Category Archives: Vocational training

Citizens must be able to acquire the skills, knowledge and competences required of them in today’s knowledge-based economy. Vocational education and training (VET) plays a key role. European cooperation in VET aims to ensure that the European labour market is open to all. Based on the Copenhagen process, it consists of the development of common European frameworks and tools that enhance the transparency, recognition and quality of competences and qualifications, as well as facilitate the mobility of learners and workers. The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop) and the European Training Foundation (ETF) are the main bodies involved in supporting cooperation in VET.

Cooperation in vocational education and training

Cooperation in vocational education and training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Cooperation in vocational education and training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Cooperation in vocational education and training (VET)

Document or Iniciative

Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of 24 January 2009, meeting within the Council, on the future priorities for enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training (VET) [Official Journal C 18 of 24.1.2009].

Summary

These conclusions provide for voluntary measures whereby Member States may cooperate in order to enhance the quality and efficiency of vocational education and training (VET). They identify four priority areas for the period 2008-10 that need to be dealt with, in addition to the priorities and guidelines set out in the Copenhagen process.

Implementing common European tools and schemes to promote cooperation in VET

National qualifications systems and frameworks that are based on learning outcomes should be set up in line with the European Qualifications Framework. It is essential that these as well as the future European Credit system for VET (ECVET) and European Quality Assurance Reference Framework (EQARF) be implemented. To this end, pilot projects, coherent methods and tools, including tools to validate informal and non-formal learning outcomes, as well as quality assurance instruments should be developed.

Promoting the quality and attractiveness of VET systems

The attractiveness of VET should be promoted to all target groups, in particular among students, adults and enterprises. At the same time, it should be ensured that access to and participation in VET is open to all, with due regard given to people or groups at risk of exclusion. Similarly, information, lifelong guidance and counselling services should be made more accessible. Paths enabling the progress from one qualifications level to another should also be made easier.

Common tools should be created to promote the quality of VET systems. In particular, quality assurance mechanisms should be developed through the future EQARF. VET policies should be based on consistent data, the collection of which must be improved. In addition, more should be invested in the training of VET trainers, language learning adapted to VET should be developed, innovation and creativity in VET should be promoted, and the permeability and continuity of learning paths between different levels of education should be enhanced.

Developing the links between VET and the labour market

In order to improve the links between VET and the labour market, it is essential to continue developing forward-planning mechanisms that centre on jobs and skills, recognising possible skill shortages. Simultaneously, the participation of social partners and economic stakeholders in developing VET policies needs to be ensured.

Guidance and counselling services should be improved, so that the transition from training to employment may occur more smoothly. The mechanisms that promote adult training should also be improved to further career opportunities as well as business competitiveness. Furthermore, efforts should be made to proceed with the validation and recognition of informal and non-formal learning outcomes. The mobility of people in work-related training should also be given a boost, in particular by strengthening the appropriate Community programmes. Finally, the role of higher education in VET and in relation to labour market integration should be strengthened.

Enhancing European cooperation

Peer learning activities should be made more effective and their results used to form national policies in VET. It should also be ensured that priorities linked to VET are well integrated and visible within the future strategic framework for European cooperation in the field of education and training. VET should be better linked to policies concerning other education levels, multilingualism and youth. In addition, collaboration with third countries and international organisations needs to be strengthened.

The Commission and Member States are encouraged to implement, within the limits of their respective competences, the measures established under these four priority areas. They should use appropriate means of funding, both private and public, in order to further national level reforms and implement Community tools. They should also continue enhancing the scope and quality of VET statistics as well as developing a clearer VET element for the coherent framework of indicators and benchmarks. In addition, they should continue developing activities concerning future skills needs.

The Commission and Member States should exchange information and collaborate on VET with third countries. Cedefop (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) and the European Training Foundation (ETF) are also closely involved in supporting the Commission on VET-related issues.

The Copenhagen process: enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training

The Copenhagen process: enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The Copenhagen process: enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

The Copenhagen process: enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training

Document or Iniciative

Declaration of the European Ministers of Vocational Education and Training, and the European Commission, convened in Copenhagen on 29 and 30 November 2002, on enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training – “The Copenhagen Declaration ” [Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Copenhagen Declaration set the priorities of the Copenhagen process on enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training (VET). This process aims to improve the performance, quality and attractiveness of VET in Europe. It seeks to encourage the use of the various vocational training opportunities within the lifelong learning (LLL) context and with the help of the LLL tools.

The Copenhagen process consists of:

  • a political dimension, aiming to establish common European objectives and reform national VET systems;
  • the development of common European frameworks and tools that increase the transparency and quality of competences and qualifications and facilitate mobility;
  • cooperation to foster mutual learning at European level and to involve all relevant stakeholders at national level.

The priorities set by the Copenhagen Declaration provide the basis for voluntary cooperation in VET. With the target of 2010, they aim at:

  • reinforcing the European dimension in VET;
  • increasing information, guidance and counselling on, as well as the transparency of, VET;
  • developing tools for the mutual recognition and validation of competences and qualifications;
  • improving quality assurance in VET.

Maastricht Communiquéof 14 December 2004 on the future priorities of enhanced European cooperation in VET

The Maastricht Communiqué confirms the success of the Copenhagen process in raising the visibility and profile of VET at the European level. At the same time, it develops the priorities set by the Copenhagen Declaration. In addition, and for the first time, specific priorities for national level work on VET are provided:

  • application of common instruments and references in reforming and developing VET systems and practices;
  • increasing public/private investment in VET;
  • drawing support from European funds (such as social and regional development) to develop VET;
  • development of VET systems to cater for the needs of disadvantaged people and groups;
  • establishment of open learning approaches as well as flexible and open VET frameworks to enable mobility between different educational levels and contexts;
  • improving the relevance and quality of VET in collaboration with all relevant stakeholders;
  • development of learning-conducive environments both in educational institutions and in the workplace;
  • promotion of VET teachers’ and trainers’ continuous competence development.

Helsinki Communiquéof 5 December 2006 on enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training

The Helsinki Communiqué evaluates the Copenhagen process, as well as reviews its priorities and strategies. Since the adoption of the Maastricht Communiqué, progress has been achieved on the common European frameworks and tools for VET. The EUROPASS single framework for the transparency of qualifications and competencies was adopted and work is underway on the European Qualifications Framework, the European Credit System for VET (ECVET) and the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET. Strengthened action is now needed on the following priorities:

  • improving the image, status, attractiveness and quality of VET;
  • developing, testing and implementing common European tools for VET, so that they will be in place by 2010;
  • taking a systematic approach to strengthening mutual learning and cooperation, in particular with the use of consistent and comparable data and indicators;
  • involving all stakeholders in the implementation of the Copenhagen process.

Bordeaux Communiquéof 26 November 2008 on enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training

The Bordeaux Communiqué reviews the priorities and strategies of the Copenhagen process in light of a future education and training programme post-2010. The process has proved to be effective in promoting the image of VET, while maintaining the diversity of national VET systems. Nevertheless, new impetus is needed, in particular regarding the:

  • implementation of VET tools and schemes to promote cooperation at the European and national levels;
  • further improvement of the quality of VET systems and promotion of the attractiveness of VET to all target groups;
  • creation of better links between VET and the labour market;
  • consolidation of European cooperation arrangements.

Bruges Communiquéof 7 December 2010 on enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training for the period 2011-20

The Bruges Communiqué provides long-term strategic objectives for European cooperation in VET for the period 2011-20. These objectives draw from past achievements and aim to respond to current and future challenges, while taking into account the underlying principles of the Copenhagen process.

The Copenhagen process has significantly helped raise awareness of VET at the European and national levels, in particular through the implementation of the common European VET tools, principles and guidelines. It has triggered profound reforms which have lead to a shift to a learning outcomes approach. Nevertheless, there is a need to improve communication in order to better involve all relevant stakeholders, as well as to better link VET to other policies in order to address socio-economic challenges and make mobility and LLL a reality.

For VET to respond to current and future challenges, European education and training systems must:

  • be flexible and of high quality;
  • adapt to labour market evolutions and understand emerging sectors and skills;
  • ensure the provision of tailored and easily accessible continuing training;
  • ensure the sustainability and excellence of VET through a common approach to quality assurance;
  • empower people to adapt to and manage change by enabling them to acquire key competences;
  • be inclusive;
  • facilitate and encourage VET learners’ and teachers’ transnational mobility;
  • secure sustainable funding for VET and ensure the efficient and equitable use of this funding.

The Copenhagen process forms an integral part of the “Education and Training 2020” (ET2020) strategic framework and will contribute to achieving the education-related targets of the Europe 2020 strategy. With these in mind, the global vision for VET calls for European VET systems that are more attractive, inclusive, relevant, accessible, career-oriented, flexible and innovative by 2020. Based on this vision, the 11 long-term strategic objectives for European cooperation in VET for the period 2011-20, together with the 22 short-term deliverables for the period 2011-14 that provide concrete actions at national level for achieving the strategic objectives, call in particular for:

  • the strengthening of the quality and efficiency as well as the attractiveness and relevance of VET;
  • the realisation of LLL and mobility;
  • the development of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship;
  • the promotion of equity, social cohesion and active citizenship.

Background

The Lisbon European Council of March 2000 recognised the importance of developing high quality VET to promote social inclusion, cohesion, mobility, employability and competitiveness.

The Barcelona European Council of March 2002 called for the creation of a process specific to VET, which would contribute to making European education and training systems a world quality reference by 2010. As a result, the Council adopted in November 2002 a resolution on enhanced cooperation in VET.

A new impetus for cooperation in vocational education and training

A new impetus for cooperation in vocational education and training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A new impetus for cooperation in vocational education and training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

A new impetus for cooperation in vocational education and training

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 9 June 2010 – A new impetus for European cooperation in Vocational Education and Training to support the Europe 2020 strategy [COM(2010) 296 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Building on and contributing to the Europe 2020 strategy and the ET 2020 strategic framework, this communication proposes a new vision for vocational education and training (VET) in the European Union (EU). It focuses on elements central to the Copenhagen process, drawing on the ET 2020 strategic objectives.

Making lifelong learning and mobility a reality

Access to all levels of training must be maximised, which might entail significant changes to the current provision of VET. It is essential that the manner in which learning outcomes are acquired, assessed and lead to qualifications is made more flexible. This includes an enhanced role of, and the need to improve the provision of continuing VET by, employers, traditional initial training providers and higher education institutions. An outcomes-based approach for vocational qualifications based on the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and the European Credit systems for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) can help validate skills acquired outside of formal education and training. At the same time, the pathways between VET and higher education must be opened up and tertiary VET programmes should be developed. The transition from training to employment as well as between jobs must also be facilitated, to which end guidance and counselling services should be provided.

Transnational mobility must become the norm in VET pathways, particularly in initial VET, for both learners and trainers. It is also essential that mobility periods are recognised via the ECVET. Appropriate support structures should be established to facilitate training placements, and virtual mobility (through eLearning) should be used to complement physical mobility.

Improving the quality and efficiency of education and training

The quality and efficiency of VET, the high standards of VET teachers and trainers, the relevance of VET to labour market needs and the pathways VET opens to further learning contribute to its attractiveness. To improve the quality and efficiency of VET:

  • quality assurance systems must be implemented at national level on the basis of the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET;
  • the continuing development of skills and competencies of teachers and trainers must be reviewed in light of their evolving roles;
  • the continuing development of key competences together with vocational skills that are relevant to labour market needs must be ensured, in particular through different forms of work-based learning;
  • forward planning tools to match skills and jobs should be developed and partnerships with relevant stakeholders should be created to strengthen labour market relevance.

Promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship

VET systems have an important role in combating social exclusion and promoting inclusive growth. Disadvantaged learners may profit more from non-classroom work-based learning that is relevant to the local labour market. Integrated in mainstream VET, training should be flexible and modularised, providing individualised learning pathways. Upward social mobility can be strengthened by facilitating the transition from VET to higher education. At the same time, accessible and targeted guidance services must be provided. The constant monitoring of VET learners’ employment rates, particularly those of disadvantaged learners, is also essential.

Enhancing creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship

The framework in which VET is provided should foster creativity and innovation, encouraging risk-taking and experimentation. To provide accessible and flexible training, experience-based and active learning should be promoted, including through eLearning. Education for entrepreneurship should also be promoted in order to instil a sense of initiative and creativity and the ability to concretise ideas. Entrepreneurship should also form part of VET teachers’ and trainers’ competence framework.

International dimension

Dialogue and mutual learning on EU VET policy should be further developed with the international community. With the support of the European Training Foundation (ETF), structured cooperation on VET should be strengthened with neighbourhood and enlargement countries, with a view to improving:

  • transnational collaboration;
  • regional development;
  • the management of legal mobility;
  • the fight against illegal migration.

In particular, cooperation in research activities and evidence-based policy making should be further strengthened with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO).

The way forward

At the end of 2010, cooperation in VET should be re-launched in close partnership with relevant stakeholders in EU countries and the Commission. An ambitious modernisation agenda for VET must be set out with priorities for the next 10 years, including reviewable short term objectives. The Europe 2020 national programmes should implement this VET reform.

Priorities for vocational education and training

Priorities for vocational education and training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Priorities for vocational education and training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Priorities for vocational education and training (2011-2020)

Document or Iniciative

Conclusions of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, on the priorities for enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training for the period 2011-2020 [OJ C 324 of 1.12.2010].

Summary

The Council sets the priorities of the Copenhagen process for the period 2011-2020. The Copenhagen process aims to improve the quality and attractiveness of Vocational Education and Training (VET) by strengthening cooperation at European level.

These updated objectives will help to achieve the priorities and initiatives of the Europe 2020 Strategy. VET is crucial in achieving two of the strategy’s objectives: by 2020, to increase the percentage of 30-34 year olds graduating from tertiary education to at least 40 %, and to reduce the proportion of early school leavers to below 10 %.

A global vision

The Council estimates that, to be completely effective, VET policies must opt for a global approach taking into account social and employment policies.

By 2020, VET systems should be more attractive and accessible to all, providing quality education with high labour market relevance. They must be flexible enough to allow permeability between the different education systems (school education, higher education, etc.). Continuing VET must be easily accessible and more career-oriented. Options for undertaking part of one’s vocational education or training abroad must be increased.

2011-2020 objectives

Several strategic objectives to be achieved by 2020 are defined. Each of them is accompanied by short-term deliverables (2011-2014) to be pursued at national level, together with details of the support provided by the European Union (EU) to achieve them. Six strategic objectives have been identified, namely:

  • making initial VET an attractive learning option. In the short term, national authorities are requested to promote the attractiveness of VET, but also to support activities which enable students to become acquainted with the different vocational trades and career possibilities available.
  • fostering the excellence, quality and relevance of VET to the labour market. Between 2011 and 2014, progress must be made in establishing national quality assurance frameworks. Cooperation between VET institutions and enterprises must also be strengthened, particularly by organising traineeships for teachers in enterprises. VET institutions should receive feedback on the employability of their graduates.
  • enabling flexible access to training and qualifications. At national level and in the short term, it will be necessary to review the use of incentives for participating in VET and the rights and obligations of the stakeholders involved. National authorities should also take appropriate measures to encourage participation in continuing VET. Referencing between the levels of the European Qualifications Framework and those of the national frameworks should be established by 2012.
  • encouraging international mobility in VET. To do so, Member States should specifically encourage students and professionals to participate in a mobility programme, and also encourage local and regional authorities and VET institutions to develop internationalisation strategies. Language learning should be integrated into curricula.
  • promoting innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship, and the use of new technologies. At national level, partnerships between VET institutions, higher education establishments, and design, art, research and innovation centres should be encouraged. VET institutions should be provided with the necessary equipment in terms of new technologies. Promoting practical experience should also encourage entrepreneurship.
  • making VET accessible to all, in particular by improving its contribution to tackling early school leaving. The participation of low-skilled and other ‘at risk’ groups should be encouraged through the use of appropriate guidance and support services, new technologies, and existing monitoring systems.

The Council also defines four transversal objectives:

  • increasing the involvement of VET stakeholders and making the results obtained through European cooperation better known;
  • coordinating the governance of European and national instruments in the areas of transparency, recognition, quality assurance and mobility;
  • intensifying cooperation between VET policy and other relevant policy areas;
  • improving the quality and comparability of data for EU policy-making in VET;
  • making good use of EU support.

Context

The objectives defined in the conclusions have been endorsed by the Bruges Communiquéof 7 December 2010 adopted by the Education Ministers of thirty-three European countries, social partners and the European Commission. This Communiqué constitutes the last update of the Copenhagen process.

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Vocational training

Vocational training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Vocational training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Vocational training

Citizens must be able to acquire the skills, knowledge and competences required of them in today’s knowledge-based economy. Vocational education and training (VET) plays a key role. European cooperation in VET aims to ensure that the European labour market is open to all. Based on the Copenhagen process, it consists of the development of common European frameworks and tools that enhance the transparency, recognition and quality of competences and qualifications, as well as facilitate the mobility of learners and workers. The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop) and the European Training Foundation (ETF) are the main bodies involved in supporting cooperation in VET.

VOCATIONAL TRAINING

  • Priorities for vocational education and training (2011-2020)
  • The Copenhagen process: enhanced European cooperation in vocational education and training
  • A new impetus for cooperation in vocational education and training
  • Cooperation in vocational education and training (VET)
  • European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET
  • European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET)
  • European Qualifications Framework
  • EUROPASS – Serving citizen mobility
  • EUROPASS-Training
  • Education and training in the nuclear energy field
  • Right of residence for students

PROGRAMMES

  • Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-13
  • Leonardo da Vinci (Phase II) 2000-2006
  • IRIS II
  • Iris
  • PETRA II
  • PETRA I
  • Force
  • Eurotecnet
  • Comett II
  • Comett I

ORGANISATIONS

  • Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency
  • European Training Foundation (ETF)
  • Advisory Committee on Vocational Training
  • Cedefop (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training)

RECOGNITION OF QUALIFICATIONS

  • System for the recognition of professional qualifications
  • Lawyers: freedom of establishment

Right of residence for students

Right of residence for students

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Right of residence for students

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Right of residence for students

This Directive will guarantee nationals of the Member States access to vocational training by setting out the framework within which their right of residence is to be exercised.

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 93/96/EEC of the Council of 29 October 1993 on the right of residence for students.

Repealed by:

Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the right of citizens of the Union and their family members to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States amending Regulation (EEC) 1612/68 and repealing Directives 64/221/EEC, 68/360/EEC, 72/194/EEC, 73/148/EEC, 75/34/EEC, 75/35/EEC, 90/364/EEC, 90/365/EEC and 93/96/EEC.

Summary

Following an appeal by the European Parliament, the Court of Justice annulled Council Directive 90/366/EEC on 7 July 1992 but maintained its effects until the entry into force of Directive 93/96/EEC. Each Member State will take the measures necessary to facilitate exercise of the right of residence by nationals of the other Member States in order to guarantee them access to vocational training.

Member States will recognise the right of residence to any student who is a national of a Member State and who does not enjoy this right under other provisions of Community law where the student assures the relevant national authority, by means of a declaration or by such alternative means as the student may choose that are at least equivalent, that he or she has sufficient resources to avoid becoming a burden on the social security system of the host Member State during his or her period of residence. The student must also be enrolled at an accredited establishment for the principal purpose of following a vocational training course there and must be covered by sickness insurance in respect of all risks in the host Member State.

The right of residence is extended to the student’s spouse and dependent children.

The Directive does not establish any entitlement to the payment of maintenance grants by the host Member State to students benefiting from the right of residence.

Member States will issue a residence permit the validity of which may be limited to the duration of the course of studies and which will be renewable annually. Where a member of the family does not hold the nationality of a Member State, he or she will be issued with a residence document of the same validity as that issued to the national on whom he or she depends. The spouse and dependent children of a national of a Member State will be entitled to take up an employed or self-employed activity anywhere within the territory of that Member State, even if they are not nationals of a Member State.

Member States may not derogate from the provisions of this Directive save on grounds of public policy, public security or public health.

Not more than three years following the entry into force of the Directive, and then every three years, the Commission will draw up a report on the implementation of the Directive and present it to the Council and Parliament. The Commission will pay particular attention to any difficulties to which implementation of the Article concerning the granting of the right of residence might give rise in Member States. If appropriate, it will submit proposals to the Council with the aim of remedying such difficulties.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 93/96/EEC 31.12.1993 OJ L 317 of 18.12.1993

Related Acts

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 18 March 1999 on the implementation of Directives 90/364, 90/365 and 93/96 (right of residence) [COM(99) 127 final].
Freedom of movement was originally limited to persons exercising an economic activity, but was subsequently extended to all Member State nationals, even those who were not economically active. This extension to the right of residence, which is subject to certain conditions, was formally confirmed by the incorporation into the EC Treaty of former Article 8a of the Treaty of Maastricht (now Article 18 of the EC Treaty). This Article gives every EU citizen a basic personal right to move and reside within the territory of the Member States.
The implementation of Directives 90/364, 90/365 and 93/96 has given rise to infringement procedures against nearly all the Member States, as only three had implemented the Directives by the deadline. The infringement procedures have, however, gradually been dropped as the Member States in question have adopted implementing measures.
The evaluation of the tangible implementation of the Directives has been based on the correspondence, complaints and petitions to the European Parliament and on a survey carried out among former Commission officials who, on retirement, have settled in a Member State other than that of their origin or last place of employment. Additional information has been provided by the Euro-Jus advisers’ network and by the Citizens Signpost Service. The assessments have highlighted the difficulties that citizens have encountered, such as uncertainties regarding the steps to be taken and the length and complexity of procedures for obtaining a residence permit. The authorities have also experienced difficulties, mainly in interpreting the conditions relating to financial resources and health insurance. The preliminary conclusions are that there is a need:

  • to step up efforts to inform citizens;
  • to continue to ensure strict compliance with existing Community law;
  • to make Community law on the free movement of persons easier to understand and to restructure it around the concept of “citizenship of the Union”;
  • to consider substantive changes to existing law.

Second Commission Report to the Council and Parliament on the implementation of Directives 90/364, 90/365 and 93/96 (right of residence) [COM(2003) 101 final].
This is the second report on the implementation of the three Directives on the right of residence of Union citizens and their family members, of whatever nationality, who are not economically active in the host Member State; it covers the period 1999-2002.

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 5 April 2006 on the implementation of Directives 90/364, 90/365 and 93/96 (right of residence) [COM(2006) 156 final].
Fifteen years after the adoption of Directive 93/66/EEC, the application of the law on the right of residence is basically satisfactory, as the declining number of infringements shows. However, the Commission has received several complaints arising from failure to comply with the Directive.

For example, the Commission decided to send a reasoned opinion to Italy on 13 December 2005 with regard to Decree of the President of the Republic No 54 of 18 January 2002 on the grounds that the text is contrary to Directive 93/96 in that it stipulates that students must provide proof that they have sufficient resources and requires family members to present proof of sufficient resources separate to that presented by the Union citizen. According to the case law of the Court of Justice, in particular in its judgments of 25 May 2000 in Case C-424/98 Commission v Italian Republic and of 20 September 2001 in Case C-184/99 Grzelczyk, Member States may not require students to provide evidence or a guarantee of a given amount of resources but must be satisfied with a declaration or other equivalent means, at the choice of the student.

IRIS II

IRIS II

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about IRIS II

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

IRIS II

1) Objective

To promote equality of opportunity in vocational training, raise the profile of training for women, expand such training and establish and strengthen links throughout Europe.

2) Community Measures

IRIS II Programme (1994-1998)

3) Contents

Eligibility

The members of IRIS are vocational training organisations for women, employers’ or trade union organisations and companies which are organising continual vocational training with a focus on equality or which have undertaken positive action schemes which include training.

IRIS II focuses on five priorities:

  • identifying and disseminating expertise in training for women;
  • including within the IRIS network (as membersassociates) the social partners and training organisations;
  • establishing a national organisation in each Member State to stimulate vocational training for women;
  • encouraging intra-Community exchanges of information about good practice;
  • establishing synergy with schemes carried out by the ESF and the European Commission Task Force on Human Resources.

IRIS II activities in 1994

  • establishing closer links with the employers and trade unions in both the public and private sectors;
  • opening up Community training programmes to all IRIS members;
  • wider scope for putting forward projects;
  • organisation of awareness-enhancement sessions on training for women, aimed at Community decision-makers;
  • creation of a “target group” of important journalists in each Member State with an eye to special media campaigns and specific action at Community level;
  • organisation of a competition open to people who have found work after having completed a training course organised by a member of IRIS;
  • organisation of European, national and regional IRIS seminars;
  • IRIS reference projects can apply for a publicity grant to organise an exhibition or to produce publicity material;
  • research on the priority topic for the year to strengthen initiatives undertaken by the network on teaching methodologies and the development of qualifications;
  • organisation of a summer school for training staff;
  • production of a basic information package on the various aspects of teaching to be used in the training of training staff;
  • establishment of an information service for projects wishing to improve their evaluation techniques;
  • planned exchanges for training staff, group and company visits, and publication of an information brochure about such visits;
  • organisation of a contact seminar for IRIS members, visits to determine the feasibility of partnerships and a partnership information exchange;
  • development of sub-networks covering specific topics at the request of IRIS members;
  • presentation of an IRIS diploma to trainees having undergone training as part of a reference project;
  • aid and assistance, provided by an IRIS member in each country, in the use of electronic mail.

European coordination of IRIS II has been entrusted to

the CETEC Consortium. This joint venture is coordinated by CREW (Centre for Research on European Women) in Brussels and comprises ACEREP (France), DIMITRA (Greece), CREW (Belgium), DONNALAVORODONNA (Italy), VIA (Belgium) and WETT (United Kingdom). These organisations have been selected because of their specific skills and in order to form a transnational structure which is capable of managing the future development of the network and to respond even better to the new needs of its members.

Duration

IRIS II covers a period of four years (1994-1998).

Budget

The annual budget of IRIS is ECU 1 million.

Communications support

The IRIS Bulletin (twice a year) will publish analytical articles dealing with topical aspects of training for women, case studies and interviews.

The current series of “IRIS special dossiers” will continue to be published.

4) Deadline For Implementation Of The Legislation In The Member States

Not applicable.

5) Date Of Entry Into Force (If Different From The Above)

6) References

7) Follow-Up Work

8) Commission Implementing Measures

 

EUROPASS-Training

EUROPASS-Training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EUROPASS-Training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

EUROPASS-Training

To enable a person undergoing work-linked training – including apprenticeship – to spend a period of training in another EU Member State and to establish at Community level a record of achievement in the form of a document known as “EUROPASS-Training” attesting to the completion of the training period.

2) Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 51/99/EC of 21 December 1998 on the promotion of European pathways for work-linked training, including apprenticeship [Official Journal L 17 of 22.01.1999].

3) Summary

Definitions

European pathways: where there is agreement on the use of the “EUROPASS-Training” document, any period of vocational training pursued by a person in a Member State (host Member State) other than the one (Member State of provenance) where the person is following his/her work-linked training in the context of the said training.

Person in work-linked training: any person of any age undergoing vocational training, irrespective of the level and including higher education. Such training, recognised or certified by the competent authorities of the Member State of provenance in accordance with its existing legislation, procedures and practices, involves structured periods of training in a company and, if necessary, in a training establishment or centre, whatever the person’s status (work contract, apprenticeship contract, scholar or student).

Mentor: any person who, for a private or public employer, or for a training establishment or centre in the host Member State, has the task of assisting, informing, guiding and monitoring trainees throughout their “European pathway”.

EUROPASS-Training: document proving that the holder has completed one or more periods of work-linked training or apprenticeship in another Member State under the conditions set out in the Decision.

Host partner: body responsible for the “European pathway” in the host Member State (company, training establishment or centre, etc.) under a partnership arrangement with the body responsible for organising the training in the Member State of provenance.

In keeping with their system of vocational training, Member States must adopt the necessary measures to ensure that persons in work-linked training can benefit from “European pathways”, which:

  • form an integral part of the training followed in the Member State of provenance;
  • are the fruit of a partnership between the training establishment of provenance and the host partner, which lays down the content, the objectives, the duration and the procedures applicable to the European pathway;
  • are monitored by a mentor;
  • are certified by the body responsible for the training in the Member State of provenance.

A record of achievement, known as EUROPASS-Training, must be issued to all persons completing a European pathway. A Community information document, this record of achievement:

  • specifies the vocational training in which the European pathway was completed, and the final qualification or diploma;
  • specifies the sending and host organisations, and the content and duration of the European pathway;
  • specifies the duties of the mentor, who is responsible for the person undergoing training;
  • is issued by the body at the organisation of provenance responsible for the vocational training undertaken by the person concerned in the Member State of provenance, and is signed jointly by that body, the host partner and the trainee.

These provisions also apply when the European pathway includes a series of training periods in several Member States. As the content of the EUROPASS-Training document must be understood throughout the EU, it must affirm in the different EU languages that the training pathway or periods of training have been completed.

The Commission must ensure overall consistency between the implementation of the “European pathways” and the Community programmes and initiatives in the field of education and vocational training.

The Commission will be responsible for producing, issuing and monitoring the EUROPASS-Training records of achievement as appropriate, in close cooperation with the Member States. Each Member State must designate one or more bodies to be responsible for coordination and implementation at national level, in close cooperation with the social partners and, where appropriate, with representative organisations for work-linked training. Each Member State must take steps to facilitate access to “EUROPASS-Training”, to allow for evaluation of the action undertaken and to promote equality of opportunity. The Commission, in cooperation with the Member States, will introduce a system of mutual information and coordination. The Commission and the Member States must take into account the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises and craft businesses and their specific requirements.

The funds available for implementing the support and accompanying measures are EUR 7.3 million from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2004.

Three years after the adoption of the Decision, the Commission will submit to the European Parliament and Council a report on its implementation, evaluate the impact of the Decision on the promotion of mobility in work-linked training, including apprenticeship, propose any further corrective measures designed to make it more effective and make any proposals it deems appropriate, including budgetary proposals.

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 51/99/EC

01.01.2000

OJ L 17 of 22.1.1999

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council – Report on the implementation of Decision 1999/51/EC of the Council of 21 December 1998 on the promotion of European pathways in work-linked training, including apprenticeship [COM(2002) 214 final of 22.05.2002 – not published in the Official Journal]

The report stresses that a large number of European pathways fall within the framework of the Leonardo da Vinci programme, with the other European programmes (Socrates, Youth and Equal) playing a secondary role. The Member States have designated national contact points(pdf) responsible for implementing the initiative as well as for providing information about it and promoting it.

Since the year 2000, some 19 3000 EUROPASS-Training documents have been issued, including 10 000 in Germany, 3 000 in France and 2 000 in the UK. The United Kingdom was the country in which the vast majority of the document holders spent a training period, followed by Spain, Germany and France. The length of the training periods varies from 3 to 15 weeks. Most of the beneficiaries of the EUROPASS-Training arrangement are women (approximately 55 %) and are aged between 17 and 23. The most popular occupations are those in the hotel, catering and tourism industry. Evaluations have been carried out at national level. An interim evaluation will take place at European level in December 2002.

Advisory Committee on Vocational Training

Advisory Committee on Vocational Training

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Advisory Committee on Vocational Training

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Advisory Committee on Vocational Training

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2004/223/EC of 26 February 2004 laying down the rules of the Advisory Committee on Vocational Training.

Summary

Over the 40 years since its creation, the Advisory Committee on Vocational Training has provided the Commission with opinions on vocational training issues, including Commission communications and other strategic documents, specific undertakings such as the establishment of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, and the preparation, evaluation and optimisation of Community action programmes in the field of vocational training.

Taking account of the social, political and institutional changes which have taken place since the creation of the Advisory Committee on Vocational Training, the new rules adopted require each Member State to provide three members: representing the interests of its government, trade unions and employers’ organisations respectively. These representatives, appointed for a three-year term of office (renewable), meet within the Committee and form three interest groups.

The Committee is chaired by the Director-General in charge of vocational training at the Commission. It meets at least twice a year and delivers reasoned opinions, adopted by an absolute majority of the votes validly cast. The following persons may attend Committee meetings as observers: the Director of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop), the Director of the European Training Foundation (or representatives), and interest group representatives from the member countries of the European Economic Area. The Commission provides secretarial services for the Committee.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2004/223/EC 6.03.2004 OJ L 68 of 6.03.2004

European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET

European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET

Document or Iniciative

Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the establishment of a European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training [Official Journal C 155 of 8.7.2009].

Summary

The European Quality Assurance Reference Framework is a new reference instrument to help authorities of Member States promote and monitor the improvement of their systems of vocational education and training (VET).

Quality assurance can be used as a systematic approach to modernising education systems, especially by improving the effectiveness of training. Therefore, it should underpin every policy initiative in VET.

Member States are invited to develop and use this instrument on a voluntary basis. The main users of the reference framework will be national and regional authorities as well as public and private bodies responsible for ensuring and improving the quality of VET.

Implementation

As a reference instrument, the framework makes methodological suggestions that will help Member States to assess clearly and consistently whether the measures necessary for improving the quality of their VET systems have been implemented and whether they need to be reviewed.

The methodology proposed by the framework is based on:

  • a cycle consisting of four phases (planning, implementation, assessment and review) described for VET providers/systems;
  • quality criteria and indicative descriptors for each phase of the cycle (Annex I);
  • common indicators for assessing targets, methods, procedures and training results – some indicators are to be based on statistical data, others are of a qualitative nature (Annex II).

The recommendation stresses a culture of quality improvement and responsibility at all levels, i.e. at the VET-system, VET-provider and qualification-awarding levels. The European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET attaches importance to systematic self-assessment. It includes internal and external assessment mechanisms that are to be defined by Member States. This will allow feedback on the progress achieved.

Drawing on the framework, Member States should develop approaches for improving their national quality assurance systems by 18 June 2011 at the latest. All relevant stakeholders should be involved in this development work.

European network for quality assurance

The recommendation encourages Member States to participate actively in the European network for quality assurance in VET, using it as a basis for further development of common principles and tools for quality improvement in VET at national, regional and local levels.

The recommendation also encourages Member States to designate Quality Assurance National Reference Points for VET, to bring together competent bodies and involve all relevant players at national and regional levels. These reference points will promote the active and practical development of the framework at the national level, support Member States’ self-evaluation as well as the Network’s work, and disseminate the related information to all relevant stakeholders.

Background

The European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET belongs to a series of European initiatives that encourage mobility. It will promote the implementation of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and the European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET).

The recommendation responds to the resolutions of the 2002 Barcelona European Council, which set the target of making Europe’s education and training systems a benchmark for the world by 2010. It is also in line with the Copenhagen process, which concerns re-launching cooperation in vocational education and training.