Justice, Freedom and Security

Justice, freedom and security

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Justice, freedom and security

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Justice freedom and security

Justice, freedom and security

The area of freedom, security and justice was created to ensure the free movement of persons and to offer a high level of protection to citizens. It covers policy areas that range from the management of the European Union’s external borders to judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters. It includes asylum and immigration policies, police cooperation, and the fight against crime (terrorism, organised crime, trafficking in human beings, drugs, etc.).

The creation of the area of freedom, security and justice is based on the Tampere (1999-04), Hague (2004-09) and Stockholm (2010-14) programmes. It derives from Title V of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which regulates the “Area of freedom, security and justice”.

Justice, freedom and security Contents

  • Free movement of persons, asylum and immigration: The Schengen area and cooperation, Schengen Information System, Free movement of European citizens within the Union, Penetrating external borders, Visas, Asylum, Immigration, Rights of non-EU country nationals, Illegal immigration, Return, Relations with non-EU countries
  • Judicial cooperation in civil matters: Civil and commercial rights, European contract law, Law applicable to contractual obligations, Non-contractual obligations, Judicial network in criminal and civil matters, Jurisdiction, Recognition and enforcement of decisions, Maintenance obligations
  • Judicial cooperation in criminal matters: Eurojust, European network of points of contact, Mutual recognition, European arrest warrant, War crimes
  • Police and customs cooperation: Police cooperation, Europol, Maintaining public order and safety, Customs cooperation, Agreements with non-EU countries
  • Citizenship of the Unión: Active citizenship of the Union, Municipal elections: the right to vote and to stand, European elections: the right to vote and to stand, Diplomatic and consular protection
  • Combating discrimination: Combating racism, xenophobia and antisemitism, Gender equality, Social measures for target groups
  • Fight against terrorism: Prevention, Finance, Protection, Pursuit, Response, Access to and exchange of information, Action plans
  • Fight against organised crime: Fight against organised crime, Prevention of criminality, Gun running, Cybercrime, Money laundering, Environmental protection, Economic and financial criminality
  • Fight against trafficking in human beings: Experts group on trafficking in human beings, Child protection, Protection of women
  • Combating drugs: Anti-drug strategy, Drug trafficking, Drug production
  • Justice, freedom and security: enlargement: Enlargement, Applicant countries and the Community acquis

See also

Fundamental rights within the European Union
Fight against fraud

Water Protection and Management

Water protection and management

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Water protection and management

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Water protection and management

Some 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by seas and oceans, and these produce almost three quarters of the oxygen we breathe. We can use directly only 1% of this water, however, and many forms of human activity put water resources under considerable pressure. Polluted water, whatever the source of the pollution, flows one way or another back into our natural surroundings – into the sea or water tables – from where it can have a harmful effect on human health and the environment. One of the most important pieces of legislation in this area is the Water Framework Directive.

GENERAL FRAMEWORK

  • Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive)
  • Pricing and long-term management of water
  • Flood management and evaluation
  • Droughts and water scarcity
  • Urban waste water treatment

SPECIFIC USES OF WATER

  • Quality of drinking water
  • Bathing water quality (until 2014)
  • Bathing water quality
  • Water suitable for fish-breeding
  • Quality of shellfish waters

MARINE POLLUTION

  • Strategy for the marine environment
  • Maritime safety: compensation fund for oil pollution damage
  • Maritime safety: prevention of pollution from ships
  • Ship-source pollution and criminal penalties
  • Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships
  • Maritime safety: Bunkers Convention

REGIONAL WATERS

  • European Union Strategy for Danube Region
  • Baltic Sea Strategy
  • Environment strategy for the Mediterranean
  • Strategy to improve maritime governance in the Mediterranean
  • Black Sea Synergy
  • Danube – Black Sea region

Regional convention

  • Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean
  • Helsinki Convention on the protection of the Baltic Sea
  • Helsinki Convention: trans-boundary watercourses and international lakes
  • Convention for the Protection of the Rhine
  • OSPAR Convention

DISCHARGES OF SUBSTANCES

  • Industrial emissions
  • Integrated pollution prevention and control (until 2013)
  • Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water
  • Protection of groundwater against pollution
  • Detergents
  • Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
  • Agricultural nitrates
  • Community strategy concerning mercury
  • Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances (until 2013)
  • Other substances: protection of groundwater

 


 

Another Normative about Water protection and management

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Agriculture > Environment

Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy [See amending acts].

Summary

The European Union (EC) has established a framework for the protection of:

  • inland surface waters *;
  • groundwater *;
  • transitional waters *; and
  • and coastal waters *.

This Framework-Directive has a number of objectives, such as preventing and reducing pollution, promoting sustainable water usage, environmental protection, improving aquatic ecosystems and mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.

Its ultimate objective is to achieve “good ecological and chemical status” for all Community waters by 2015.

Administrative arrangements

Member States have to identify all the river basins * lying within their national territory and to assign them to individual river basin districts *. River basins covering the territory of more than one Member State will be assigned to an international river basin district.

Member States are to designate a competent authority for the application of the rules provided for in this Framework-Directive within each river basin district.

Identification and analysis of waters

By 2004 at the latest, each Member State shall produce:

  • an analysis of the characteristics of each river basin district;
  • a review of the impact of human activity on water;
  • an economic analysis of water use;
  • a register of areas requiring special protection;
  • a survey of all bodies of water used for abstracting water for human consumption and producing more than 10 m³ per day or serving more than 50 persons.

This analysis must be revised in 2013 and every six years thereafter.

Management plans and programmes of measures

In 2009, nine years after the Framework-Directive entered into force, management plans were produced for each river basin district, taking account of the results of the analyses and studies carried out. These plans cover the period 2009-2015. They shall be revised in 2015 and then every six years thereafter.

The management plans must be implemented in 2012. They aim to:

  • prevent deterioration, enhance and restore bodies of surface water, achieve good chemical and ecological status of such water by 2015 at the latest and to reduce pollution from discharges and emissions of hazardous substances;
  • protect, enhance and restore the status of all bodies of groundwater, prevent the pollution and deterioration of groundwater, and ensure a balance between groundwater abstraction and replenishment;
  • preserve protected areas.

The management plans for river basin districts can be complemented by more detailed management programmes and plans for a sub-basin, a sector or a particular type of water.

Temporary deterioration of bodies of water is not in breach of the requirements of this Framework-Directive if it is the result of circumstances which are exceptional or could not reasonably have been foreseen and which are due to an accident, natural causes or force majeure.

Member States shall encourage participation by all stakeholders in the implementation of this Framework-Directive, specifically with regard to the management plans for river basin districts. Projects from the management plans must be submitted to public consultation for at least 6 months.

From 2010, Member States must ensure that water pricing policies provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently and that the various economic sectors contribute to the recovery of the costs of water services, including those relating to the environment and resources.

Member States must introduce arrangements to ensure that effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties are imposed in the event of breaches of the provisions of this Framework Directive.

A list of priority substances selected from among the ones which present a significant risk to the aquatic environment has been drawn up at European level. This list is set out in Annex X to this Framework-Directive.

Key terms used in the act
  • Inland waters: all standing or flowing water on the surface of the land, and all groundwater on the landward side of the baseline from which the breadth of territorial waters is measured.
  • Surface water: inland waters, except groundwater, transitional waters and coastal waters, except in respect of chemical status, for which territorial waters are also included.
  • Groundwater: all water which is below the surface of the ground in the saturation zone and in direct contact with the ground or subsoil.
  • Transitional waters: bodies of surface water in the vicinity of river mouths which are partly saline in character as a result of their proximity to coastal waters but which are substantially influenced by freshwater flows.
  • Coastal water: surface water on the landward side of a line every point of which is at a distance of one nautical mile on the seaward side from the nearest point of the baseline from which the breadth of territorial waters is measured, extending where appropriate up to the outer limit of transitional waters.
  • River basin: the area of land from which all surface run-off flows through a sequence of streams, rivers and, possibly, lakes into the sea at a single river mouth, estuary or delta.
  • River basin district: the area of land and sea, made up of one or more neighbouring river basins together with their associated groundwaters and coastal waters, which is identified under Article 3(1) as the main unit for management of river basins.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2000/60/EC

22.12.2000

22.12.2003

OJ L 327 of 22.12.2000

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2455/2001/EC

16.12.2001

OJ L 331 of 15.12.2001

Directive 2008/32/EC

21.3.2008

OJ L 81 of 20.3.2008

Directive 2009/31/EC

25.6.2009

OJ L 140 of 5.6.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2000/60/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

AMENDMENT OF ANNEXES

Annex X – List of priority substances in the field of water policy

Directive 2008/105/EC [Official Journal L 348 of 24.12.2008].

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 22 March 2007 – Towards sustainable water management in the European Union – First stage in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC [COM(2007) 128 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

In this report the Commission sets out the results provided by the Member States concerning the application of the Water Framework Directive. Among other things, it mentions that there is a considerable risk that several Member States will fail to meet the targets set in the Framework Directive, in particular because of the physical deterioration of aquatic ecosystems, especially as a result of overexploitation of water resources and disturbing levels of pollution from diffuse sources. The Commission also indicates that there have been problems with meeting the deadline for incorporating the Framework Directive into national law and shortcomings in the actual transposition process in some cases. However, the establishment of river basin districts and the designation of the competent national authorities seem to be well under way, although progress does still need to be made with regard to international cooperation in some instances. The Commission also indicates that there are considerable differences in the quality of the environmental and economic assessments made in respect of river basins as well as shortcomings in the economic analyses carried out. The Commission finishes by making a number of recommendations to the Member States with a view to making good the shortcomings reported, integrating sustainable management of water into other national policies and making the most of public participation, and gives advance notice of what it plans to do in future in the context of European water management policy.

Report from the Commission of 1 April 2009 published in accordance with article 18.3 of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC on programmes for monitoring of water status [COM(2009) 156 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Water Protection and Management in other Legal Encyclopedias

Klamath Basin Water Supply Enhancement Act of 2000 – American Legal Encyclopedia

Coastal Zone Management Act Of 1972 in the American Legal Encyclopedia

Single Market for Services

Single Market for Services

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Single market for services

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Single market for services

Single market for services

Services account for more than 70 % of the economic activity of the Member States and a similar proportion of employment. The freedom to provide services and freedom of establishment, as set out in Articles 49 and 56 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), are therefore essential to the smooth operation of the internal market. In this way, economic operators can pursue a stable, continuous activity in one or more Member States and/or offer temporary services in another Member State without having to be established there.

The European Union is therefore working towards providing frameworks for these two principles in order to guarantee the smooth functioning of the single market for services, and especially cross-border services. The EU has achieved significant progress in the area of certain services. Moreover, in 2006 it adopted the “Services” Directive which aims at removing barriers to trade and services, and at facilitating cross-border operations.

Single market for services Contents

  • Financial services: general framework
  • Financial services: banking
  • Financial services: insurance
  • Financial services: transactions in securities

GENERAL POLICIES

  • ‘Services’ Directive
  • Posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services
  • The principle of equal treatment for men and women outside the labour market
  • The competitiveness of business-related services
  • System for the recognition of professional qualifications

SECTORAL PROVISIONS

Liberal professions

  • Competition in professional services

Services of general interest

  • Reform of the EU State aid rules on Services of General Economic Interest
  • New European commitment for services of general interest
  • White Paper on services of general interest
  • Social services of general interest

Road transport

  • Common rules for access to the international road haulage market
  • Common rules for access to the international market for coach and bus services
  • Goods: Non-resident carriers in the national market

Marine transport

  • Freedom to supply services, competition, unfair pricing practices and free access to ocean trade
  • Freedom to provide services within the Member States (ocean trade)
  • Freedom to provide maritime transport services
  • Inland navigation: non-resident carriers
  • Inland navigation: transport of goods or passengers by inland waterway between Member States

Air transport

  • Air service agreements between Member States and third countries

Information society

  • Legal aspects of electronic commerce (“Directive on electronic commerce”)
  • A new framework for electronic communications services
  • Regulatory framework for electronic communications
  • Authorisation of electronic communications networks and services
  • Universal service and users’ rights
  • Access to electronic communications networks
  • Data protection in the electronic communications sector
  • Online gambling (Green Paper)

Postal services

  • The Establishment of an Internal Postal Market

Consumer credit agreements

Consumer credit agreements

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Consumer credit agreements

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Single market for capital

Consumer credit agreements

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2008/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on credit agreements for consumers and repealing Council Directive 87/102/EEC.

Summary

This Directive aims to harmonise the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States covering credit for consumers, in order to facilitate cross-border services. It shall increase the transparency of contractual conditions and improve the level of consumer protection.

However the Directive is not applicable to credit agreements that are:

  • secured by a mortgage;
  • concluded for the purchase of land or immovable property;
  • whose total amount is less than 200 euros or more than 75 000 euros;
  • relating to lease or hire where there is no obligation to purchase;
  • granted free of interest, without other charges or in the form of an overdraft facility;
  • concluded with an investment company;
  • the result of a judicial ruling;
  • linked to the payment or to the surety of a debt;
  • linked to loans granted to a limited group of the public.

Member States may also apply a less restrictive regime to organisations with social aims and activities that only profit their members, where they offer an annual percentage rate of charge which is lower than the current market rate.

During the pre-contractual phase,the creditor * or their intermediaries * must supply clear information on the main features of the credit offered in due course. In particular, this concerns:

  • the duration of the credit agreement;
  • the total amount of credit;
  • the borrowing rate and rates relating thereto;
  • the annual percentage rate of charge * and the total amount owed by the consumer *;
  • the amount, number and frequency of instalments;
  • the cash price for goods or services supplied against specific payment terms or a linked credit agreement;
  • costs linked to or resulting from the agreement;
  • contractual obligations;
  • consumer rights;
  • the consequences of late payments and defaults;
  • sureties.

Consumers shall receive this information in a standard form as stipulated in Annexe II of the Directive.

Apart from an obligation to supply comprehensive pre-contractual information, creditors must supply consumers with adequate explanations so that the latter may choose a contract which corresponds to their needs and to their financial situation. In addition creditors must evaluate the solvency of their clients before concluding an agreement, whilst also respecting the right of consumers to be informed when their request for credit is rejected.

The contract must restate the main information relating to the credit offer chosen. If the borrowing rate is modified *, the consumer must be informed of the new amount, the number and frequency of instalments.

Consumers may exercise their right to withdraw by notifying the creditor of their intention, without having to justify their decision. This must take place within fourteen days from the conclusion of the agreement.

Consumers also have the right to make early repayment of their debt. They can exercise this right at any time, as long as the creditor receives fair compensation which is objectively justified.

Member States shall ensure that creditors and credit intermediaries fulfil their obligations. They shall ensure that audits are carried out by an independent authority.

Context

This Directive repeals Directive 87/102/EEC in order to strengthen consumer protection. It must be implemented in Member States before 2 May 2010.

Key terms of the Act
  • Creditor: any natural or legal person who grants or promises to grant credit in the course of their trade, business or profession.
  • Credit intermediary: a natural or legal person who does not act as a creditor and who, in the course of their trade, business or profession:
    1. presents or offers credit agreements to consumers;
    2. assists consumers by carrying out preparatory work for agreements;
    3. concludes credit agreements with consumers on behalf of the creditor.
  • Total amount payable by the consumer: the sum of the total amount of the credit and the total cost of the credit to the consumer.
  • Annual percentage rate of charge: the total cost of the credit to the consumer, expressed as an annual percentage of the total amount of credit.
  • Borrowing rate: the interest rate expressed as a fixed or variable percentage applied on an annual basis to the amount of credit drawn down.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2008/48/EC

11.6.2008

12.5.2010

L 133/66 of 22.5.2008

Resources

Further Reading

  • AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa. Atti del Conv egno internazionale dedicato alla memoria de Alberto Trabucchi, Milano, Cedam, 2002.
  • ALPA, G., “Autonomia privata e «garanzie» commerciali”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 109 y ss.
  • ALPA, G./DE NOVA, G., y otros, L´acquisto di beni de consumo, Milano, 2002.
  • AMADIO, G., “La conformità al contrato tra garanzia e responsabilità”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 2 y ss.
  • AMADIO, G., “Difetto di conformità e tutele sinallagmatiche”, Riv. dir. civ., 2001, I, pp. 863 y ss.
  • AMADIO, G., “Conformità al contratto e tutele satisfattorie”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 151 y ss.
  • AMATO, C., Per un diritto europeo dei contratti con i consumatori, Milano, Giuffrè, 2003.
  • AMTENBRINK, F./SCHNEIDER, C., “Die europaweite Vereinheitlichung von Verbrauchsgüterkauf und –garantien”, VuR, 1996, pp. 367 y ss.
  • AMTENBRINK, F./SCHNEIDER, C., “Europäische Vorgaben für ein neues Kaufrecht und deutsche Schuldrechtsrecofr”, VuR, 1999, pp. 293 y ss.
  • ANDERS, “Zur Reform des Kaufrechts”, ZRP, 2000, pp. 293 y ss.
  • ARNOLD, S./Hannes UNBERATH, H., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in England”, ZEuP, 2004, n.º 2, pp. 366 y ss.
  • BALDUS, C., Binnenkonkurrenz kaufrechtlicher Sachmängelansprüche nach Europarecht, Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlag, 1999.
  • BALL, “Neues Gewährleistungsrecht beim Kauf ”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 49 y ss.
  • BAMBERGER, H. G./ROTH, H., Kommentar zum Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuch, Band 1, München, Beck, 2003.
  • BÄRENZ, “Die Auslegung der überschießenden Umsetzung von Richtlinien am Beispiel des Gesetzes zur Modernisierung des Schuldrechts”, DB, 2003, pp. 375 y ss.
  • BEMMANN, “Der Pferdekauf im Jahr nach der Schuldrechtsreform”, AUR, 2003, pp. 233 y ss.
  • BERESKA, “Der neue Lieferantenregress nach §§ 478, 479 BGB. Eine Arbeitshilfe”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 59 y ss.
  • BERGMANN, N., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchersgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG in Italien: ein neuen Paragrapg im Codice civile”, en Jahrbuch für italienisches Recht, 2003, pp. 261 y ss.
  • BERNARDEAU, L., “Harmonisation minimale et droit applicable”, en J.
  • BERTI, C., La vendita dei beni di consumo Commentario breve agli artt. 1519-bis ss.cc. (Artt. 1519-bis – 1519-nonies c.c.), Milano, Giuffrè, 2004.
  • BIANCA, C. M., “Consegna di aliud pro alio e decadenza dai rimedi por omessa denunzia nella direttiva 1999/44/CE”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 16 y ss.
  • BIANCA, C. M., “L´attuazione della directtiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 103 y ss.
  • BIN, M., “Per un dialogo con il futuro legislatore dell´attuazione: ripensare l´intera disciplina della non conformità dei beni nella vendita alla luce della direttiva comunitaria”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 403 y ss.
  • BIN, M./CALVO, R./CIATTI, A./DELOGU, L., “Un progetto per l’attuazione in Italia della direttiva 1999/44/CE (dalla redazione torinese della rivista)”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 156 y ss.
  • BIN, M./LUMINOSO, A., Le garanzie nella vendita dei beni di consumo, Padova, Cedam, 2003.
  • BOCCHINI, F., “La tutela del consumatore nella vendita tra piazze diverse”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 161 y ss.
  • BOCCHINI, F., “La vendita tra piazze diverse di beni di consumo”, Riv. dir. civ., 2002, II, pp. 2 y ss.
  • BÖHLE, J., Der Rückgriff in der Lieferkette gemäss der §§ 478, 479 BGB nach dem Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetz, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2004.
  • BONFANTE, G./CAGNASSO, O., “Risoluzione del contratto ed “azione di adempimento” quali strumento di tutela del consumatoreo dell’impresa?”, Contr. Impr./Eur., pp. 23 y ss.
  • BRAMBRING, “Wer schützt den Verbraucher vor dem Verbraucherschutz?”, ZNotP, 2003, pp. 42 y ss.
  • BRÜGGEMEIER, G., “Zur Reform des deutschen Kaufrechts – Herausforderungen durch die EG-Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie”, JZ, 2000,pp. 529 y ss.
  • BRÜGGEMEIER, G., “Zur Reform des deutschen Kaufrechts – Herausforderungen durch die EG-Verbrauchersgüterkaufrichtlinie”, JZ, 2000, pp. 529 y ss.
  • BRÜGGEMEIER, G., “Das neue Kaufrecht des Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuches”, WM, 2002, pp. 1376 y ss.
  • BUCK, “Kaufrecht”, en WESTERMANN (Coord.), Das Schuldrecht, 2002, pp. 105 y ss.
  • BÜDENBENDER, U., “Das Kaufrecht nach dem Schuldrechtsreformgesetz (Teil II)”, DStR, 2002, pp. 361 y ss.
  • BÜDENBENDER, U., “Die Bedeutung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie für das deutsche Kaufrecht nach der Schuldrechtsreform”, ZEuP, 2004, n.º 1, pp. 49 y ss.
  • CABELLA PISU, L., Vendita, vendite: quale riforma delle garanzie?”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 34 y ss.
  • CALAIS-AULOY, J., “De la garantie des vices cachés à la garantie de conformité”, Mélanges Ch. Mouly, 1998, t. 2, pp. 63 y ss.
  • CALLIES, G.-P., “Nach der Schuldrechtsreform: Perspektiven des deutschen, europäischen und internationalen Verbrauchervertragsrechts”, AcP, 2003, n.º 4/5, pp. 575 y ss.
  • CALVAO DA SILVA, Venda de bens de consumo. Comentário, Coimbra, 2003.
  • CALVO, R., “L´attuazione della direttiva n. 44 del 1999: una ‘chance’ per la revisione in senso unitario della disciplina sulle garanzie e rimedi nella vendita”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 463 y ss.
  • CALVO, R., “Nota a margine del convegno di Padova dedicato alla memoria di Alberto Trabucchi su “L’attuazione della direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 419 y ss.
  • CANARIS, C.-W., “L´attuazione in Germania della direttiva concernente la vendita di beni de consumo”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 235 y ss.
  • CANARIS, C.-W., “Die Nacherfüllung durch Lieferung einer mangelfreien Sache beim Stückkauf”, JZ, 2003, pp. 831 y ss.
  • CIATTI, A., “L’àmbito di aplicazione ratione materiae della direttiva comunitaria sulla vendita e le garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 433 y ss.
  • CIGINI, S., “L’avant-projet sull’attuazione nel diritto francese della direttiva n. 44 del 1999”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2003, pp. 902 y ss.
  • CORAPI, D., “La direttiva 99/44/CE e la Convenzione di Vienna sulla vendita internazionale: verso un nuovo diritto comune della vendita?”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 135 y ss.
  • COSTANZA, M., “La direttiva 99/44: art. 3 e obblighi di pagamento del compradore”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 185 y ss.
  • CUGINI, S., “L’avant-projet sull’attuazione nel diritto francese della direttiva n. 44 del 1999”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2003, n.º 2, pp. 902 y ss.
  • CZIESIELSKY, M., Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie und amerikanisches Gewährleistungsrecht im Vergleich, Hamburg, Kovac, 2003.
  • DE CRISTOFARO, G., Difetto di conformità al contratto e diritti del consumatore. L´ordinamento italiano e la direttiva 99/44/CE sulla vendita e le garanzie dei beni di consumo, Padova, Cedam, 2000.
  • DE CRISTOFARO, G., “L´esonero de responsabilità del venditore per i difetti di conformità che il consumatore conosceva o non poteva ragionevolmente ingorare «al momento della conclusione del contrato»: brevi note su taluni aspetti problematici dell´attuazione dell´art. 2, par. 3, della direttiva 99/44/CE”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 201 y ss.
  • DE MATTEIS, R., “Il difetto di conformità e l’equilibrio contrattuale dello scambio”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 46 y ss.
  • DE NOVA, G., “La proposta di direttiva sulla vendita e la garanzia dei beni di consumo”, Riv. dir. priv., 1997, pp. 22 y ss.
  • DE NOVA, G., “La recezione della Direttiva sulle garanzie nella vendita di beni di consumo: vincoli, ambito de applicazione, difetto de conformità”, Riv. dir. priv., 2001, pp. 759 y ss.
  • DE NOVA, G., “La recepzione della direttiva sulle garanzie nella vendita dei beni de consumo: vincoli, ambito di applicazione, difetto di conformità”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 33 y ss.
  • DE SAINT DIDIER, C., “La directive 1999/44 du 25 mai 1999 sur certains aspects de la vente et des garanties des biens de consommation: impact pour les professionnels”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 277 y ss.
  • DELL’AQUILA, G./PARADISI, G., “La Direttiva 1999/44/CE, in materia di garanzie post-vendita a tutela dei consumatori, e il diritto vigente”, Disciplina del commercio, 2001, pp. 44 y ss.
  • DELOGU, L., “La proposta modificata di direttiva del Parlamento europeo del Consiglio sulla vendita e le garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 1998, pp. 1039 y ss.
  • DELOGU, L., “Il patti modificativi della responsabilità del venditore: la direttiva 1999/44/CE, l’odierno diritto italiano e le prospettive di riforma”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 489 y ss.
  • DI MAJO, A., “Garanzia e inadempimiento nella vendita di beni di consumo”, Europa e dir. priv., 2002, pp. 1 y ss.
  • DI MAJO, A., “Il sistema dei rimedi: risoluzione del contratto, riduzione del prezzo e pretese risarcitoria”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 83 y ss.
  • DI PAOLA, L., “Vendita di beni de consumo: si rafforzano le garanzie per l´acquirente”, Le nuove leggi civile commentate, 2002, n.º 2-3, pp. 309 y ss.
  • DIEZ-PICAZO, L., “I problemi della attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE nei diritti nazionali”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 255 y ss.
  • DOEHNER, R., Die Schuldrechtsreform vor dem Hintergrund der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie. die Richtlinie des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter und ihre Auswirkungen auf das deutsche Recht, Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlag, 2004.
  • EBERSOHL, J. N., Vertragsfreiheit und Verbrauchererschutz in der schwedischen Gesetzgebung der letzten Jahrzenhnte. Zum skandinavischen Einfluss aud das Europäische Verbraucherschtuzrecht, Göttingen, V & R Unipress, 2003.
  • ECCHER, B., “Il recepimento della direttiva 99/44/CE nell´ordinamento giuridico austriaco”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 263 y ss.
  • ECCHER, B./SCHURR, F. A., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 99/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in Italien”, ZEuP, 2003, n.º 1, pp. 65 y ss.
  • ECCHER, B./SCHURR, F. A., “Die Richtlinie 99/44/EG und das Neur Kaufrecht in Italien”, en Jahrbuch für italienisches Recht, 2003, pp. 3 y ss.
  • EGER, T., “Einige ökonomische Aspekte der Europäischen Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie und ihrer Umsetzung in deutsches Recht”, German Working Papers in Law and Economics, 2002-1-1032 (disponible en https://ideas.repec.org/p/bep/dewple/2002-1-1032.html).
  • EGGERT, “An- und Verkauf gebrauchter Kraftfahrzeuge nach der Schuldrechtreform”, ZAP, n.º 3, pp. 375 y ss.
  • EHMANN, H./RUST, U., “Die Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie”, JZ, 1999, pp. 853 y ss.
  • ELVINGER, “La Directive 99/44 du 25 Mai 1999 et le droit Luxembourgeois”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 309 y ss.
  • EMMERICH, Das Recht der Leistungsstörungen, 5ª ed., München, Beck, 2003.
  • ERNST/GSELL, “Kaufrechtsrichtlinie und BGB”, ZIP, 2000, pp. 1410 y ss.
  • ERNST/GSELL, “Kritisches zum Stand der Schuldrechtsmodernisierung”, ZIP, 2001, pp. 1389 y ss.
  • FABER, W., “Zur Richtlinie bezüglich Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Garantien für Verbrauchersgüter”, JBl, 1999, pp. 413 y ss.
  • FABER, W., Handbuch zum neuen Gewährleistungsrecht, 2001.
  • FADDA, R., “Il contenuto della direttiva 1999/44/CE: una panoramica”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 410 y ss
  • FALZONE CALVISI, M. G., “Garanzie legali della vendita: quale riforma?”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 448 y ss.
  • FELLER, “Sachmängel beim Kauf ”, MittBayNot, 2003, pp. 82 y ss.
  • FERRANTE, “Die neuen Vorschriften des italienischen Codice Civile über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, VuR, 2003, pp. 165 y ss.
  • FERRANTE, “Die Umsetzung des Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG im italienischen Recht. Einige Bemerkungen zu den neuen Regelungen del Verbraucherschutzes”, RIW, 2003, pp. 570 y ss.
  • FERREIRA DE ALMEIDA, “Orientaçoes de politica legislativa adoptadas pela Directiva 1999/44/CE sobre venda de bens de consumo. Comparaçao com o direito vigente”, Themis, 2001, n.º 4, pp. 109 y ss.
  • FERRI, G. B., “Divagazioni intorno alla direttiva n. 44 del 1999 su taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 51 y ss.
  • GALLO, P., “Le garanzie nella vendita di beni al consumo. Prospettive e riforma alla luce della direttiva 1999/44 CE”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 78 y ss.
  • GAROFALO, L., “Le azioni edilizie e la direttiva 1999/44/CE”, en S.
  • MAZZAMUTO, Il contratto e le tutele. Prospettive di diritto europeo,Torino, 2002, pp. 500 y ss.
  • MAZZAMUTO, (Coord.), Commentario alla disciplina della vendita dei beni de consumo, Padova, 2003.
  • MAZZAMUTO, “L´attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE in Italia”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 237 y ss.
  • GASS, P., “Die Schuldrechtsüberarbeitung nach der politischen Entscheidung zum Inhalt der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, en U. DIEDERICHSEN (Coord), Festschrift für Walter Roland zum 70. Geburstag, 1999, pp. 131 y ss.
  • GENOVESE, A., “Le garanzie dei beni di consumo, la direttiva 99/44/CE e il diritto spagnolo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2002, pp. 1103 y ss.
  • GERKENS, J./PIRSON, V., “Die Umsetzung der Kaufrechtsrichtlinie (1999/44/EG) in Belgien”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 169 y ss.
  • GHESTIN. J., “Osservazioni provvisorie sul recepimento della direttiva sulla vendita de beni de consumo nel diritto francese”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 273 y ss.
  • GIARDINI, F., “La conservazione del contratto e l´impostazione essenzialmente civilistica del legisladore comunitario nella direttiva 99/44/CE. Profili di comparazione giuridica”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 205 y ss.
  • GLINSKI/ROTT, “Umweltfreundliches und ethisches Konsumverhalten im harmonisierten Kaufrecht”, EuZW, 2003, pp. 649 y ss.
  • GRAF VON WESTPAHLEN, F. (Dir.), Handbuch des Kaufvertragsrechts in den EG-Staaten, Köln, 1992.
  • GRAF VON WESTPAHLEN, F., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie im Blick auf den Regress zwischen Händler und Hersteller”, DB, 1999, pp. 2552 y ss.
  • GRAVANTE, “Die Regelung des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs – Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in das italienische Recht”, EuLF, 2002, pp. 356 y ss.
  • GRUBER, M., “Die Umsetzumg der Verbrauchersgüterkauf-Richtlinie in Österreich”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 153 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN, S., Europäisches Schuldvertragsrecht – das Europäische Recht der Unternehmensgeschäfte, Berlin, New York, 1999.
  • GRUNDMANN, S., “European sales law. Reform and adoption of international models in German sales law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 239 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN, S., “Verbraucherrecht, Unternehmensrecht, Privatrecht – warum sind sich UN-Kaufrecht und EU-Kaufrechts-Richtlinie so ähnlich?”, AcP, 2002, n.º 202, pp. 40 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN, S.,/BIANCA, C. (Coord.), EU-Kaufrechtsrichtlinie, Köln, V. Otto Schmidt, 2002.
  • GRUNDMANN, S./MEDICUS, D./ROLLAND, R. (Coord.), Europäisches Kaufgewährleistungsrecht. Reform und Internationalisierung des deutschen Schuldrechts, Köln, 2000.
  • GSELL, “Kaufrechtsrichtinie und Schuldrechtsmodernisierung”, JZ, 2001, pp. 65 y ss.; “Nutzungsentschädigung bei kaufrechtlicher Nacherfüllung?”, NJW, 2003, pp. 1969 y ss.
  • HAAR, B., “Verbraucherschutz durch Informationsregeln beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf: zur Struktur der Garantie gem. § 477 Abs. 1 BGB”, VuR, 2004, n.º 5, pp. 161 y ss.
  • HAAS, “Entwurf eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes: Kauf- und Werkvertragsrecht”, BB, 2001, pp. 1313 y ss.
  • HAMMEN, H., “Zum Verhältnis der Garantie zu den Mängelrechten aus § 437 BGB”, NJW, 2003, n.º 36, pp. 2588 y ss.
  • HÄNLEIN, A., “Die Richtlinie zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter”, DB, 1999, pp. 1641 y ss.
  • HAZAN, M., “Attuata la direttiva 99/44/CE: di rafforza la tutela del consumatore”, I contratti, 2002, pp. 391 y ss.
  • HERMANNS, “Gewährleistungsvorschriften und Gebrauchsgüterrichtlinie”, ZfS, 2001, pp. 437 y ss.
  • HERTEL, “Gekauft wie besichtigt“ – Beschaffenheitsvereinbarung und Ausschluss der Mängelrechte beim Altbauverkauf nach neuem Schuldrecht”, ZNotP, 2002, pp. 126 y ss.
  • HÖFFE, S., Die Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG und ihre Auswirkungen auf den Schadenersatz beim Kauf, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2002,
  • HOFFMANN, J., “Verbrauchsgüterkaufrechtsrichtlinie und Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetz”, ZRP, 2001, pp. 347 y ss.
  • HONDIUS, E., “Kaufen ohne Risiko: Der europäische Richtlinienentwurf zum Verbraucherkauf und zur Verbrauchergarantie”, ZEuP, 1997, pp. 130 y ss.
  • HONDIUS, E./JELOSCHEK, C., “Die Kaufrichlinie und das Niederländische recht: für den Westen kaum etwas neues”, en S.
  • GRUNDMANN/D. MEDICUS/W. ROLLAND (Coord), Europäisches Kaufgewährleistungsrecht, Köln, Heymanns Verlag, 2000, pp. 208 y ss.
  • HONSELL, “Die EU-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und ihre Umsetzung ins BGB”, JZ, 2001, pp. 278 y ss.
  • HUBER, “Kaufrecht – made in Europe! Die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und ihre Folgen für das deutsche Gewährleistungsrecht”, Festschrift Henrich, 2000, pp. 297 y ss.
  • HÜBNER, U., “Der Verbrauchersgüterkauf: ein weiterer Schritt in Richtung Europäisierung des Privatrechts”, EuZW, 1999, pp. 481.
  • HUCKE, “Die Auswirkungen der Europäischen VerbrauchsgüterkaufRichtlinie auf das deutsche Schuldrecht”, IstR, 2000, pp. 277 y ss.
  • IURILLI, C., “Riequilibrio delle posizioni contrattuali e limiti all’esercizio dello ‘ius variandi’ nei contratti del consumatore” Giur. it., 2001, pp.652 y ss.
  • IURILLI, C., Autonomia contrattuale e garanzie nella vendita di beni de consumo, Milano, Giuffrè, 2004.
  • JACK, A., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie in englisches Recht”, Internationales Handelsrech, 2004, n.º 2, pp. 54 y ss.
  • JANSSEN, “Kollision des einheitlichen UN-Kaufrechts mit dem Verbraucherschutzrecht am Beispiel der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und –garantien”, VuR, 1999, pp. 324 y ss.
  • JORDEN, S., Verbrauchergarantien: die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Verbrauchsgütergarantien und ihre Umsetzung in das deutsche Zivilrecht, München, VVF, 2001.
  • JORDEN/LEHMANN, “Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Schuldrechtsmodernisierung”, JZ, 2001, pp. 952 y ss.
  • JUD, B., “Der Richtlinienentwurf der EU über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und das österreischische Recht”, ÖJZ, 1997, pp. 441 y ss.
  • JUD, B., “Die Rangordnung der Gewährleistungsbehelfe. Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie, österreichisches, deutsches und UNKaufrecht im Vergleich”, en HELMS (Coord.), Jahrbuch Junger Zivilrechtswissenschaftler 2001, pp. 205 y ss.
  • JUD, B., “Regressrecht des Letztverkäufers: art. 4 der RL 99/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und die Reform in Österreich und Deutschland”, ZfRV, 2001, nº 6, pp. 201 y ss.
  • JUNKER, “Vom Bürgerlichen zum kleinbürgerlichen Gesetzbuch – Der Richtlinienvorschlag über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, DZWir, 1997, pp. 271 y ss.
  • KANDUT, G., Das Gewährleistungsrecht beim Kauf, Wien, Verlag Österreich, 1992.
  • KELDER, M. G., “De richtlijn betreffende beppalde aspecten van de verkoop en garanties voor consumptiegoederen”, Bedrijfsjuridische berichten, 1999, n.º 19, pp. 181 y ss.
  • KESSELER, C., “Der Kauf gebrauchter Waren nach dem Diskussionsentwurf eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes”, ZRP, 2001, pp. 70 y ss.
  • KIRCHER, W., “Zum Vorschlag für eine Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und –garantien”, ZRP, 1997, pp. 290 y ss.
  • KIRCHER, W., Die Voraussetzungen der Sachmängelhaftung beim Warenkauf – eine vergleichende Darstellung des deutschen und des englischen Rechts unter Berücksichtigung des UN Kaufrechts und aktueller Reformbestrebungen, 1998.
  • KOCH, “Auswirkungen der Schuldrechtsreform auf die Gestaltung Allgemeiner Geschäftsbedingungen”, WM, 2002, pp. 2217 y ss.
  • KREJCI, H., Reform des Gewährleistungsrechts, Wien, Verlag Österreich, 1994.
  • LEHMANN, M., “Informationsverantwortung und Gewährleistung für Werbeangaben beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, JZ, 2000, pp. 280 y ss.
  • LEHMANN/DÜRRSCHMIDT, “Haftung für irreführende Werbung über Garantien – Zum Vorschlag einer Richtlinie des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und -garantien vom 18. 6. 1996”, GRUR, 1997, pp. 549 y ss.
  • LEHR, W./WENDEL, H., “Die EU-Richtlinie über Verbrauchsgüterkauf und -garantien – Auswirkungen auf Handel und Produzenten”, EWS, 1999, pp. 321 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Appunti per l’attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE e per la revisione della garanzia per vizi nella vendita”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 83 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Proposta di modificazione del codice civile per l´attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 133 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Riparazione o sostituzione dell cosa e garanzia por vizi de nella vendita. Dal codice civile alla direttiva 1999/44”, Riv. dir. civ., 2001, I, pp. 837 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Il sistema dei rimedi: la riparazione e la sostituzione del bene difettoso e il diritto di regresso del venditore”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 45 y ss.
  • MACARIO, F., “Brevi considerazioni sull’attuazione della direttiva in tema di garanzie nella vendita di beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 143 y ss.
  • MAGNUS, “Der Regreßanspruch des Letztverkäufers nach der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, en BASEDOW/MEIER/
  • MAINGUY, D., “Propos dissidents sur la transposition pour la directie du 25 mai 1999 sur certains aspects de la vente et des garanties des bienes de consommation”, JCP, 2002, n.º 48, pp. 2109 y ss.
  • MANNINO, “L´attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE in Francia”, Europa e dir. priv., 2003.
  • MAROTZKE, “Kein Gewährleistungsausschluss bei der Veräußerung beweglicher Massegegenstände an Verbraucher?”, ZInsO, 2002, pp. 501 y ss.
  • MARTÍN SANTISTEBAN, S., “Nuova disciplina della vendita dei beni di consumo nel diritto spagnolo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2003, pp. 868 y ss.
  • MARTIN, V., Gesetzliche mängelhaftung gemäß der Europäischen Richtlinie über den Verbrauchrsgïterkauf und Bürgerliches Gewährleistungsrecht, Diss. Unv. Bonn, 2001.
  • MASTRORILLI, A., La garanzia per vizi nella vendita. Disciplina codicistica e nuova normativa europea, Milano, Giuffrè, 2004.
  • MATTHES, “Der Herstellerregress nach § 479 BGB in Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen. Ausgewählte Probleme”, NJW, 2002, pp. 2505 y ss.
  • MATTHIESSEN/LINDNER, “EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf – Anlass für eine Reform des deutschen Schuldrechts”, NJ, 1999, pp. 617 y ss.
  • MEDICUS, D., “Ein neues Kaufrecht für Verbraucher?”, ZIP, 1996, pp. 1925 y ss.
  • MICKLITZ, H. W., “Ein einheitliches Kaufrecht für Verbraucher in der EG?”, EuZW, 1997, pp. 229 y ss.
  • MICKLITZ, H. W., “Die Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie”, EuZW, 1999, pp. 485 y ss.
  • MITTMANN, A., Einheitliches UN-Kaufrecht und europäische Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie. Konkurrenz- und Auslegungsprobleme, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2004.
  • MORGENROTH, S. J., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG in Spanien”, RIW, 2003, pp. 837 y ss.
  • MORGENROTH, S. J., Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie in Spanien und Deutschland. Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates vom 25. Mai 1999 zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter in Spanien und Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Wien, Lang, 2003.
  • MOTA PINTO, P., “Conformidade e garantias na venda e bens de consumo. A Directiva 1999/44/CE e o direito portugués”, Estudos de Direito do Consumidor, Coimbra, 2000, pp. 199 y ss.
  • MOTA PINTO, P., Cumprimento defeituoso do contrato de compra e venda. Anteprojecto de Diploma de Transposiçao da Directiva 1999/44/CE para o Direito Postuguês, Lisboa, 2002.
  • NAU, E., Das Gewährleistungsrecht in BGB, UN-Kaufrecht und den Reformvorschlägen der Schuldrechtskommission: ein Vergleich unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Richtlinie (1999/44/EG) über den Verbrauchersgüterkauf, Franckfurt am Main, Lang, 2003.
  • NIEBLING, “Fahrzeugkauf in der Europäischen Union – Garantie und Mängelansprüche nach der Schuldrechtsreform”, MDR, 2002, pp. 853 y ss.
  • NIETZER/STEIN, “Richtlinie zum Verbrauchsgüterkauf – Auswirkungen in Deutschland und Frankreich”, ZvglRW, 2000, n.º 99, pp. 41 y ss.
  • PADOVINI, F., “Sul carattere imperativo delle disposizionik nazionali di attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE (dedicata a taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni de consumo)”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 213 y ss.
  • PAISANT, G./LEVENEUR, L., “Quelle transposition pour la directive du 25 mai 1999 sur les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation?”, JCP, 2002, n.º 21, pp. 924 y ss.,
  • PARLEDOSI, P., “La direttiva sulle garanzie nella vendita: ovvero, di buone intenzioni e risultati opachi”, Riv. crit. dir. priv., 2001, pp. 437 y ss.
  • PATTI, S., “Sul superamento della distinzione tra vizi e aliud pro alio nella Direttiva 1999/44/CE”, Riv. dir. civ., 2002, II, pp. 623 y ss.
  • PATTI, S., (Coord.), Commentario sulla vendita dei beni di consumo, Milano, Giuffré, 2004.
  • PEIFER, “Die Haftung des Verkäufers für Werbeangaben”, JR, 2001, pp. 265 y ss.
  • PETERL, R., Deutsches und französisches Kaufrecht und die EUVerbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie, Hamburg, Kovac, 2004.
  • PFEIFFER, “Teil 2: Sachmangelbegriff – Ausklammerung der Zuviellieferung”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 138 y ss.
  • PFEIFFER, “Teil 3: Unzumutbarkeit beider Arten der Nacherfüllung”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 217 y ss.
  • PFEIFFER, “Unkorrektheiten bei der Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie in das deutsche Recht, Teil 1: Sachmangelbegriff – Hierarchie statt Kumulation der Mangelkriterien”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 94 y ss .
  • PICHONNAZ, P., “Überlegungen zur «autonomen» Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in der Schweiz”, en M.
  • SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 287 y ss.
  • PICOD, F., “La Directive 1999/44/CE. Genése et principes”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 23 y ss.
  • PIGNARRE, G., “Les droits (légaux) de l´acheteur”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 61 y ss.
  • PINNA, A., “Il termini nella disciplina delle garanzie e la direttiva 1999/44/CE sulle vendite dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 516 y ss.
  • PINNA, A., “La transposition en droit francais”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 223 y ss.
  • PRIEß, M., Der Begriff des Sachsmangels im deutschen und im englischen Kaufrecht. Reformbedarf aufgrund der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, Frankfurt am Mani-Berlin, Lang, 2001.
  • RAINER, J. M., “Zu Sprache und Stil der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie. Ein Überblick anhand der deutschen, englischen, französischen, italienischen und spanischen Fassung”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 147 y ss.
  • REICH, N., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG in das deutsche Recht”, NJW, 1999, pp. 2397 y ss.
  • REINKING, “Auswirkungen des Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes auf den Neu- und Gebrauchtwagenkauf ”, DAR, 2001, pp. 8 y ss.
  • REINKING, “Die Haftung des Autoverkäufers für Sach- und Rechtsmängel nach neuem Recht”, DAR, 2002, pp. 15 y ss.
  • REINKING, “Gebrauchtwagenkauf von Unternehmen an Verbraucher im neuen Schuldrecht”, ZGS, 2003, pp. 105 y ss.
  • RENDA, A., “Prime annotazioni in merito alla imminente direttiva sulle garanzie contrattuali: una occasione mancata?”, Diritto dei consumi, 1997, pp. 565 y ss.
  • REPGEN, T., Kein Abschied von der Privatautonomie. Die Funktion zwingenden Rechts in der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie, München, Schöningh, 2001.
  • RIEGER, G., “Die Richtlinie zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter vor dem Hintergrund des geltenden Rechts”, VuR, 1999, pp. 287 y ss.
  • RING, G/OLSEN-RING, L., Einführung in das skandinavishce Recht, München, 1999.
  • RINGSTMEIER/HOMANN, “Die Auswirkungen der Schuldrechtsreform auf die Insolvenzverwaltung”, ZIP, 2002, pp. 505 y ss.
  • RIVA, I., “Garanzia per vizi e contratto preliminare di vendita”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 1019 y ss.
  • ROMANA LODOLINI, P., “La Direttiva 1999/44/CE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio su taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni di consumo: prime osservazioni”, in Europa e dir. priv., 1999, pp. 1275 y ss.
  • RUMMEL, Kommentar zum ABGB, Band 1, Wien, Manzsche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1990.
  • RUSCELLO, F., “Le garanzie post-vendita nella Direttiva 1999/44/CE del 25 maggio 1999”, Studium Iuris, 2001, pp. 832 y ss.
  • SACHSEN GESSAPHE, K. A., “Der Rückgriff des Letztverkäufers, neues europäisches und deutsches Kaufrecht”, RIW, 2001, pp. 721 y ss.
  • SACHSEN GESSAPHE, K. A., “Neues Kaufrecht und Lieferbedingungen im unternehmerischen Geschäftsverkehr”, en Festschrift für H.J. Sonnenberger, 2004, pp. 99 y ss.
  • SAENGER, I., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie über Verbraucherkäufe in Deutschland”, en M.
  • SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 191 y ss.
  • SCHÄFER, P.,/PFEIFFER, K., “Die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, ZIP, 1999, pp. 1829 y ss.
  • SCHELLHAMMER, “Das neue Kaufrecht – Rechtsmängelhaftung, Rechtskauf und Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, MDR, 2002, pp. 485 y ss.
  • SCHERMAIER, M., (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003.
  • SCHERMAIER, M., “Rechtsangleichung und Rechtswissenschaft im kaufrechtlichen Sächmängelrecht”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 3 y ss
  • SCHLECHTRIEM, P., “Verbraucherkaufverträge – ein neuer Richtlinienentwurf ”, JZ, 1997, pp. 441 y ss.
  • SCHLECHTRIEM, P., “Die Anpassung des deutschen Rechts an die Klausel-Richtlinie und den Richtlinienvorschlag zum Verbraucherkaufrecht”, ZSR, 1999, pp. 335 y ss.
  • SCHLECHTRIEM, P., “Das geplante Gewährleistungsrecht im Licht der europäischen Richtlinie zum Gebrauchsgüterkauf ”, en ERNST/ZIMMERMANN (Coord.), Zivilrechtswissenschaft und Schuldrechtsreform, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2001, pp. 205 y ss.
  • SCHLESINGER, P., “La garanzie nella vendita di beni de consumo”, Corr. giur., 2002, pp. 562 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT, “Änderungen des Kaufrechts durch die Schuldrechtsreform und deren Bedeutung für die Praxis der Insolvenzverwaltung”, ZInsO, 2002, pp. 103 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT-KESSEL, M., “Der Rückgriff des Letztverkäufers”, ÖJZ, 2000, n.º 55, pp. 668 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT-RÄNTSCH, J., “Zum Stand der Kaufrechtsrichtlinie”, ZIP, 1998, pp. 849 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT-RÄNTSCH, J., “Gedanken zur Umsetzung der kommenden Kaufrechtsrichtlinie”, ZEuP, 1999, pp. 294 y ss.
  • SCHNYDER, A./STRAUB, R. M.,“Das EG-Grünbuch über Verbrauchsgütergarantien und Kundendienst. Erster Schritt zu einem einheitlichen EG-Kaufrecht?”, ZEuP, 1996, pp. 8 y ss.
  • SCHREIER, B., Vergleich der Umsetzung ausgewählter Verbraucherschutzrichtlinien in Deutschland und Norwegen. Vergleich der Umsetzung der AGB-Richtlinie 93/13/EWG, der Haustürwiderrufs-Richtlinie 85/577/EWG und der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie 99/44/EG, Hamburg, Verl. Kovac, J, 2004.
  • SCHUBEL, “Mysterium Lieferkette”, ZIP, 2002, pp. 2061 y ss.
  • SCHUBEL, “Schuldrechtsmodernisierung 2001/2002 – Das neue Kaufrecht”, JuS, 2002, pp. 313 y ss.
  • SCHUHMACHER/HAYBÄCK, “Die Anpassung des österreichischen Rechts an die EU-Vertragsklauselrichtlinie sowie an die Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie”, ZSR, 1999, pp. 361 y ss.
  • SCHULTE-NÖLKE, “Anforderungen an haftungseinschränkende Beschaffenheitsvereinbarungen beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, ZGS, 2003, pp. 184 y ss.
  • SCHULZE STEINEN, P., “Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in Finnland”, Internationales Handelsrecht, 2003, n.º 5, pp. 212 y ss.
  • SCHURR, F. A., “Die neue Richtlinie 99/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und ihre Umsetzungschancen und Gefahren für das deutsche Kaufrecht”, ZfRV, 1999, pp. 222 y ss.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., “Die zukünftige Sachmängelgewährleistung in Europa
  • SCHWARTZE, A., Die Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie vor ihrer Umsetzung”, ZEuP, 2000, pp. 544 y ss.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., “Perspektiven für eine zukünftige Sachmängelgewährleistung in Europa
  • SCHWARTZE, A., Rechtsvergleichende und funktionale Betrachtung der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie vor ihrer Umsetzung in den Mitgliedstaaten”, ZEuP, 2000, n.º 3, pp. 323 y ss.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., Europäische Sachmängelgewährleistung beim Warenkauf. Optionale Rechtsangleichung auf der Grundlage eines funktionalen Rechsvergleichs, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2000.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., “Sachprobleme für die Umsetzumg aus Genese, Inhalt und Dogmatik der Richtlinie über Verbracuherkäufe”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 127 y ss.
  • SINDE MONTEIRO, “Proposta de Directiva do Parlamento Europeu e do conselho relativa à venda e às garantias dos bens de consumo”, revista Jurídica da Universidade Moderna, 1998, pp. 461 y ss.
  • SIRKS, A. J. B., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG in den Niederlanden”, en M.
  • SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 275 y ss.
  • SMITS, J. M., “Naar een nieuw Europees consumentenkooprecht”, Nederlands Juristenblad, 2000, n.º 37, pp. 1827 y ss.
  • SOBICH, P., “Neues Kaufrecht im Vereinigten Königsreich: die Umsetzung der Verbrauchersgüter Kaufrichtlinie (99/44/EWG) durch die Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumer Regulacions 2002”, RIW, 2003, nº 10, pp. 740 y ss.
  • STAUDENMAYER, D., “Die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf”, NJW, 1999, pp. 2393 y ss.
  • STAUDER, B., “Die Gewährleistung bei Konsumentenkaufverträgen nach OR im Lichte des EU-Rechts”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 369 y ss.
  • STEINER, P., “Der Entwurf der Richtlinie des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates über Verbrauchersgüterkauf und –garantien und das geltenden österreichische Recht”, en SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Reform des Gewährleistungsrechts und europäische Rechtsangleichung, 1998, pp. 249 y ss.
  • STIJNS, S., “Les garanties commerciales et l´action récursoire du vendeur final dans la directive sur la vente au consommateir”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 101 y ss.
  • TENREIRO, M., “Garanties et services après-vente: brève analyse du Livre Vert présenté par la Commission européenne”, REDC, 1994, pp. 1 y ss.
  • TENREIRO, M., “La proposition de directive sur la vente et les garanties des biens de consommation”, REDC, 1996, pp. 187 y ss.
  • THODE, “EG-Richtlinie zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Gebrauchsgüter – Ihre Auswirkungen auf das deutsche Werkvertragsrecht”, ZfBR, 2000, pp. 363 y ss.
  • TONNER, K., “Verbrauchsgüter-Richtlinie und Europäisierung des Zivilrechts”, BB, 1999, pp. 1769 y ss.
  • TONNER, K., “Die verkaufsrechtlichen Vorschriften im Diskussionsentwurf eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetztes”, VuR, 2001, pp. 87 y ss.
  • TORIELLO, F., “La proposta di direttiva sulle garanzie nelle vendite di beni di consumo: brevi note”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 1997, pp. 815 y ss.
  • TOURNAFOND, O., “Remarques critiques sur la directive européenne du 25 mai 1999 relative à certains aspects de la vente et des garanties des bienes de consommation”, Dalloz, 2000, n.º 10, pp. 159 y ss.
  • TOURNAFOND, O., “De la transposition de la directive du 25 mai 1999 à la réforme du code civil”, Dalloz, 2002, n.º 38, pp. 2883 y ss
  • TRÖGER, T., “Zum Systemdenken im europäischen Schuldvertragsrecht – Probleme der Rechtsangleichung durch Richtlinien am Beispiel der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie”, ZEuP, 2003, n.º 3, pp. 245 y ss.
  • TRÖGER, T., “Voraussetzungen der Verkäuferregresses im BGB”, AcP, 2004, n.º 1, pp. 115 y ss.
  • VINEY, G., “Quel domaine assigner à la loi de transposition de la directive européenne sur la vente?”, JCP, 2002, I, pp. 158 y ss.
  • VINEY, G., “Retour sur la transposition de la directiva du 25 mai 1999”, Dalloz, 2002, pp. 3162 y ss.
  • VON WESTPHALEN, “Die Neuregelungen des Entwurfs eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes für das Kauf- und Werkvertragsrecht”, DB, 2001, pp. 799 y ss.
  • VORSMANN, M., Gesetzliche Mängelhaftung gemäß der Europäischen Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Bürgerliches Gewährleistungsrecht, Dissertation, Bonn, 2001.
  • WEHRT, K., “Zwingende Vorschriften der Gewährleistung für Sachmängel?”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 111 y ss.
  • WEIN, TH., Eine ökonomische Analyse der neuen Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie zum Gewährleistungsrecht, Universität Lüneburg, Fachbereich Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Arbeitsberitch Nr. 228.
  • WEISNER, “Die EG-Kaufrechtsgewährleistungsrichtlinie”, JuS, 2001, pp. 759 y ss.
  • WELSER, R., “Der Vorschlag einer EU-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, Festschrift Hempe, 1997, pp. 323 y ss.
  • WELSER, R., “Die Verbrauchergüterkauf-Richtlinie und ihre Umsetzung in Österreich und Deutschland”, en P. SCHLECHTRIEM, Wandlungen des Schuldrechts, Baden Baden, 2002, pp. 83 y ss.
  • WELSER, R., “Reform des österreichischen Leistungsstörungsrechts”, en C. FISCHER-CZERMAK (Coord.), Das ABGB auf dem Weg in das 3. Jahrtausend, Wien, Manz, 2003, pp. 63 y ss.
  • WELSER, R./JUD, B., Reform der Gewährleistungsrechts, Verhandlungen des 14. Österreichischen Juristentages, Band II/1, 2000.
  • WELSER, R./JUD, B., Die neue Gewährleistung, 2001.
  • WERTENBRUCH, “Gefahrtragung beim Versendungskauf nach neuem Schuldrecht”, JuS, 2003, pp. 625 y ss.
  • WESTERMANN, H.-P., “Das neue Kaufrecht einschließlich des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs”, JZ, 2001, pp. 530 y ss.
  • WESTERMANN, H.-P., “Kaufrecht im Wandel”, in SCHULZE/SCHULTE-NÖLKE, Die Schuldrechtsreform vor dem Hintergrund des Gemeinschaftsrechts, 2001, pp. 109 y ss.
  • WESTERMANN, H.-P., “Sondertagung Schuldrechtsmodernisierung – Das neue Kaufrecht einschließlich des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs”, JZ, 2001, pp. 530 y ss.
  • WESTERMANN, H.-P.,“Das neue Kaufrecht”, NJW, 2002, pp. 241 y ss.
  • WHITTAKER, S., “I problemi posti dal recepimento della direttiva 1999/44/CE del 25 maggio 1999, concernente taluni aspetti della vendita di beni di consumo e delle garanzie ad essi relative. Prospettive del diritto inglese”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 293 y ss.
  • WOLF, “Reform des Kaufrechts durch EG-Richtlinie – ein Vorteil für die Wirtschaft? – Die möglichen Auswirkungen einer Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und -garantien auf das deutsche Kaufrecht und die Wirtschaft”, RIW, 1997, pp. 899 y ss.
  • WRASE/MÜLLER-HELLE, “Aliud-Lieferung beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf – ein nur scheinbar gelöstes Problem”, NJW, 2002, pp. 2537 y ss.
  • ZACCARIA, A., “Reflessioni circa l’attuazione della Direttiva n. 1999/44/CE su taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Studium Iuris, 2000, pp. 230 y ss.
  • ZACCARIA, A./DE CRISTOFARO, G., La vendita dei beni di consumo, Milano, Cedam, 2002.
  • ZERRES, M., “Recht auf Nacherfüllung im deutschen und englischen Kaufrecht”, RIW, 2003, pp. 746 y ss.
  • ZIEGLER/RIEDER, “Vertragsgestaltung und Vertragsanpassung nach dem Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetz”, ZIP, 2001, pp. 1789 y ss.
  • ZIMMER, D., /ECKHOLD, “Das neue Mängelgewährleistungsrecht beim Kauf ”, Jura, 2002, pp. 145 y ss.
  • Customs Controls and Formalities

    Customs Controls and Formalities

    Customs Controls and Formalities Contents

    Community customs code

    Modernised Community Customs Code
    Provisions implementing the Community Customs Code
    Transport under the TIR or ATA procedure
    Combined Nomenclature, Common Customs Tariff and Integrated Tariff
    Combined Nomenclature, Common Customs Tariff and Integrated Tariff of the European Communities (Taric)

    Customs checks and exemptions at internal and external borders

    Elimination of controls at frontiers in road and inland waterway transport
    Elimination of controls and formalities applicable to baggage
    Abolition of internal frontier controls for means of transport registered in a non-Community country
    Exemptions for travellers
    EU customs relief system
    Community transit: action plan (1997)Archives

    Agriculture

    Agriculture

    Agriculture Contents

    • General framework: Financing, Rural development, Direct support, Structural operations, Competition, Information and statistics
    • Markets for agricultural products: Direct support schemes, Common organisation of agricultural markets (CMO), Sectoral applications, Other products
    • Food:  Food quality, Organic farming, Genetically-modified organisms
    • Environment: Management and conservation of resources, Forest resources and non-food products, Pollution from agriculture
    • Agriculture: enlargement: Pre-accession, On-going negotiations, 2004 and 2007 enlargements

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Agriculture

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Agriculture

    Agriculture

    The common agricultural policy (CAP) dates back to the early days of European integration, when Member States made a commitment to restructuring and increasing food production, which had been damaged as a result of the Second World War. Today, the CAP still has a pivotal role in the European Union, not just because farmland and forests account for more than 90 % of land within the EU, but also because it has become an essential mechanism for facing new challenges in terms of food quality, environmental protection and trade. The 2003 reform was a key moment in the CAP’s development, adapting the policy to meet the new requirements of farmers, consumers and the planet. This approach continues to form the basis of the future development of the common agricultural policy of an enlarged Union present on the world stage.

    Agriculture Contents

    • General frameworkFinancing, Rural development, Direct support, Structural operations, Competition, Information and statistics
    • Markets for agricultural productsDirect support schemes, Common organisation of agricultural markets (CMO), Sectoral applications, Other products
    • FoodFood quality, Organic farming, Genetically-modified organisms
    • EnvironmentManagement and conservation of resources, Forest resources and non-food products, Pollution from agriculture
    • Agriculture: enlargementPre-accession, On-going negotiations, 2004 and 2007 enlargements

    See also

    Overviews of European Union: Agriculture.
    Further information: European Commission Agriculture and Rural Development Directorate-General.

    Enterprise

    Enterprise

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Enterprise

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Enterprise

    Enterprise

    The prosperity of Europe is built on that of its businesses. Businesses are a key element in growth and employment, and the relaunch of the Lisbon strategy in 2005 made enterprise and industry policy one of the priorities in Europe.
    Under Article 173 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European Union (EU) has set itself the goal of creating the best possible conditions for competitiveness.

    Maintaining competitiveness is a constant challenge. This is why the EU aims to encourage an environment favourable to initiative, to the development of businesses, to industrial cooperation and to improving the exploitation of the industrial potential of innovation, research and technological development policies. These policies are of vital importance in the context of global competition.

    Enterprise Contents

    • Business environment: Small and medium-sized enterprises, Entrepreneurship, Financing, Multiannual programme for enterprises and entrepreneurship, Competitiveness and innovation framework programme, Corporate social responsibility
    • Industry: Industrial policy, Competitiveness, Automobile industry, Chemical industry, Pharmaceutical industry, Textile industry, Tourism
    • Interaction between enterprise policy and other policies: Research and innovation, The environment, Trade, Company law, Taxation
    • International dimension and enlargement: Enlargement, Candidate countries

    See also

    Overviews of European Union: Entreprise.
    Further information on the website of the Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General of the European Commission and the Your Europe – Business website.

    Humanitarian aid

    Humanitarian aid

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Humanitarian aid

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Humanitarian aid

    Humanitarian aid

    The European Union is the world’s leading provider of humanitarian aid. This aid, which takes the form of financing, provision of goods or services, or technical assistance, aims to help prepare for and deal urgently with the crises which seriously affect populations outside the Union, whether these be natural disasters, disasters caused by human activity, or structural crises.
    The Union’s action is based on the fundamental humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence, and comprises three instruments: emergency aid, food aid, and aid for refugees and displaced persons. ECHO coordinates this action and cooperates closely with partners who implement aid on the ground, in particular the United Nations and non-governmental organisations.

    GENERAL PROVISIONS

    • European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid
    • Towards a European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid
    • Instrument for humanitarian aid
    • EU guidelines on the promotion of compliance with international humanitarian law
    • Promotion of compliance with international humanitarian law: Guidelines
    • Partnership with the United Nations: development assistance and humanitarian aid
    • Framework Partnership Agreement with humanitarian organisations (2008-2012)
    • Towards the establishment of a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps
    • Strengthening the European disaster response capacity
    • Disaster and crisis response in Non-EU Member Countries
    • Civil Protection Mechanism
    • Financing of civil protection measures (2007-2013)
    • EU response to fragile situations
    • Disaster risk reduction in developing countries
    • Linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD)

    Food aid

    • Humanitarian Food Assistance
    • Facility for rapid response to soaring food prices

    Human rights

    • Children in EU external action

    HUMANITARIAN AID OFFICE – ECHO

    • Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO)
    • ECHO Annual Report 2009
    • ECHO Annual Report 2008
    • ECHO: 2007 Annual Report
    • DG ECHO: Annual Report 2006
    • DG ECHO: Annual Report 2005
    • 2004 ECHO annual review
    • 2002 report on ECHO
    • 2001 report on ECHO

    European Union institutions and bodies

    • European Parliament: Committee on foreign affairs
    • Council of the European Unión: Foreign affairs
    • European Commission: Humanitarian aid and civil protection, European External Action Service
    • Economic and Social Committee: External relations section
    • Committee of the Regions: Commission for citizenship, governance, institutional affairs and external relations (CIVEX)

    Enactments

    Article 214 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides the following:

    1. The Union’s operations in the field of humanitarian aid shall be conducted within the
    framework of the principles and objectives of the external action of the Union. Such operations
    shall be intended to provide ad hoc assistance and relief and protection for people in third countries who are victims of natural or man-made disasters, in order to meet the humanitarian needs resulting from these different situations. The Union’s measures and those of the Member States shall complement and reinforce each other.
    2. Humanitarian aid operations shall be conducted in compliance with the principles of
    international law and with the principles of impartiality, neutrality and non-discrimination.
    3. The European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative
    procedure, shall establish the measures defining the framework within which the Union’s
    humanitarian aid operations shall be implemented.
    4. The Union may conclude with third countries and competent international organisations any
    agreement helping to achieve the objectives referred to in paragraph 1 and in Article 21 of the Treaty on European Union.
    The first subparagraph shall be without prejudice to Member States’ competence to negotiate in
    international bodies and to conclude agreements.
    5. In order to establish a framework for joint contributions from young Europeans to the
    humanitarian aid operations of the Union, a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps shall be set up. The European Parliament and the Council, acting by means of regulations in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall determine the rules and procedures for the operation of the Corps.
    6. The Commission may take any useful initiative to promote coordination between actions of the Union and those of the Member States, in order to enhance the efficiency and complementarity of Union and national humanitarian aid measures.
    7. The Union shall ensure that its humanitarian aid operations are coordinated and consistent
    with those of international organisations and bodies, in particular those forming part of the United Nations system.

    Exemptions from consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports

    Exemptions from consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Exemptions from consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Competition > Rules applicable to specific sectors > Competition in transport

    Exemptions from consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports

    1) Objective

    To exempt, subject to certain conditions, consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports from the competition rules.

    2) Document or Iniciative

    Commission Regulation (EEC) No 1617/93 of 25 June 1993 on the application of Article 85(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements and concerted practices concerning joint planning and coordination of schedules, joint operations, consultations on passenger and cargo tariffs on scheduled air services and slot allocation at airports [Official Journal L 155 of 26.06.1993].

    Amended by the following measures:

    Commission Regulation (EC) No 1105/2002 of 25 June 2002 amending Regulation (EEC) No 1617/93 as regards consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports [Official Journal L 167 of 26.06.2002];
    Commission Regulation (EC) No 1083/1999 of 26 May 1999 amending Regulation (EEC) No 1617/93 on the application of Article 85(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements and concerted practices concerning joint planning and coordination of schedules, joint operations, consultations on passenger and cargo tariffs on scheduled air services and slot allocation at airports [Official Journal L 131 of 27.05.1999];
    Commission Regulation (EC) No 1523/96 of 24 July 1996 amending Regulation (EEC) No 1617/93 on the application of Article 85(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements and concerted practices concerning joint planning and coordination of schedules, joint operations, consultations on passenger and cargo tariffs on scheduled air services and slot allocation at airports [Official Journal L 190 of 31.07.1996].

    3) Summary

    Background

    Under Regulation No 3976/87, which authorises the Commission to grant block exemptions to certain categories of agreements and concerted practices which relate directly or indirectly to the provision of air transport services, this Regulation is designed to exempt consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports from Article 81(1) of the EC Treaty. The Commission may withdraw the benefit of the block exemption.

    Scope

    In 1993 the scope of this Regulation was broad enough to include agreements and concerted practices concerning joint planning and coordination of schedules, joint operations, consultations on tariffs and slot allocation at airports which could restrict competition and affect trade between Member States. Numerous successive amendments significantly reduced the scope of this Regulation. It is now limited to consultations on passenger tariffs and slot allocation at airports.

    Conditions governing application

    The exemption concerning the organisation of consultations on passenger tariffs applies on condition that:

    • participants discuss passenger tariffs only;
    • for each tariff category and for the seasons covered by consultations, passengers are able to combine the service with services on the same route on the same ticket and, in so far as circumstances allow, to replace or change reservations;
    • passenger tariffs are applied on a non-discriminatory basis;
    • participation in consultations is optional and open to all air carriers;
    • consultations are not binding on participants, which means that participants must maintain, after consultations have ended, the right to act independently on passenger tariffs;
    • consultations do not give rise to an agreement on staff pay or other aspects of tariffs covered by the discussion;
    • where tariffs have to be notified, each participant informs the competent authorities of the Member States concerned, on an individual basis, of any tariff not covered by the consultations.

    The exemption concerning slot allocation and scheduling applies on condition that:

    • consultations are open to all air carriers;
    • priority rules are drawn up and applied without any discrimination;
    • the priority rules are made available to any interested party on request;
    • new arrivals are entitled to 50% of new or unused slots;
    • by the time of these consultations at the latest, the participating carriers have access to the information.

    Air carriers must notify the Member States concerned and the Commission of the date, place and subject of these consultations at least ten days in advance so that observers from the Commission and the Member States can take part in them. Air carriers are required to submit a report on the consultations.

    Other provisions

    To help the Commission decide whether the block exemption should be extended beyond 30 June 2005, this Regulation requires air carriers participating in conferences to collect certain data on the relative use of the passenger tariffs set in the conferences.

    Act Date
    of entry into force
    Final date for implementation in the Member States
    Regulation (EEC) No 1617/93 01.07.1993
    Regulation (EC) No 1523/96 20.08.1996
    Regulation (EC) No 1083/1999 27.05.1999
    Regulation (EC) No 1105/2002 29.06.2002

    4) Implementing Measures

    5) Follow-Up Work

    This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

    Public passenger transport service by rail and road

    Public passenger transport service by rail and road

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Public passenger transport service by rail and road

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Competition > Rules applicable to specific sectors > Competition in transport

    Public passenger transport service by rail and road

    Document or Iniciative

    Regulation (EC) No 1370/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on public passenger transport services by rail and by road, and repealing Council Regulations (EEC) No 1191/69 and (EEC) No 1107/70

    Summary

    Public service compensation may be necessary to ensure the provision of services of general economic interest (SGEI) and guarantee safe, efficient, attractive and high quality passenger transport.

    This Regulation applies to regular and non-limited access, national and international public passenger transport services by rail and other track-based modes and by road.

    Public service contracts and general rules

    The competent authority * is obliged to conclude a public service contract with the operator to which it grants an exclusive right and/or compensation in exchange for discharging public service obligations * (PSO). Obligations which aim to establish maximum tariffs for all or certain categories of passengers may be subject to general rules.

    To define the framework for the competent authority, the latter grants compensation for the net positive or negative financial impact on costs and revenue occasioned by compliance with the pricing obligations established in the general rules.

    The public service contracts * and general rules define:

    • the PSO to be fulfilled by the operator and the areas concerned;
    • the parameters based on which compensation must be calculated and the nature and scope of all exclusive rights granted to avoid any overcompensation;
    • the means of distributing the costs linked to service supply (staff costs, energy, infrastructure, maintenance, etc.);
    • the means of distributing income from the sale of transport tickets between the operator and the competent authority.

    The duration of public service contracts is limited and must not exceed ten years for bus and coach services, and fifteen years for passenger transport services by rail or other track-based modes. This period may be extended by up to 50 % under certain conditions.

    Awarding of public service contracts

    Public service contracts are awarded according to the rules laid down in this Regulation. However, for awarding certain passenger transport services by bus or tram, the procedures of Directives 2004/17/EC and 2004/18/EC apply.

    Subject to certain reservations detailed in Article 5 of the Regulation, local authorities may provide public transport services themselves or assign them to an internal operator over which they have control comparable to that over their own services.

    Any competent authority who uses a third party other than an internal operator must award public service contracts by means of transparent and non-discriminatory competitive procedures which may be subject to negotiation.

    The obligation to instigate competitive procedures does not apply to:

    • low level contracts, the average annual value of which is estimated at less than EUR 1 000 000 or which supply less than 300 000 kilometres of public passenger transport services;
    • where emergency measures are taken or contracts are imposed in response to actual or potential service interruptions;
    • regional or long distance rail transport.

    Terms and conditions

    The Member States have three months to provide the Commission with all the information necessary to determine whether the compensation allocated is compatible with this Regulation.

    Each competent authority must publish a global annual report on the public service obligations incumbent on them and the resultant compensation received by them.

    One year prior to any competitive procedure, the competent authority must ensure that the following information is published in the Official Journal of the European Union: name and contact details of the competent authority, type of allocation proposed and services and territories likely to be affected.

    The Member States must gradually come into line with the Regulation, with the end of the transition period fixed at 3 December 2019.

    Background

    This Regulation forms part of the objectives in the Commission’s white paper of 12 September 2001 entitled “European transport policy for 2010: time to decide” and repeals Regulations (EEC) No 1191/61 and (EEC) No 1107/70.

    Key terms used in the act
    • Competent authority: any public authority or group of public authorities in one or more Member States which can intervene in public passenger transport in a given geographical area, or any body invested with such power;
    • Public service obligation: requirement defined or determined by a competent authority to guarantee general interest services in terms of passenger transport which an operator, in considering its own commercial interest, would not assume or would not ensure in the same measure or under the same conditions, without compensation;
    • Public service contract: all arrangements made between one or more transport operators with one or more responsible authorities for all the rights and obligations of the service in question, including any unilateral public acts.

    Reference

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
    Regulation (EC) No 1370/2007 3.12.2009 OJ L 315 of 3.12.2007