speed up the development of high-capacity communication networks. They will seek not only to reduce the digital divide by connecting remote and/or rural areas, but also to support research into mobile technologies and to upgrade the “Géant” network which connects universities, research centres and educational institutions.
  • research, development and innovation;

    In this area, five projects will receive funding of approximately EUR 14 billion up to 2010. Three of the projects will focus on the following key sectors: nanoelectronics, next-generation lasers and hydrogen. The two others, which seek to boost the EU’s presence in space, relate to: the new satellite-based global system for monitoring the environment and security (GMES) and the construction of a launch facility for Soyuz rockets.

This list is not exhaustive. Other projects could be eligible if they met the criteria mentioned above.

What are the existing and new financing methods at European level?

The European Union and the European Investment Bank (EIB) will contribute fully to financing the initiative. The funds currently available and being considered are the following:

  • contribution of the Community budget;

    The annual appropriation for the TEN-transport budget line is EUR 700 million. One of the Commission’s proposals is to increase the Community’s contribution to funding the total cost of TENs projects from 10 % to 30 %.
    Approximately EUR 60 billion is provided from the Structural Funds to support investment in infrastructure (transport, energy and telecommunication), research, technological development and innovation. EUR 1.5 billion from the Cohesion Fund go to the four beneficiary Member States (Spain, Portugal, Greece and Ireland).
    The Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FPRTD) provides EUR 17.5 billion for research. A special budget of EUR 300 million supports the roll out of the high-speed communications backbone (GEANT).
  • contribution of the European Investment Bank (EIB);

    In terms of research, development and innovation, EUR 50 billion will be provided during this period under the EIB’s “Innovation 2010” initiative.
    The European Investment Fund (EIF) also promotes innovation by providing risk capital. 185 risk capital funds provide EUR 10 billion for 1 500 high technology businesses; EUR 2.5 billion of this comes from the EIF. The EIB has undertaken to provide an additional EUR 500 million to the fund.

It is essential that the funds available are coordinated if the initiative is to be successful. Mobilising the funds better will ensure that action is more effective. The European Commission and the EIB have defined the practical arrangements for creating synergies between the operations of the Bank, the Structural Funds and the Sixth FPRTD. As part of the economic and social cohesion policy, these arrangements are designed, in particular, to make it easier to plan structural operations on a joint basis. They involve incorporating the EIB’s overall commitments into the regional programming documents and making the appropriate adjustments to the level of funding in line with the overall cost of an operation.

The Commission and the EIB are exploring ways of increasing private investment. They are particularly interested in the following four innovative types of financing:

  • provision of third-party equity or quasi-equity;

    Under the Financial Regulation for the TENs, a share of the project budget can be provided by specialised investment funds.
  • Securitisation;

    Securitisation can help to increase the available pool of resources from financial markets for new growth-inducing investments. Using securitisation funds, the financial institutions involved in structural operations will pool their lending portfolios and securitise them to be placed with institutional investors.
  • structured Finance Facility;

    The EIB is prepared to commit EUR 50 billion to support priority TEN projects as part of the Structured Finance Facility (SFF). This facility, which is used for large-scale projects, enables the debt risk to be shared and spread. It will help to increase the availability of debt finance for the early, pre-construction stages of projects.
  • guarantee instrument;

    The Commission is examining a new guarantee instrument in the context of public-private partnerships in TEN sectors. Once projects have been completed, the instrument will cover specific commercial risks such as traffic/revenue shortfalls. This will mean that debt providers can benefit from appropriate debt service.

Regulatory and administrative measures will be necessary to encourage investment

Experience has shown that non-financial factors can often be more powerful barriers to the viability and attractiveness of particular projects than the actual lack of funding.

The Council and the European Parliament have been asked to draw up legislation in the following five areas:

  • the method of financing trans-European networks and the priorities of the transport TENs — the adoption of priorities for transport networks will also make it possible to declare that a project is “of European interest” and to appoint a coordinator/coordinating body for it;
  • charges for and financing of transport infrastructure (“Eurovignette proposal”);
  • the Community patent;
  • public contracts;
  • cross-border mergers.

The Commission, for its part, would like to make progress in the following areas:

  • simplifying the procedures for granting State aid to SMEs, particularly as regards research and innovation;
  • examining the treatment of public-private partnerships (PPPs) under Community public procurement rules;
  • creating a legal structure for European risk capital funds;
  • setting up European technology platforms;
  • creating a European guarantee instrument to provide support for post-construction risks associated with TEN projects in the transport sector.

Statistical treatment of public-private partnerships

How should the economic ownership of the underlying asset in the PPP be established, irrespective of the legal provisions relating to ownership? Does it represent a State asset or an asset from a private partner? The application of the principle whereby economic ownership of an asset depends on which party bears the risks and rewards associated with the asset causes problems for PPPs. The European initiative for growth will clarify this matter and final decisions will be announced at the beginning of 2004.

Evaluation of progress

The progress of efforts to implement the European initiative for growth will be evaluated regularly as part of the annual reporting cycle to the Spring European Council from 2005. A more comprehensive assessment of progress will also be undertaken five years after the initiative has been launched.

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work

A European strategy 2011-2014 for Corporate Social Responsibility

A European strategy 2011-2014 for Corporate Social Responsibility

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European strategy 2011-2014 for Corporate Social Responsibility


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Employment rights and work organisation

A European strategy 2011-2014 for Corporate Social Responsibility