Category Archives: Research in Support of Other Policies

Intelligent vehicles to save lives, fusion energy to counter energy dependence, gene therapy to cure serious diseases, biotechnology to safeguard our quality of life while respecting the environment: these are just some of the many applications offered by research in response to the questions and challenges facing society. The activities of the European Union are geared towards combining the forces of all public and private stakeholders across the board.

ENIAC

ENIAC

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ENIAC

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

ENIAC

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 72/2008 of 20 December 2007 setting up the ENIAC Joint Undertaking.

Summary

The ENIAC Joint Undertaking implements the Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on nanoelectronics with a view to developing information and communication technologies. This public-private partnership aims to support investments in this area, sources of innovation and competitiveness. The JTI on nanoelectronics is thus also part of the European Research Area (ERA) and contributes to research and development (R&D).

Based in Brussels, the Joint Undertaking is a Community body with legal personality. It was set up for a period extending until 31 December 2017. The founding members of the Joint Undertaking are the Community, Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the AENEAS association, which represents companies and other R&D actors operating in the field of nanoelectronics. The ENIAC Joint Undertaking is open to new members. Up to now, Austria, the Czech Republic and Norway have joined the list of members.

Objectives

The ENIAC Joint Undertaking is to contribute to the implementation of the Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (Seventh Framework Programme) in the field of nanoelectronics. One of its key objectives is to encourage the development of essential skills by means of a research programme and to support its activities. It is thus aimed at encouraging European competitiveness as well as the emergence of new markets and new social applications. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are also encouraged to participate.

The Joint Undertaking also aims to promote cooperation and the coordination of Community and national efforts, both public and private, in order to support R&D and investment: concentrating efforts will, in particular, make it possible to ensure that better use is made of results.

Operation

The Joint Undertaking consists of the following bodies:

  • The governing board, made up of representatives of the members of the ENIAC Joint Undertaking and the chairperson of the industry and research committee. It ensures the smooth running of the organisation and supervises the implementation of its activities;
  • The executive director, appointed for a three-year period by the governing board, is the main person responsible for day-to-day management and is the legal representative of the Joint Undertaking;
  • The public authorities board, made up of the public authorities of the Joint Undertaking which appoints their representatives and their lead delegate. Its role includes approving the scope and the launch of calls for proposals and deciding on the selection and financing of accepted proposals;
  • The industry and research committee, comprising a maximum of 25 members, is appointed by the AENEAS association. It is responsible in particular for drawing up the multiannual strategic plan and for drafting proposals concerning the Joint Undertaking’s strategy.

ENIAC’s resources consist of contributions from members and from the Community as well as revenue generated by ENIAC itself. Any legal entity that is not a member may make a contribution to ENIAC’s resources either in cash or in kind.

ENIAC’s costs consist of:

  • Operating costs, borne by its members. AENEAS also makes a contribution of up to EUR 20 million or at most 1 % of the sum of total costs for all projects. The Community’s contribution may not exceed the sum of EUR 10 million. ENIAC Member States make a contribution in kind;
  • R&D activities. The Community makes a contribution of up to EUR 440 million. The financial contributions of ENIAC Member States, equivalent to at least 1.8 times the contribution made by the Community, do not pass through the Joint Undertaking but are paid directly to the research and development bodies participating in the projects. Furthermore, those same bodies make contributions in kind whose value is equivalent to at least half the total cost of R&D activities.

R&D activities are implemented by means of projects launched as a result of competitive calls for proposals. These projects are financed by financial contributions from the Community and from participating Member States and by contributions in kind from the research and development bodies participating in the Joint Undertaking’s projects.

As a Community initiative, the Joint Undertaking and its staff are covered by Community legislation. In particular, the Court of Justice of the European Communities is the authority responsible for ruling on any proceedings between members and on proceedings brought against the ENIAC Joint Undertaking. The Commission and the Court of Auditors carry out checks on recipients of any Joint Undertaking finance.

Background

The Lisbon Agenda for Growth and Jobs placed emphasis on investment in the fields of knowledge and innovation. Therefore the JTIs, public-private partnerships implemented by Joint Undertakings, have been initiated under the Seventh Framework Programme. These JTIs stem from the work of European Technology Platforms set up under the Sixth Framework Programme.

With the “ENIAC” initiative, five other JTIs are planned in the following sectors: embedded computing systems (ARTEMIS), innovative medicines (IMI), aeronautics and air transport (CLEAN SKY), hydrogen and fuel cells (FUEL CELL), and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES).

References

Act Entry into force Timescale for transposition into Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No. 72/2008

7.2.2008

OJ L 30, 4.2.2008

Research in support of other policies

Research in support of other policies

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Research in support of other policies

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Research in support of other policies

Intelligent vehicles to save lives, fusion energy to counter energy dependence, gene therapy to cure serious diseases, biotechnology to safeguard our quality of life while respecting the environment: these are just some of the many applications offered by research in response to the questions and challenges facing society. The activities of the European Union are geared towards combining the forces of all public and private stakeholders across the board.

TRANSVERSAL MEASURES

  • European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)
  • Admission and residence of researchers from third countries
  • The integration of women in research

FIELDS OF RESEARCH

Energy

  • SET-Plan for the development of low carbon technologies
  • Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy
  • Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET Plan)

Enterprises

  • Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) (2007-2013)
  • Standardization as a catalyst for innovation
  • A single market for 21st century Europe
  • Implementation of the partnership for growth and jobs (first report)
  • Promoting corporate social responsibility

Environment, health and safety

  • A European strategy for marine and maritime research
  • European Security Research and Innovation Agenda
  • Security Research
  • European Earth monitoring programme (GMES)
  • Clean Sky
  • IMI Joint Undertaking
  • Résistance aux antimicrobiens : plan d’action
    (FR)

Space and transport

  • A European space policy
  • European space policy

New technologies

  • A strategy for research on future and emerging technologies in Europe
  • ENIAC
  • A European strategy for nanotechnology
  • European strategy for the development of key enabling technologies

Information society

  • Internet of Things
  • ARTEMIS
  • Ageing well in the information society: The Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Programme

A European strategy for nanotechnology

A European strategy for nanotechnology

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A European strategy for nanotechnology

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Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

A European strategy for nanotechnology

Nanotechnology means the manipulation of atoms or molecules to produce materials, devices and new technologies. It is the building of nanomaterials at nanoscale, atom by atom and molecule by molecule. The principle underlying nanotechnology is simple: instead of reducing matter to work down to the smallest possible particle, the smallest possible particle is extracted from matter. Nanotechnologies (“nano” is derived from the Greek “nannos” meaning “dwarf”) demand enormous effort in terms of basic and applied multidisciplinary research involving a wide variety of specialisations: genomics and biotechnologies, sustainable development, food safety, aeronautics, health, etc.

Communication from the Commission “Towards a European strategy for nanotechnology” [COM(2004) 338 final – Not published in the Official Journal]

Summary

Materials have always been extracted from the ground, modified, heated, subjected to pressure, assembled, etc. All these procedures use a great deal of energy and, at the same time, generate a great deal of waste. Current industrial production is based on this manufacturing principle.

Nanotechnology, however, uses the individual atoms directly. It manipulates them and applies assembly processes to form groups of atoms with a view to manufacturing nanomaterials or nanomachines. With the prospect of obtaining greater performance with fewer raw materials, in particular via “bottom-up” manufacturing, nanotechnology has the potential to reduce waste across the whole life-cycle of products.

In this way, nanotechnology or nanoscience can contribute to sustainable development and the goals addressed in “Agenda 21” and the Environmental Technology Action Plan.

Nanoscience is often referred to as “horizontal”, as it frequently brings together different areas of science and draws on an interdisciplinary approach. It may lead to progress in areas such as:

  • healthcare, thanks to miniaturised diagnostics that could be used for early diagnosis of illness;
  • information technologies, through data storage media and innovative displays;
  • energy production and storage, with novel fuel cells or lightweight nanostructured solids that have the potential for efficient hydrogen storage;
  • manufacturing, thanks to the miniaturisation of existing micro-systems and the imitation of nature through the building of structures starting at atomic and molecular level;
  • research into food, water and the environment. In this field, nanotechnologies could be used to repair and clean-up environmental damage and remove pollution from contaminated areas;
  • security, through novel detection systems with a high specificity that can provide early warning against biological or chemical agents.

Five dynamics are identified in the context of nanotechnology: research and development, infrastructure, education and training, innovation and the societal dimension. Joint action is needed at Community level in all of these interdependent areas in order to harness the potential of the European Research Area.

  • Research and development: building the momentum. It is necessary not only to maintain excellence in research and development but also to strengthen investment in research relevant to industry, while reinforcing Community level research and coordinating national policies more closely to build up a critical mass.
  • Infrastructure: European “poles of excellence”. State-of-the-art equipment and instrumentation is increasingly crucial for the development of nanotechnology, and also to demonstrate whether research can be turned into potential products and processes. To accelerate the development of nanosciences, investment in a wide range of advanced facilities, instruments and equipment is essential.
  • Investing in human resources. To harness the potential of nanotechnology, the EU needs an interdisciplinary population of researchers and engineers who can generate knowledge and ensure that this, in turn, is transferred to industry. Post-graduate and life-long training should therefore be encouraged.
  • Industrial innovation, from knowledge to technology. European innovation and entrepreneurship in the field of nanotechnology must be stimulated. Nanotechnology depends on three additional factors: patenting of fundamental knowledge, regulation and metrology.
  • Integrating the societal dimension. The aim is to adopt a proactive stance and fully integrate societal considerations into the research process, exploring its benefits, risks and deeper implications for society. In this context, a dialogue with citizens and consumers on research into nanotechnology is strongly encouraged.

Building upon the experience from the 6th Research Framework Programme, closer international cooperation in nanosciences and nanotechnologies is needed both with economically advanced countries, in order to share knowledge and reap the benefits of a critical mass, and with those that are less economically advanced, in order to give them access to knowledge and new technologies.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee of 17 June 2008, Regulatory aspects of nanomaterials [COM(2008) 366 final – not published in the Official Journal].

The current legislation generally covers the risks to health, safety and the environment which may result from the use of nanotechnologies. However, the existing legislative framework could be improved by enhanced implementation, better sharing of the available information, more in-depth knowledge about the characteristics of nanomaterials and their dangers, as well as risk assessment and management at national and international level. The authorities and agencies responsible for the implementation of the legislation must continue to monitor the market and to use the Community intervention mechanisms in cases where products already on the market represent a risk. Three years after this Communication, the Commission will write a report on the progress made.

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee of 6 September 2007: Nanosciences and nanotechnologies – An action plan for Europe 2005-2009. First Implementation Report 2005-2007 [COM(2007) 505 final – not published in the Official Journal].

This report reviews the implementation of the 2005 Nanotechnology Action Plan at the halfway stage. It highlights the strategic importance of these technologies for Europe, which is leading the world in this field, but also the ways in which these technologies can improve the quality of life and economic welfare of Europeans by making significant contributions to health, the environment and safety, in particular.

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee of 7 July 2005: Nanosciences and nanotechnologies – An action plan for Europe 2005-2009 [COM(2005) 243 final – not published in the Official Journal].
The European Commission has drawn up an action plan with measures to be taken at national and European levels to step up nanotechnology research and develop useful products and services.

Measures in the action plan include:

  • increasing financial support for nanotechnology in the seventh framework programme;
  • developing world-class competitive infrastructure for research and poles of excellence;
  • ensuring that ethical principles are always respected and citizens’ concerns taken into account;
  • addressing public health, safety and environmental risks;
  • promoting the interdisciplinary education & training of researchers and engineers;
  • strengthening international dialogue on common issues.

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 28 January 2004: Stimulating technologies for sustainable development: An environmental technologies action plan for the European Union [COM(2004) 38 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 18 July 2003: Researchers in the European Research Area: one profession, multiple careers [COM(2003) 436 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 4 June 2003: Investing in research: an action plan for Europe [COM(2003) 226 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 16 October 2002: The European Research Area: Providing new momentum – Strengthening – Reorienting – Opening up new perspectives [COM(2002) 565 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 11 September 2002: More Research for Europe – Towards 3 % of GDP [COM(2002) 499 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Security Research

Security Research

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Security Research

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Security Research

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Security Research: The Next Steps [COM(2004) 590 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

A coherent security research programme at EU level can add significant value to the optimal use of a highly competent industry. Such research should be targeted at the development of interoperable systems, products and services useful for the protection of European citizens, territory and critical infrastructures as well as for peacekeeping activities.

The high-level Group of Personalities set up to advise on a long-term strategy for security research in the EU has given rise to a report which contains the following recommendations:

  • the establishment of a European Security Research Programme (ESRP), focusing in particular on issues of internal security from 2007 onwards, with funding of at least EUR 1 billion per year. This programme should aim to boost the competitiveness of the European security industries and stimulate the development of the (public and private) market for security products and systems;
  • the creation of a European Security Research Advisory Board to define strategic lines of action. The Board should consist of high-level experts representing public and private customers, the industry, research organizations and any other relevant stakeholders;
  • the need for cooperation between European institutions as well as all other stakeholders involved.

THE NEXT STEPS

This Communication sets out the next steps to be taken in terms of security research, namely:

Developing a European security research programme under the EU’s 7th Research Framework Programme (2007-2010)

The Commission will initiate an inter-institutional debate for consensus on the ESRP building on the work of the Preparatory Action on security research, which will continue until the end of 2006. This programme should complement both Community programmes and security and defence research activities conducted at national or intergovernmental level.

Consultation and cooperation with stakeholders

The Commission will establish a European Security Research Advisory Board to advise on the content of the ESRP and its implementation. The Commission will ensure the ESRP is coordinated effectively with international organisations such as the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and NATO, and with European organisations such as the European Space Agency (ESA).

Creating an effective institutional framework

The Commission will ensure that the requirements of the European Security Strategy, the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) are fully taken into account in the development of security research. At the same time it will develop cooperation with the European Defence Agency (EDA) and other important Commission policies relating to internal security will be fully taken into account when developing security research.

Awarding contracts and funding relating to security research

The Commission must put in place effective and flexible mechanisms governing contracts, participation and funding, for example to allow co-funding of new technologies by public authorities so as to ensure a high degree of synergy.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission: Science and technology, the key to Europe’s future – Guidelines for future European Union policy to support research [COM(2004) 353 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Building our common Future – Policy challenges and budgetary means of the Enlarged Union 2007-2013 [COM(2004) 101 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Communication on the implementation of the Preparatory Action on the enhancement of the European industrial potential in the field of security research. Towards a programme to advance European security through research and technology [COM(2004) 72 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Communication to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: European defence – industrial and market issues: Towards an EU defence equipment policy [COM(2003) 113 final – not published in the Official Journal].

IMI Joint Undertaking

IMI Joint Undertaking

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about IMI Joint Undertaking

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

IMI Joint Undertaking

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 73/2008 of 20 December 2007 setting up the Joint Undertaking for the implementation of the Joint Technology Initiative on Innovative Medicines.

Summary

The IMI Joint Undertaking implements the Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on Innovative Medicines, with a view to the development of a competitive, innovation-based pharmaceuticals sector. This public-private partnership aims to support investments in this field.

The IMI Joint Undertaking is a Community body possessing legal personality. Its headquarters are in Brussels. This undertaking has been set up for a period up to 31 December 2017. Its founding members are the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA).

Any legal entity directly or indirectly supporting research and development in a Member State or in a country associated with the 7th Framework Programme (7th FP) may become a member of the IMI Joint Undertaking.

Objectives

The Joint Undertaking aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the medicine development process so that the pharmaceutical sector produces safer and more effective innovative treatments. The objectives of the Joint Undertaking are thus to contribute to the implementation of the 7th FP and to support pharmaceutical research and development in the Member States and countries associated with the 7th FP. The participation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and cooperation with the private sector and the academic world are encouraged.

In addition, the Joint Undertaking aims to ensure complementarity with other activities of the 7th FP and to establish a public-private partnership with a view to increasing research investment and fostering cooperation between the public and private sectors.

Projects and activities

The IMI Joint Undertaking supports prospective research activities, based on projects selected following open and competitive calls for project proposals, independent evaluation and the conclusion of grant agreements and project agreements.

The participating research-based pharmaceutical companies that are members of EFPIA are not eligible to receive financial support from the IMI Joint Undertaking for any activity.

Operation

The bodies of the IMI Joint Undertaking are as follows:

  • the Governing Board is composed of representatives of each of the members of the Joint Undertaking. It is responsible for operations and for overseeing the implementation of activities. It meets at least twice a year;
  • the Executive Director represents the IMI Joint Undertaking from a legal point of view. He or she is also the chief executive responsible for the day-to-day management of the Undertaking in accordance with the decisions taken by the Governing Board;
  • the Scientific Committee is the advisory body to the Governing Board, with responsibilities including advising on the scientific priorities for the annual implementation plan proposal.

The IMI Joint Undertaking is supported by two external advisory bodies:

  • the IMI States Representatives Group consists of one representative of each Member State and of each country associated with the Framework Programme. It advises on the annual scientific priorities. Furthermore, it also informs the IMI Joint Undertaking on relevant activities ongoing at national level;
  • the Stakeholder Forum is convened at least once a year by the Executive Director. It is informed on the activities of the IMI Joint Undertaking and provides comments.

The financial resources of the Joint Undertaking include members’ financial contributions, revenue generated by the IMI Joint Undertaking and any other financial contributions, resources and revenues.

The research activities are funded through non-monetary contributions by the research-based pharmaceutical companies that are members of EFPIA, contributions from members and a Community financial contribution under the 7th FP. This financial commitment on the part of the Community is limited to a maximum of EUR 1 000 million.

Context

Under the 7th Community FP, the EU provides for the establishment of long-term public-private partnerships in the form of JTIs. These JTIs result from the work of European Technology Platforms set up under the 6th FP and implemented through Joint Undertakings.

In addition to the IMI, five other JTIs are planned in the sectors of spaceborne computer systems (ARTEMIS), nanotechnologies (ENIAC), aeronautics and air transport (Clean Sky), hydrogen and fuel cells (FUEL CELL) and Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES).

References

Act Entry into force – Expiry date Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 73/2008

7.2.2008-31.12.2017

OJ L 30, 4.2.2008

ARTEMIS

ARTEMIS

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about ARTEMIS

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

ARTEMIS

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 74/2008 of 20 December 2007 on the establishment of the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking to implement a Joint Technology Initiative in Embedded Computing Systems

Summary

From mobile phones to bank cards, cars and planes, integrated computing devices have become part and parcel of our daily lives.

They also represent a growing share in the value of finished goods in many key industrial sectors.

According to recent statistics, these technologies represent a true growth market:

  • 98 % of computers are integrated in other devices;
  • over 4 billion embedded systems were sold in 2007;
  • the world market comes to EUR 60 billion and is continuing to grow at an annual rate of 14 %;
  • by 2010, it is expected that over 16 billion embedded computers will be in circulation (over 40 billion by 2020).

The European Union (EU) has this market in its sights, focusing its efforts on a new Joint Undertaking, known as ARTEMIS.

The ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking implements the Joint Technology Initiative (JTI) on Embedded Computing Systems.

This public-private partnership aims essentially to support the co-financing of research initiatives at European level and to improve cooperation between the various operators in the sector.

Based in Brussels, the Joint Undertaking is a Community body with legal personality. It has been set up for a period up to 31 December 2017. The founding members of the Joint Undertaking are the Community (represented by the Commission), Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Hungary, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Finland, Sweden, the United Kingdom and ARTEMISIA, an association representing companies and research and development (R&D) organisations active in the field of embedded computing systems. The ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking is open to new members.

Objectives

ARTEMIS contributes to the implementation of the Specific Programme “Cooperation” of the Seventh Framework Research and Development Programme (7th FRDP).

It aims in particular:

  • to define and implement a “Research Agenda” for the development of key technologies for embedded computing systems;
  • to provide financial support for various R&D activities;
  • to promote a public-private partnership favouring convergence of Community and national efforts (public and private), investments, and collaboration between the various sectors involved;
  • to improve the coordination of R&D efforts in the field of embedded computing systems;
  • to encourage the involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Functioning

The Joint Undertaking bodies are:

  • the Governing Board, which consists of representatives of the members of the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking and the Chairperson of the Industry and Research Committee, has responsibility for the operations of the Joint Undertaking and oversees the implementation of its activities;
  • the Executive Director is appointed for a three-year period by the Governing Board, is responsible for the day-to-day management and is the legal representative of the Joint Undertaking;
  • the Public Authorities Board consists of the public authorities of the Joint Undertaking, each of which appoints its representatives and a lead delegate. Its tasks include approving the scope and the launch of calls for proposals and deciding the selection and funding of the proposals selected;
  • the Industry and Research Committee consists of a maximum of twenty-five members appointed by the ARTEMISIA association. Its tasks include preparing the draft Multiannual Strategic Plan and making proposals regarding the strategy of the Joint Undertaking.

The ARTEMIS resources are made up of contributions from the members and the Community and revenue generated by ARTEMIS itself. Any legal entity which is not a member may make in-kind or cash contributions to the ARTEMIS resources.

The ARTEMIS costs consist of:

  • running costs, borne by its members. ARTEMISIA also makes a contribution of up to EUR 20 million or up to 1 % of the sum of the total cost of all projects. The Community contribution may not exceed EUR 10 million. The ARTEMIS Member States make in-kind contributions;
  • R&D activities. The Community makes a contribution of up to EUR 410 million. The financial contributions from the ARTEMIS Member States amount to at least 1.8 times the Community’s financial contribution and do not pass through the Joint Undertaking, but are paid directly to the research and development organisations participating in the projects. Furthermore, the same bodies make in-kind contributions to the projects, the total value of which over the duration of the Joint Undertaking is equal to or greater than the contribution of the public authorities.

The R&D activities are implemented by means of projects launched following open and competitive calls for proposals. These projects are funded by financial contributions from the Community and the participating Member States and by in-kind contributions by the research and development organisations participating in the projects of the Joint Undertaking.

As a Community initiative, Community legislation applies to the Joint Undertaking, including its staff. The Court of Justice of the European Communities has jurisdiction in any dispute between the members and in actions brought against the ARTEMIS Joint Undertaking. The Commission and the Court of Auditors carry out checks among the recipients of the Joint Undertaking’s funding.

Background

The Lisbon Agenda for Growth and Jobs placed the emphasis on investment in knowledge and innovation. In this respect, JTIs, which are public-private partnerships implemented by joint undertakings, have been set up under the 7th FRDP. These JTIs stem from the work of European Technology Platforms set up under the 6th FRDP.

In addition to the “ARTEMIS” initiative, five other JTIs are planned in nano-electronics (ENIAC), innovative medicines (IMI), aeronautics and air transport (CLEAN SKY), hydrogen and fuel cells (FUEL CELL), and global monitoring for environment and security (GMES).

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 74/2008 [adoption: consultation CNS/ 2007/ 088] 7.2.2008 OJ L 30 of 4.2.2008

Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy

Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2007/198/Euratom of 27 March 2007 establishing a Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy and conferring advantages upon it.

Summary

This Decision establishes a Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy for a period of 35 years starting on 19 April 2007. It has its seat in Barcelona in Spain.

The members of the Joint Undertaking are Euratom, represented by the Commission, the Member States of the European Union (EU), and certain third countries which have concluded cooperation agreements with Euratom in the field of controlled nuclear fusion. At the time of establishment of the Joint Undertaking, the third country in question is Switzerland.

The objectives of the Joint Undertaking are to provide Euratom’s contribution to the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization and to “Broader Approach” activities with Japan for the rapid realisation of fusion energy, and to prepare and co-ordinate a programme of activities in preparation for the construction of a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) and related facilities including the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF).

In addition to its other activities, the main tasks of the Joint Undertaking are to oversee the preparation of the site for the ITER project, to provide the ITER Organization with material, financial and human resources, to co-ordinate scientific and technological research and development activities in the field of fusion, and to act as an interface with the ITER Organization.

The total financial resources required for the Joint Undertaking are estimated to amount to 9 653 million euros, with a contribution from Euratom of 7 649 million euros (subject to a maximum of 15 % for administrative costs).

The Joint Undertaking has legal personality. Its organs are:

  • the Governing Board, consisting of two persons per member of the Joint Undertaking and assisted by the Executive Committee;
  • the Director, who is responsible for representing the Joint Undertaking and seeing to the day-to-day running of the Organization, including signing contracts.

The contractual liability of the Joint Undertaking is governed by the contract in question and the law applicable to it. The Court of Justice has jurisdiction to give judgment pursuant to any arbitration clause contained in such contract.

Furthermore, the Joint Undertaking will incur non-contractual liability, in accordance with the general principles common to the laws of the Member States, in respect of any damage caused by itself or its servants in the performance of their duties. The Court of Justice has jurisdiction in any dispute relating to compensation for such damage. In addition, the Court of Justice has jurisdiction to rule on appeals brought against the Joint Undertaking.

Background: ITER

Fusion energy, together with renewable energy sources and fission energy, is one of the three alternatives to fossil fuels. It is by far the most widespread in the universe – it is the source of energy radiated by the sun and other stars – but the least developed on earth of these three non-fossil energy sources.

The JET (Joint European Torus) project, established in 1978, contributed to advanced research in the field of fusion energy for several years. From 1988, the development of the ITER project represented a new stage in the field of fusion which culminated in 2001 in a detailed design for a research facility aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of fusion as an energy source from which the EU could derive significant benefit, in particular in the context of ensuring the security and diversity of its long-term energy supply.

In November 2003, the European Council authorised the Commission to put forward France as the ITER host state and Cadarache as the ITER site and decided that the Domestic Agency for Euratom should be located in Spain.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2007/198/Euratom

19.4.2007

OJ L 90 of 30.3.2007.

Related Acts

Proposal for a Council Decision, of 19 May 2006, concerning the conclusion, by the Commission, of the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project, of the Arrangement on Provisional Application of the Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation on the ITER Project and of the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project [COM(2006) 240 final – Official Journal C 184 of 8.8.2006].
The proposal for a decision was adopted by the Council on 25 September 2006. It authorises the Commission to negotiate an agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), China, South Korea, the United States of America, India, Japan and Russia, on the creation of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the joint implementation of the ITER project. It also approves the conclusion of a provision on the provisional application of the agreement.

Proposal for a Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council amending the Interinstitutional Agreement of 17 May 2006 on budgetary discipline and sound financial management as regards the multiannual financial framework, to address additional financing needs of the ITER project [COM(2010) 403 final – Not published in the Official Journal].In response to the Council conclusions of 12 July 2010 on the short-term additional financing need of the ITER project for commitment appropriations of EUR 1.4 billion (EUR 800 million in 2012 and EUR 600 million in 2013), in current prices, for 2012 and 2013, this Commission proposal aims at providing an amount of EUR 400 million by means of a revision of the multiannual financial framework while keeping the overall ceiling for commitment and payment appropriations over the period 2007-2013 unchanged. At the same time, an additional amount of EUR 460 million will be covered through redeployment from the Seventh Research Framework Programme. The commitment for financing the remaining amount of EUR 540 million shall be secured at a later stage, starting with the budgetary conciliation in November 2010, and then, if need be, the following annual budgetary procedures by using all budgetary means foreseen in the multiannual financial framework.

Communication of 4 May 2010 from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council – ITER status and possible way forward [COM(2010) 226 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

This Communication notes the need to set out the governance and financial conditions for ITER.
In 2001, the cost of this project had been estimated at EUR 5.9 billion, with the EU contributing 45 % of that amount. The cost to the EU now amounts to EUR 7.2 billion according to the F4E Governing Board (the European Domestic Agency “Fusion For Energy”) which met in March 2010. This cost increase has resulted in a financing gap. It is therefore important to improve the governance of the ITER project in order to stop costs getting out of hand, but also in order to define a viable financial framework.
With regard to financing, the Commission therefore envisages two options:

  • implementing complementary financing from Member States;
  • setting financial perspectives ceilings at appropriate level.

The European Commission invites the Council and the European Parliament to adopt a decision appropriate to the current circumstances.

Communication from the Commission of 28 April 2003, entitled: State of progress of the negotiations concerning the ITER international nuclear fusion energy research project [COM(2003) 215 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

A single market for 21st century Europe

A single market for 21st century Europe

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A single market for 21st century Europe

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

A single market for 21st century Europe

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 20 November 2007 entitled: “A single market for 21st century Europe” [COM(2007) 724 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The single market is beneficial for consumers and businesses. It has supported job creation and stimulated growth, competitiveness and innovation. The single market has also been essential for the smooth functioning of the economic and monetary policies of the European Union (EU). However, it still has untapped potential.

HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL

The Commission proposes a single market for the 21st century which is strong, innovative and competitive. Building on its existing strong foundations, the single market must concentrate on key areas with potential added value in order to face up to new challenges.

Consumers and businesses

The single market needs to deliver better results and benefits to respond to the expectations and concerns of consumers and businesses. The guarantee of high standards has enabled consumer protection to be ensured in terms of choice and quality of goods, prices, rights, fighting unfair commercial practices and abuse of dominant positions, etc. Nevertheless, the single market can offer more in key sectors of the daily life of consumers, such as energy or telecommunications, and sectors which are fragmented or typified by a lack of effective competition.

The safety and quality of goods and services and market surveillance also need to be strengthened. Food safety, pharmaceuticals and retail financial services are areas in which consumers must be educated and empowered in order to derive full benefit from the single market. In this respect, consumer rights, and especially contractual rights, and redress should be re-examined to move towards a simple, comprehensive protective framework.

In addition, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are not integrated in the single market in the same way as large enterprises. Their participation is impeded mainly by tax fragmentation and language, cultural and consumer barriers. The initiative of the Small Business Act, based on the principle of “think small first”, and improvement of the tax environment should provide an appropriate response to this problem.

Coping with globalisation

In a constantly changing international context, the single market presents many advantages in terms of innovation, competitiveness and choice, whilst respecting labour, health, safety and environmental standards. Through its nature, it has attracted foreign investments and firms.

The EU must continue this process to cope with globalisation, concentrating on the pillars identified in the Communication “Global Europe competing in the world (BG) (CS) (ET) (GA) (LV) (LT) (HU) (MT) (PL) (RO) (SK) (SL)”, i.e.:

  • the trade and competition policy instruments which guarantee a competitive space by responding to foreign subsidies and other unfair practices;
  • promotion of cooperation on multilateral and bilateral norms. The EU must take inspiration from international standards and its own standards must serve as a world reference, ensuring it a leading role, especially if it speaks with one voice;
  • ensuring that the benefits of market openness reach European citizens, especially in terms of choice and price, but also by following up on trade agreements.

Making knowledge and innovation the “fifth freedom”

The single market, which was originally based on primary products and manufactured goods, has to provide for the greater integration of services, which are assuming a growing role in a knowledge-based economy. In this way, it must tap the potential offered by the new technologies for the benefit of a “fifth freedom”, i.e. free movement of knowledge and innovation.

The Services Directive is the lynchpin of this process. Nevertheless, the removal of barriers and strengthening of competition must be continued to offer more choice at lower prices to consumers and to boost innovation. Initiatives have been taken along these lines, especially with regard to the network industries (energy, postal services, transport, telecommunications, etc.). Information and communication technologies (ICT) are also an asset for the development of interoperable services in the context of the “e-Internal Market” (electronic invoicing, online public procurement and electronic customs), without creating new “e-barriers”.

The mobility of workers, researchers and students must be guaranteed to promote knowledge-sharing. The 7th Framework Research and Development Programme (7th FRDP) and the plan to introduce a “researcher passport” form the foundations of mobility and the development of research networks within the European Research Area (ERA).

Social and environmental dimension

Market opening has social and environmental impacts. The Commission will improve its impact assessments to anticipate market changes more effectively.

The development of the single market goes hand in hand with the European social agenda. Economic and social cohesion, based on the Structural Funds, allows citizens and businesses to be empowered and the benefits of the market to be spread to all regions of the EU. In this respect, the “European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation” (EGTC) offers new possibilities for cross-border cooperation in areas such as health, environment and infrastructures.

Workers’ mobility receives further support under the Job Mobility Action Plan. However, this must respect the fundamental rights of workers, including equal opportunities. The European Works Council will be adapted along these lines.

The development of “eco-industry” (pharmaceuticals or car manufacturing) contributes to the environmental dimension of the single market. Further investments are still needed, especially to contribute to fighting climate change.

DELIVERING RESULTS

An enlarged, diversified EU depends more than ever on the single market working well. The EU must concentrate on the evidence and the impact of the markets, giving priority to where markets do not deliver and where there are maximum chances of improvement. Market monitoring will be stepped up to determine the reasons for market failures and their potential on the basis of competition sector inquiries, lead markets and joint technology initiatives. The consumer scoreboard, which will be integrated into the Single Market Scoreboard from 2009, will provide additional information on the performances of these markets from the point of view of consumers and economic and social requirements.

Simple, appropriate tools will allow the single market to be more targeted and better enforced, without ending up with more regulations. Recourse to existing instruments and procedures under the various policies must be rationalised to achieve an optimum result. This also applies to the tools for the evaluation and implementation of Community legislation. The Commission will reconsider ineffective or superseded Community interventions.

All levels of governance, authorities and stakeholders must be involved on the basis of greater decentralisation, fostering ownership and mutual trust in the context of new working relationships and approaches. The networks, which could be based on “single market centres”, are essential in this respect to ensure enforcement of Community legislation and cooperation, promoting exchanges of experience and good practices.

Communication and access to information form the basis for transparency and knowledge of the Community rules. Member States are responsible for this. Achievement of these objectives will be based on the “single market ambassadors” pilot project (prominent persons in business and trade), a “one-stop shop” for the various services available to citizens and businesses (Europe Direct, Your Europe, SOLVIT, Citizens’ Signpost Service, EURES, the new integrated business support network, etc.), as well as a Single Market Scoreboard adapted to allow better evaluation of performance.

Standardization as a catalyst for innovation

Standardization as a catalyst for innovation

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Standardization as a catalyst for innovation

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

Standardization as a catalyst for innovation

European space policy

European space policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European space policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Research and innovation > Research in support of other policies

European space policy

Space has long been a source of progress for Europe, serving numerous objectives and policies, including transport and mobility, the information society and industrial competitiveness, the environment, agriculture and fisheries, and civil protection. The aim is to make the European Union (EU) the most advanced knowledge-based society in the world.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Green Paper of 21 January 2003 on European Space Policy [COM(2003) 17 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Galileo project (civil satellite navigation and positioning system) and the GMES (global monitoring for environment and security) initiative are examples of a new approach underlining the need for the EU to play a more important role in space policy.

The objective of this Green Paper is to raise awareness in European society as a whole of the strategic importance of space and space policy to the EU and to find practical answers to the questions of access, funding and institutional regulation.

The Green Paper is the fruit of close and effective cooperation between the European Commission and the European Space Agency (ESA).

EUROPEAN SPACE IN A CHANGING CONTEXT

Since 1980 Ariane and the space centre in Guyana have given Europe independent and reliable access to space, allowing it considerable freedom of initiative for achieving its ambitions in space. However, Europe’s competitiveness in space must be based on new technical developments combined with a renewed method of public support for using space.

Today the total turnover of the European space industry is in the order of EUR 5.5 billion a year. At the same time the European space industry directly employs 30 000 people, spread over about 2 000 companies.

Priorities for the future:

  • guarantee European access to space and long-term funding for this purpose;
  • split responsibilities between national and European players;
  • strike a balance between European autonomy and international cooperation: Europe must take the initiative and intervene on a par with its partners by playing a strategic role in major cooperative space projects;
  • make available a high-quality industrial structure and have access to key technologies: Europe must identify the sectors offering added value and decide if it wants to maintain an industrial base covering the whole chain of space activities;
  • ensure a broad and efficient technological base maintained through research and demonstration programmes: the EU, the ESA, the national players and the industry have established various instruments (the space technology plan, the Seventh Framework RTD Programme and the national research programmes);
  • continue the transfer of know-how and information between generations of scientists and engineers: in Europe it is estimated that nearly 30% of employees in the space sector are due to retire in the next 10 years.

PLACING SPACE MORE AT THE SERVICE OF EUROPE AND ITS CITIZENS

The technical potential of the space community needs to be used in a manner responding to the new demands made by society. The objective is to create a competitive knowledge-society, with the aim of ensuring that all European citizens, notably those with special requirements, will be able to have access to advanced technologies and services.

Beyond extremely widespread use of telecommunication satellites for exchanging information (telephony, television and digital data transmission), placing European launchers in orbit offers businesses, public authorities and citizens a wide range of services such as more sustainable mobility, weather forecasting, monitoring of climate change, faster response to natural disasters, etc.

Priorities for the future:

  • broaden the range of space research to players other than the conventional space industry: encourage transfers from research activities to industrial applications and value added services which go beyond the strict context of space;
  • transfer technologies from the research sector to the commercial sector: encourage private investment through long-term commitments by the public authorities;
  • develop new applications which make optimum use of the benefits of earth and space technologies;
  • maintain the interests of an enlarged Union: all European citizens, including the population of the new Member States, will be able to benefit from high-quality services if the EU introduces, for example, new broadband space systems;
  • support sustainable development: space technology is used for Earth observation, particularly for meteorological and environmental purposes to monitor changes on the planet (climate, meteorology, oceans, vegetation, global warming, monitoring oil slicks at sea, etc.);
  • contribute to the development of satellite navigation systems offering new opportunities for navigation in the air, at sea and on land;
  • improve the security of citizens: crisis management depends directly on mastering space technologies, particularly military applications.

TOWARDS A MORE EFFICIENT AND AMBITIOUS ORGANISATION AND FRAMEWORK

The ESA, set up in 1975, met the initial objective of bringing together the resources and skills required for developing an integrated space science programme backed up by the national agencies of certain Member States, operational bodies and space initiatives.

Priorities for the future:

  • optimise Europe’s strengths in the space field, complying with the subsidiarity principle to set new objectives;
  • ensure that the contributions made by various institutional players converge towards common objectives;
  • define the responsibilities of the institutions involved in respect of space – in particular development agencies and operational structures – and their relationship with the private sector;
  • develop the space industry within a transparent and stable regulatory framework to motivate decision-makers and investors: efforts are being made to simplify procedures and minimise the regulatory barriers.

Background

The publication of the Green Paper marked the start of a period for official consultations which ended on 30 May 2003. An action plan (White Paper of 11 November 2003 – PDF ) to implement the European space policy was drawn up on the basis of the replies sent in by interested parties. The Communication from the Commission of May 2005 (PDF ) lays the foundations for a European space programme within the EU’s new institutional and technological context (development of Galileo and GMES).

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
COM(2003) 17 final

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 23 May 2005 “European Space Policy – Preliminary Elements” [COM(2005) 208 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Council Decision 2004/578/EC of 29 April 2004 on the conclusion of the Framework Agreement between the European Community and the European Space Agency [Official Journal L 261, 06.08.2004].

Commission White Paper of 11 November 2003: “Space: a new European frontier for an expanding Union – An action plan for implementing the European Space policy” [COM(2003) 673 – Not published in the Official Journal].

This White Paper is the follow-up to the consultation period launched by the Green Paper of January 2003. It puts forward an action plan for a European space policy to foster competitiveness and sustainable development in the EU. The Galileo and GMES programmes are actual examples of space technologies helping to achieve the EU’s policy objectives.

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – “A Regions: “A Coherent Framework for Aerospace – A Response to the STAR 21 Coherent Framework for Aerospace – A Response to the STAR 21 Report” Report” [COM(2003) 600 final – Not [COM(2003) 600 final – Not Published in the Official Journal].

This strategy proposes providing political support for action by both the public and private sectors in order to define a Community political approach to space.

The communication proposes the basic components and broad lines of a space strategy revolving around three objectives:

  • strengthen and preserve independent and affordable access to space;
  • enhance scientific knowledge;
  • reap the benefits of the technical capabilities of the space community for markets and society.