Category Archives: Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility for all is a key requirement in order to join the European Economic Area. Transport has a social and cohesive dimension, reducing regional inequalities, providing access to remote regions and increasing access for disabled persons. A policy to protect passengers’ rights, particularly in air and rail transport has been put in place in order to achieve the goal of mobility for all Passengers must enjoy the same rights throughout the European Union, without discrimination, regardless of their nationality and that of their transport operator.

Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility and passenger rights

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Mobility and passenger rights

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility and passenger rights

Mobility for all is a key requirement in order to join the European Economic Area. Transport has a social and cohesive dimension, reducing regional inequalities, providing access to remote regions and increasing access for disabled persons. A policy to protect passengers’ rights, particularly in air and rail transport has been put in place in order to achieve the goal of mobility for all Passengers must enjoy the same rights throughout the European Union, without discrimination, regardless of their nationality and that of their transport operator.

SUSTAINABLE MOBILTY

  • Action Plan on Urban Mobility
  • Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility
  • Developing the Citizens’ Network
  • Cohesion and transport
  • Freight transport logistics in Europe

PASSENGER RIGHTS

  • Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union
  • Rights of passengers travelling by sea and inland waterway
  • Rights of passengers in bus and coach transport
  • New rights for rail passengers
  • Informing passengers of the carrier’s identity and the blacklist of high-risk companies
  • Rights of people with reduced mobility in air transport
  • Computerised reservation systems
  • Denied-boarding compensation system
  • Protection of air passengers

Informing passengers of the carrier's identity and the blacklist of high-risk companies

Informing passengers of the carrier’s identity and the blacklist of high-risk companies

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Informing passengers of the carrier’s identity and the blacklist of high-risk companies

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Informing passengers of the carrier’s identity and the blacklist of high-risk companies

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2005 on the establishment of a Community list of air carriers subject to an operating ban within the Community and on informing air transport passengers of the identity of the operating air carrier, and repealing Article 9 of Directive 2004/36/EC [See amending act(s)].

Summary

This new Regulation is designed to give passengers the right to be informed of the identity of the carrier operating the flight they have booked, while at the same time reinforcing the obligation on European Union (EU) countries to pass on safety-related information. Companies considered to be unsafe will find their aircraft banned from flying and will have their names published on a universally accessible blacklist. This list will be published both on the Internet and in the Official Journal.

These provisions apply to flights:

  • departing from an airport in the territory of an EU country to which the Treaty applies;
  • departing from an airport in a third country and arriving at an airport in the territory of an EU country, provided that the contracting carrier is based in the EU;
  • departing from an airport in a third country, where the flight is part of a contract of carriage entered into in the EU, and provided that the journey started in the EU.

A blacklist of unsafe airlines

The Annex sets out common criteria for considering an EU-wide operating ban for safety reasons. Air carriers will be included on the blacklist on the basis of the following criteria:

  • evidence of serious safety deficiencies on the part of a carrier;
  • a lack of ability (or willingness) on the part of a carrier to address safety deficiencies (lack of transparency or insufficient action);
  • a lack of ability (or willingness) on the part of the authorities responsible for overseeing a carrier to address safety deficiencies (lack of cooperation, insufficient ability, etc.).

EU countries publish a list of all air carriers banned from their airspace or subject to traffic rights restrictions for safety reasons. This list is made available to other EU countries and to the Commission. The Commission publishes a consolidated list of these air carriers. Furthermore, at least once every three months, the Commission must assess whether the blacklist needs to be updated to include or exclude certain carriers. To update the list, both the EU country concerned and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) must notify the Commission of all the relevant information.

Passengers’ rights to information and reimbursement

To enable airline passengers to be better informed about the operating carrier when choosing a flight, passengers must be able to know which carrier will be operating the flight when they make the booking. The contracting carrier is required to inform passengers of the identity of the operating air carrier or carriers when making a reservation, whatever the means used to make the booking. The passenger must also be kept informed of any change of operating carrier, either at check-in or, at the latest, when boarding.

The Regulation also gives passengers the right to reimbursement or re-routing if a carrier with which a booking has been made is subsequently added to the blacklist, resulting in cancellation of the flight concerned.

Background

Safety oversight is regulated worldwide within the framework of the 1944 Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation and is based on standards developed by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). Under the Convention, air carriers, and in particular their compliance with safety requirements, must be supervised by their home country.

At European level, safety procedures are based on EU legislation and specifically on the European Aviation Safety Agency.

However, outside the EU, safety levels depend on the effectiveness of oversight procedures applicable in third countries. In this context, Directive 2004/36/EC ensures a high level of aviation safety for aircraft flying into, out of or within the EU by providing for a harmonised inspection system for third-country aircraft using European airports.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005

16.1.2006

OJ L 344 of 27.12.2005

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 596/2009

9.9.2010

OJ L 237 of 8.9.2010

Successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005 have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Blacklist of high-risk companies.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 474/2006 of 22 March 2006 establishing the Community list of air carriers which are subject to an operating ban within the Community referred to in Chapter II of Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council [Official Journal L 84 of 23.3.2006].

Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union

Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council “Strengthening passenger rights within the European Union” [COM(2005) 46 final – not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The single market has generated a sizeable growth in demand for both passenger and goods transport. However, passengers have been faced with difficult situations which, rather than being the exception, have unfortunately become the norm, such as cancellations, overbooking, loss of luggage, delays, etc.

Passenger rights should be protected in the following ways:

  • specific measures in favour of persons with reduced mobility;
  • compensation and assistance in the event of a delay, cancellation or denied boarding;
  • liability in the event of death or injury;
  • treatment of complaints and means of redress;
  • passenger information.

Specific measures in favour of persons with reduced mobility

A passenger protection policy must include specific measures to protect persons with reduced mobility. There are some 45 million citizens with reduced mobility, or around 10 % of the European population. This figure includes not only disabled persons but also those who would be incapable of travelling without assistance because of their age, reduced mental capacity or illness.

These people should be guaranteed appropriate assistance, wherever they go and whatever the form of transport used, so that they can travel with confidence throughout the EU. They should never be refused travel or a reservation because of their reduced mobility. Moreover, they should receive the assistance that they need free of charge, both in airports, stations and ports and on board the means of transport itself.

Automatic and immediate solutions where travel is interrupted

Where a service is interrupted because of delay, cancellation or denied boarding, the passengers should be entitled to automatic solutions to overcome the difficulties they encounter whatever the method of transport. They can always bring judicial proceedings against carriers.

Liability in the event of death or injury of passengers

As a general rule, carriers are insured against the risk of physical damage to passengers; however, the requirements vary considerably at national level.
With the exception of the aviation sector, there is no guarantee of a sufficient and uniform level of insurance in all circumstances. As regards maritime transport, the Commission has already proposed that the Community and the Member States become contracting parties to the Athens Protocol relating to the carriage of passengers and their luggage by sea.

In the same way, coach travellers are faced with different national rules and do not know before which court they should bring their action. In view of this, the Commission will examine how to guarantee an adequate level of cover and a uniform approach to liability in international coach transport.

Treatment of complaints and means of redress

Once passengers have been made aware of their rights, the exercise of such rights should be made as simple as possible. Most of the time the judicial proceedings are complex or very lengthy. Hence the usefulness of extra-judicial mechanisms for solving disputes which offer significant advantages: speed, transparency, reasonable cost and flexibility. In the light of this, the Commission has established a European network of national bodies aimed at facilitating access to non-judicial procedures for the resolution of cross-border disputes.

Passenger information

Passengers should not only know the identity of the carrier who will operate the flight but also be certain that information which could affect the safety of the carrier and which could therefore concern them is indeed communicated rapidly and effectively between States.

The Commission has initiated a number of measures concerning passenger information, namely:

  • developing a system of indicators which will give air passengers access to key information on the quality of service so that they can easily and immediately compare the performance of carriers. The proposed indicators cover delays, denied boarding, cancellations and poor baggage handling;
  • pursuing its information campaign to publicise the rights created by Community legislation. The Commission will update the charter of air passengers’ rights to include the new Community legislation on denied boarding, cancellation and long delays of flights and on the liability of air carriers;
  • obtaining a voluntary undertaking from air carriers and railway companies to set up an integrated ticketing system to enable passengers to combine several modes of transport in one journey through integrated ticketing;
  • studying, with the industry, the options for strengthening passengers’ rights in the event of airlines going bankrupt.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission – Developing the trans-European transport network: Innovative funding solutions – Interoperability of electronic toll collection systems [COM(2003) 132 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems in the Community [Official Journal L 166 of 30.4.2004].

Rights of people with reduced mobility in air transport

Rights of people with reduced mobility in air transport

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Rights of people with reduced mobility in air transport

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Rights of people with reduced mobility in air transport

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006 of the Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 concerning the rights of disabled persons and persons with reduced mobility when travelling by air.

Summary

The regulation on the rights of persons with reduced mobility when using air transport prohibits operators from refusing reservation or boarding to persons because of their reduced mobility or disability *.

There are certain exceptions and derogations, however, particularly for justified safety reasons established by law. An air carrier may refuse to accept a reservation from or to embark a person with reduced mobility or request that a travelling person with reduced mobility or disability must be accompanied by another person, in order to meet applicable safety requirements duly established by law or if the size of the aircraft makes it physically impossible to embark that person.

Within five working days of refusing a reservation or embarkation or requiring a person with reduced mobility or disability to be accompanied, the air carrier must inform in writing the person concerned of its reasons for doing so.

Persons with reduced mobility or disability are entitled to receive the assistance specified in the regulation free of charge in airports (on departure, arrival and during transit) and on board aircrafts (for example, the transport of wheelchairs and the carriage of guide dogs for the blind).

The managing bodies of airports should provide this assistance and may fund the services by levying a specific charge on airlines.

European Union (EU) countries and other concerned countries (European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries) will be required to lay down penalties for infringements and to set up independent bodies to deal with complaints.

The Commission must report to the European Parliament and the Council by 1 January 2010 at the latest on the implementation and effects of the regulation.

Key terms used in the act
  • “Disabled person” or “person with reduced mobility”: any person whose mobility when using transport is reduced due to any physical disability (sensory or locomotor, permanent or temporary), intellectual disability or impairment, or any other cause of disability, or age, and whose situation needs appropriate attention and the adaptation to his or her particular needs of the service made available to all passengers.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006

15.8.2006

26.7.2008

(Articles 3 and 4: 26.7.2007)

OJ L 204, 26.7.2006

Related Acts

Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the functioning and effects of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 concerning the rights of disabled persons and persons with reduced mobility when travelling by air [COM(2011) 166 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The report concluded that Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006 has brought advantages to disabled persons and persons with reduced mobility (PRM); in particular a single framework of protection, a clear division of tasks between airports and air carriers, and the establishment of a network of National Enforcement Bodies (NEB) in all EU countries.
The Commission did, however, find some difficulties in applying the regulation which might weaken its impact. These problem areas include:

  • a sometimes insufficient quality of service provided and inadequate adaption to PRM’s individual needs;
  • insufficient information provided to passengers;
  • fragile and expensive handling mobility equipment;
  • restrictions on accepting reservations from or embarking PRMs on the grounds of safety;
  • insufficient in-flight assistance by the air carriers, in particular in moving to toilet facilities;
  • conflicting interpretations of the definition of mobility equipment that must be carried free of charge by the air carriers;
  • disparities in the implementation of the regulation between EU countries;
  • disagreements over the amount of and the method of calculating and imposing charges;
  • difficulty in interpreting certain important definitions, such as whether pregnant women, overweight people or young children are included in the definition of persons with reduced mobility;
  • transporting and supplying medical oxygen.

As the initial assessment finds that the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006 is overall positive, a legislative review is not necessary at this stage. The Commission does, however, propose a number of axes of improvement within the existing framework, including:

  • a uniform interpretation of the regulation;
  • improving how the regulatory instruments work in practice;
  • strengthening the efficacy of the penalities and their supervision by national authorities;
  • handling the issue of the transport and supply of medical oxygen.

Communication from the Commission of 7 August 2008 on the scope of the liability of air carriers and airports in the event of destroyed, damaged or lost mobility equipment of passengers with reduced mobility when travelling by air [COM(2008) 510 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
Based on the “Study on the compensation thresholds for damaged or lost equipment and devices belonging to air passengers with reduced mobility” launched by the Commission, this communication presents the current challenges faced by persons with reduced mobility when their mobility equipment is lost or damaged, as well as the solutions provided by Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006.
In terms of quantitative objectives, the aim is to reduce the number of incidents regarding mobility equipment. To this end, the regulation establishes the legal obligation for airlines and airports to design procedures for and train staff on the assistance of people with reduced mobility. As a qualitative objective, the aim is to minimise the consequences of an incident. In this regard, there is:

  • a lack of common procedures that would lead to an immediate solution, which is covered in part by the regulation;
  • disparity in the nature and limits of the liability between airlines and airports, to whom an obligation of compensation that conforms to international, EU and national law is bestowed by the regulation;
  • the problem of inadequate compensations and procedures; however, the regulation should diminish the amount of incidents and their consequences, which are currently already rather minimal;
  • a question on the definition of “baggage” and the role of mobility equipment thereof, for which the Commission aims to launch discussions within the ICAO, so that mobility equipment is either excluded from the definition or the liability limits imposed on “baggage” by international conventions are amended in view of levelling out compensations on destroyed, damaged or lost mobility equipment with the actual value of that equipment.

Following the future assessment of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006, if enough progress has not been achieved, the Commission will propose improvements to the current legislative framework regarding the rights of persons with reduced mobility when travelling by air.

Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 establishing common rules on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights, and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 295/91 [Official Journal L 46 of 17.02.2004].

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: “Protection of air passengers in the European Union” [COM(2000) 365 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Denied-boarding compensation system

Denied-boarding compensation system

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Denied-boarding compensation system

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Denied-boarding compensation system

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 establishing common rules on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights, and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 295/91.

Summary

This Regulation applies to:

  • passengers departing from an airport located in the territory of a Member State to which the EC Treaty applies; and
  • passengers departing from an airport located in a third country to an airport situated in the territory of a Member State to which the EC Treaty applies,

On condition that the passengers have a confirmed reservation on the flight concerned and, except in the case of cancellation, present themselves for check-in at the time indicated in advance or, if no time is indicated, not later than 45 minutes before the published departure time.

This Regulation establishes passengers’ rights if:

  • they are denied boarding against their will;
  • their flight is cancelled;
  • their flight is delayed.

This Regulation does not apply to passengers travelling free of charge or at a reduced fare not available directly or indirectly to the public.

Denied boarding

When an air carrier reasonably expects to deny boarding on a flight, it first calls for volunteers to surrender their reservations in exchange for certain benefits. If an insufficient number of volunteers come forward to allow the remaining passengers to board the flight, the air carrier may then deny boarding to passengers against their will, in which case it must compensate them.

Air carriers give priority to persons with reduced mobility and any persons accompanying them.

In the event of flight cancellation or denied boarding, the passengers concerned have the right to:

  • reimbursement of the cost of the ticket within seven days or a return flight to the first point of departure or re-routing to their final destination;
  • care (refreshments, meals, hotel accommodation, transport between the airport and place of accommodation, two free telephone calls, telex or fax messages, or e-mails);
  • compensation totalling:
    – EUR 250 for all flights of 1500 kilometres or less;
    – EUR 400 for all intra-Community flights of more than 1500 kilometres, and for all other flights between 1500 and 3500 kilometres;
    – EUR 600 for all other flights.

Delays

The Regulation introduces a three-tier system:

  • in the event of long delays (two hours or more, depending on the distance of the flight), passengers must in every case be offered free meals and refreshments plus two free telephone calls, telex or fax messages, or e-mails;
  • if the time of departure is deferred until the next day, passengers must also be offered hotel accommodation and transport between the airport and the place of accommodation;
  • when the delay is five hours or longer, passengers may opt for reimbursement of the full cost of the ticket together with, when relevant, a return flight to the first point of departure.

Upgrading and downgrading

If an air carrier places a passenger in a class lower than that for which the ticket was purchased, the passenger must be reimbursed within seven days, as follows:

  • 30% of the price of the ticket for all flights of 1500 kilometres or less;
  • 50% of the price of the ticket for all intra-Community flights of more than 1500 kilometres, except flights between the Member States and the French overseas departments, and for all other flights between 1500 and 3500 kilometres;
  • 75% of the price of the ticket for all other flights, including flights between the Member States and the French overseas departments.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 [adoption: codecision procedure COD/2001/305] 17.2.2005 OJ L 46 of 17.2.2004

 

Developing the Citizens' Network

Developing the Citizens’ Network

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Developing the Citizens’ Network

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Developing the Citizens’ Network

Document or Iniciative

Communication of 10 July 1998 from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: “Developing the citizens’ network – Why local and regional passenger transport is important and how the European Commission is helping to bring it about” [COM (1998) 431 final- Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Amsterdam Treaty includes sustainable development as one of the European Union’s objectives. Transport has a key part to play in achieving this goal. A well-functioning European transport system needs a good, sustainable local and regional passenger transport structure. This is primarily a matter for local, regional and national authorities, working with transport operators and users, amongst whom there is a high degree of consensus on the fundamental need to shift away from dependence on private cars and make transport systems more sustainable.

Practical methods of making transport systems more sustainable and shifting away from excessive dependence on private cars include:

  • raising the quality and accessibility of public transport services and increasing their capacity to respond flexibly to changes in transport needs;
  • making walking and cycling more attractive by offering more favourable conditions;
  • reducing the demand for travel, for example by reversing the trend for housing, jobs, schools, etc. to disperse to places which are hard to reach except by car;
  • removing psychological barriers to the use of alternatives to cars;
  • actively managing car use in congested areas;
  • making transport an essential component of strategies for spatial planning, economic development and social cohesion;
  • fostering new, flexible working time arrangements;
  • pulling all this together to create a door-to-door transport system which people can use as an integrated Citizens’ Network.

What is needed is then integration of travel services, facilitating less costly and effective door-to-door travel whatever the number of transfers or the distances involved. One of the key principles is intermodality, as it allows different means of transport to be used as part of seamless transport chains.

To support the role of local and regional passenger transport while complying with the principle of subsidiarity, the Commission has drawn up a three-year work programme covering four key areas:

  • Stimulating information exchange by developing a European Local Transport Information Service (ELTIS). This will consist of a database about local and regional passenger transport of all types, with information coming from the POLIS network of cities and regions and the International Union of Public Transport (UITP). Users will be able to consult the service electronically by using the worldwide web.
  • Stimulating the benchmarking of service performance to enable public authorities and transport operators to benefit from comparison of the performance of their local and regional transport systems with systems in other countries. In this respect, the Commission will present a Communication on benchmarking of transport. In addition, the European Commitee for Standardisation (CEN) intends to adopt standard definitions which can be used in setting quality criteria for passenger transport. From 1999 onwards, the Commission will seek to encourage widespread use of benchmarking by public authorities and operators. It will publish a handbook on benchmarking local public transport and ensure that a database of results obtained is widely available.
  • Establishing a political and legal framework which promotes increased use of local and regional passenger transport systems and helps to achieve the objectives of the European Union’s common transport policy with regard to efficiency, quality and sustainable mobility. The Commission plays an important part in the development of this policy framework. In land use planning, for example, it encourages good practice with regard to transport through instruments such as the trans-European transport network, regional policy, and cohesion policy. In transport telematics, it makes the most of the potential of telematics applications to improve the efficiency and quality of transport services and help to overcome obstacles to their integration. The Commission believes that information obtained through new telematics applications (in real time, accessible at home, at work and on the move) should cover as many different forms of transport as possible, including public transport routes and timetables, the degree of congestion on the road network, the availability of parking, etc. Making use of the potential of regional transport will also provide increased moblity for women, the disabled and the elderly, and help to reduce pollution, energy consumption and CO2 emissions from transport and make optimum use of public spending.
  • Using the European Union’s financial instruments effectively. The European Commission will manage these funds and programmes so as to optimise the potential contribution from a sustainable local and regional passenger transport system. In its review of the guidelines for the trans-European Transport Network (TEN -T), for example, the Commission is paying particular attention to the question of local and regional connections to the TEN-T (whether to include intermodal passenger terminals in the guidelines). The Commission has also included four actions of specific relevance to the Citizens’ Network in the first projects under the Fifth Framework Programme for Research and Development: Sustainable mobility and intermodality; Land and marine transport technologies; The city of tomorrow and cultural heritage; Systems and services for the citizen.

All in all, the Commission’s work programme is intended to provide practical assistance to numerous institutions throughout Europe which contribute to the development of local and regional transport for the citizens’ benefit: the public authorities, transport companies and user groups.

 

Protection of air passengers

Protection of air passengers

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Protection of air passengers

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

Protection of air passengers

Document or Iniciative

Commission Communication of 21 June 2000 to the European Parliament and to the Council regarding the protection of air passengers in the European Union [COM(2000) 365 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This Communication is based on the results of a consultative document launched by the Commission. This document, which was addressed to organisations representing airlines, passengers and airports, concerned the problems encountered by air passengers and possible solutions.

Air passengers and their protection

Growth of air transport, stimulated by the development of the single market, is giving rise to much dissatisfaction today in terms of the quality of service provided by airlines. In spite of numerous measures already taken at Community level (compensation for denied boarding, liability in case of accidents, a code of conduct for computerised reservation systems and package travel), it appears that passengers have little knowledge of their rights. This has led the Commission to launch an awareness campaign through the display of a “charter of passenger’s rights” in European airports (available in all languages as a PDF document available for download on the website of DG Energy and Transport).

The policy proposed in this Communication combines both Community law, through various legislative acts, and voluntary commitments by the air transport sector. The Commission is counting on the cooperation of the airlines and airports to allow looser European legislation, preferring solutions negotiated on a voluntary basis. There is a need to avoid overregulation so as not to lessen the scope for competition or hamper cooperation between airlines.

The Commission points out that future legislation will seek a balance between legal certainty for passengers and for airlines, while guaranteeing more rights for passengers. They must be able to obtain accurate and up-to-date information on airlines’ performance so that they can make informed choices. Moreover, the difficulty of settling disputes must be addressed. The handling of complaints is often disappointing. Besides, representation of passenger interests is often weak when compared with very influential airlines.

Commission proposals

The Commission is proposing to base its action on both legislation and voluntary commitments. The legislation to be proposed will have three objectives:

  • enable delayed passengers to continue their journeys under good conditions, by giving them the right either to reimbursement of the ticket or to an alternative flight at the earliest opportunity;
  • create new rights for passengers, by setting minimum requirements for air travel contracts. The aim would be to create certainty for passengers by requiring the airlines to draft contracts clearly setting out the services offered and the conditions applied. The Commission also wishes to improve the balance of contracts in favour of passengers;
  • give passengers the information they need to make well-founded choices between airlines. The Commission is proposing, on the basis of data submitted by the airlines, to publish regular reports for consumers.

The voluntary commitments concern:

  • improvement of service quality (lower fares, better information, easier complaints procedures);
  • care for delayed passengers;
  • simpler procedures for lodging complaints and mechanisms for settling disputes out of court.

The Commission is also proposing to involve airports in this attempt to improve service to passengers.

Commission work programme

In 2000, the Commission set out the following tasks:

  • discuss how best to strengthen the representation of passengers with Member States and passengers’ organisations.
  • examine the effects of Internet sales and reservations on the market and competition rules.
  • study the effects on competition of code sharing and of tariff coordination in interlining.
  • assess the impact of cabin conditions on passengers’ health.

Related Acts

Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2005 on the establishment of a Community list of air carriers subject to an operating ban within the Community and on informing air transport passengers of the identity of the operating air carrier, and repealing Article 9 of Directive 2004/36/EC [Official Journal L 344 of 27.12.2005].
This Regulation provides for the publication of a “black list” of air carriers that do not comply with European safety criteria and which have been banned from operating in the European Union. Under this Regulation, passengers are given the right to know the identity of the air carrier that is operating their flight.

Regulation (EC) No 261/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 establishing common rules on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied boarding and of cancellation or long delay of flights, and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 295/91 [Official Journal L 46 of 17.2.2004].

Council Resolution of 2 October 2000 on the rights of air passengers [Official Journal C 293 of 14.10.2000].

Council Regulation (EC) No 2027/97 of 9 October 1997 on air carrier liability in the event of accidents [Official Journal L 285 of 17.10.1997].

Amended by:
Regulation (EC) No 889/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 May 2002 [Official Journal L 140 of 30.5.2002].

Commission Staff Working Paper. An International Framework for the Transfer of Airline Passenger Data to Public Authorities [SEC(2004) 99 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Resources

Further Reading

  • GRUNDMANN/D. MEDICUS/W. ROLLAND, “Towards a European Sales Law — Legal Challenges Posed by the Directive on the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 157 y ss.
  • HONDIUS, E.,/SCHELHAAS, H., “In Conformity with the Consumer Sales Directive? Some Remarks on Transposition into Dutch Law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 327 y ss.
  • CABELLA PISU, L., Vendita, vendite: quale riforma delle garanzie?”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 34 y ss.
  • CALAIS-AULOY, J., “De la garantie des vices cachés à la garantie de conformité”, Mélanges Ch. Mouly, 1998, t. 2, pp. 63 y ss.
  • CALLIES, G.-P., “Nach der Schuldrechtsreform: Perspektiven des deutschen, europäischen und internationalen Verbrauchervertragsrechts”, AcP, 2003, n.º 4/5, pp. 575 y ss.
  • CALVAO DA SILVA, Venda de bens de consumo. Comentário, Coimbra, 2003.
  • CALVO, R., “L´attuazione della direttiva n. 44 del 1999: una ‘chance’ per la revisione in senso unitario della disciplina sulle garanzie e rimedi nella vendita”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 463 y ss.
  • CALVO, R., “Nota a margine del convegno di Padova dedicato alla memoria di Alberto Trabucchi su “L’attuazione della direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 419 y ss.
  • CANARIS, C.-W., “L´attuazione in Germania della direttiva concernente la vendita di beni de consumo”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 235 y ss.
  • CANARIS, C.-W., “Die Nacherfüllung durch Lieferung einer mangelfreien Sache beim Stückkauf”, JZ, 2003, pp. 831 y ss.
  • CIATTI, A., “L’àmbito di aplicazione ratione materiae della direttiva comunitaria sulla vendita e le garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 433 y ss.
  • CIGINI, S., “L’avant-projet sull’attuazione nel diritto francese della direttiva n. 44 del 1999”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2003, pp. 902 y ss.
  • CORAPI, D., “La direttiva 99/44/CE e la Convenzione di Vienna sulla vendita internazionale: verso un nuovo diritto comune della vendita?”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 135 y ss.
  • COSTANZA, M., “La direttiva 99/44: art. 3 e obblighi di pagamento del compradore”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 185 y ss.
  • CUGINI, S., “L’avant-projet sull’attuazione nel diritto francese della direttiva n. 44 del 1999”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2003, n.º 2, pp. 902 y ss.
  • CZIESIELSKY, M., Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie und amerikanisches Gewährleistungsrecht im Vergleich, Hamburg, Kovac, 2003.
  • DE CRISTOFARO, G., Difetto di conformità al contratto e diritti del consumatore. L´ordinamento italiano e la direttiva 99/44/CE sulla vendita e le garanzie dei beni di consumo, Padova, Cedam, 2000.
  • DE CRISTOFARO, G., “L´esonero de responsabilità del venditore per i difetti di conformità che il consumatore conosceva o non poteva ragionevolmente ingorare «al momento della conclusione del contrato»: brevi note su taluni aspetti problematici dell´attuazione dell´art. 2, par. 3, della direttiva 99/44/CE”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 201 y ss.
  • DE MATTEIS, R., “Il difetto di conformità e l’equilibrio contrattuale dello scambio”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 46 y ss.
  • DE NOVA, G., “La proposta di direttiva sulla vendita e la garanzia dei beni di consumo”, Riv. dir. priv., 1997, pp. 22 y ss.
  • DE NOVA, G., “La recezione della Direttiva sulle garanzie nella vendita di beni di consumo: vincoli, ambito de applicazione, difetto de conformità”, Riv. dir. priv., 2001, pp. 759 y ss.
  • DE NOVA, G., “La recepzione della direttiva sulle garanzie nella vendita dei beni de consumo: vincoli, ambito di applicazione, difetto di conformità”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 33 y ss.
  • DE SAINT DIDIER, C., “La directive 1999/44 du 25 mai 1999 sur certains aspects de la vente et des garanties des biens de consommation: impact pour les professionnels”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 277 y ss.
  • DELL’AQUILA, G./PARADISI, G., “La Direttiva 1999/44/CE, in materia di garanzie post-vendita a tutela dei consumatori, e il diritto vigente”, Disciplina del commercio, 2001, pp. 44 y ss.
  • DELOGU, L., “La proposta modificata di direttiva del Parlamento europeo del Consiglio sulla vendita e le garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 1998, pp. 1039 y ss.
  • DELOGU, L., “Il patti modificativi della responsabilità del venditore: la direttiva 1999/44/CE, l’odierno diritto italiano e le prospettive di riforma”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 489 y ss.
  • DI MAJO, A., “Garanzia e inadempimiento nella vendita di beni di consumo”, Europa e dir. priv., 2002, pp. 1 y ss.
  • DI MAJO, A., “Il sistema dei rimedi: risoluzione del contratto, riduzione del prezzo e pretese risarcitoria”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 83 y ss.
  • DI PAOLA, L., “Vendita di beni de consumo: si rafforzano le garanzie per l´acquirente”, Le nuove leggi civile commentate, 2002, n.º 2-3, pp. 309 y ss.
  • DIEZ-PICAZO, L., “I problemi della attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE nei diritti nazionali”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 255 y ss.
  • DOEHNER, R., Die Schuldrechtsreform vor dem Hintergrund der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie. die Richtlinie des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter und ihre Auswirkungen auf das deutsche Recht, Baden-Baden, Nomos Verlag, 2004.
  • EBERSOHL, J. N., Vertragsfreiheit und Verbrauchererschutz in der schwedischen Gesetzgebung der letzten Jahrzenhnte. Zum skandinavischen Einfluss aud das Europäische Verbraucherschtuzrecht, Göttingen, V & R Unipress, 2003.
  • ECCHER, B., “Il recepimento della direttiva 99/44/CE nell´ordinamento giuridico austriaco”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 263 y ss.
  • ECCHER, B./SCHURR, F. A., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 99/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in Italien”, ZEuP, 2003, n.º 1, pp. 65 y ss.
  • ECCHER, B./SCHURR, F. A., “Die Richtlinie 99/44/EG und das Neur Kaufrecht in Italien”, en Jahrbuch für italienisches Recht, 2003, pp. 3 y ss.
  • EGER, T., “Einige ökonomische Aspekte der Europäischen Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie und ihrer Umsetzung in deutsches Recht”, German Working Papers in Law and Economics, 2002-1-1032 (disponible en https://ideas.repec.org/p/bep/dewple/2002-1-1032.html).
  • EGGERT, “An- und Verkauf gebrauchter Kraftfahrzeuge nach der Schuldrechtreform”, ZAP, n.º 3, pp. 375 y ss.
  • EHMANN, H./RUST, U., “Die Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie”, JZ, 1999, pp. 853 y ss.
  • ELVINGER, “La Directive 99/44 du 25 Mai 1999 et le droit Luxembourgeois”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 309 y ss.
  • EMMERICH, Das Recht der Leistungsstörungen, 5ª ed., München, Beck, 2003.
  • ERNST/GSELL, “Kaufrechtsrichtlinie und BGB”, ZIP, 2000, pp. 1410 y ss.
  • ERNST/GSELL, “Kritisches zum Stand der Schuldrechtsmodernisierung”, ZIP, 2001, pp. 1389 y ss.
  • FABER, W., “Zur Richtlinie bezüglich Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Garantien für Verbrauchersgüter”, JBl, 1999, pp. 413 y ss.
  • FABER, W., Handbuch zum neuen Gewährleistungsrecht, 2001.
  • FADDA, R., “Il contenuto della direttiva 1999/44/CE: una panoramica”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 410 y ss
  • FALZONE CALVISI, M. G., “Garanzie legali della vendita: quale riforma?”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 448 y ss.
  • FELLER, “Sachmängel beim Kauf ”, MittBayNot, 2003, pp. 82 y ss.
  • FERRANTE, “Die neuen Vorschriften des italienischen Codice Civile über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, VuR, 2003, pp. 165 y ss.
  • FERRANTE, “Die Umsetzung des Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG im italienischen Recht. Einige Bemerkungen zu den neuen Regelungen del Verbraucherschutzes”, RIW, 2003, pp. 570 y ss.
  • FERREIRA DE ALMEIDA, “Orientaçoes de politica legislativa adoptadas pela Directiva 1999/44/CE sobre venda de bens de consumo. Comparaçao com o direito vigente”, Themis, 2001, n.º 4, pp. 109 y ss.
  • FERRI, G. B., “Divagazioni intorno alla direttiva n. 44 del 1999 su taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 51 y ss.
  • GALLO, P., “Le garanzie nella vendita di beni al consumo. Prospettive e riforma alla luce della direttiva 1999/44 CE”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 78 y ss.
  • GAROFALO, L., “Le azioni edilizie e la direttiva 1999/44/CE”, en S.
  • MAZZAMUTO, Il contratto e le tutele. Prospettive di diritto europeo,Torino, 2002, pp. 500 y ss.
  • MAZZAMUTO, (Coord.), Commentario alla disciplina della vendita dei beni de consumo, Padova, 2003.
  • MAZZAMUTO, “L´attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE in Italia”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 237 y ss.
  • GASS, P., “Die Schuldrechtsüberarbeitung nach der politischen Entscheidung zum Inhalt der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, en U. DIEDERICHSEN (Coord), Festschrift für Walter Roland zum 70. Geburstag, 1999, pp. 131 y ss.
  • GENOVESE, A., “Le garanzie dei beni di consumo, la direttiva 99/44/CE e il diritto spagnolo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2002, pp. 1103 y ss.
  • GERKENS, J./PIRSON, V., “Die Umsetzung der Kaufrechtsrichtlinie (1999/44/EG) in Belgien”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 169 y ss.
  • GHESTIN. J., “Osservazioni provvisorie sul recepimento della direttiva sulla vendita de beni de consumo nel diritto francese”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 273 y ss.
  • GIARDINI, F., “La conservazione del contratto e l´impostazione essenzialmente civilistica del legisladore comunitario nella direttiva 99/44/CE. Profili di comparazione giuridica”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 205 y ss.
  • GLINSKI/ROTT, “Umweltfreundliches und ethisches Konsumverhalten im harmonisierten Kaufrecht”, EuZW, 2003, pp. 649 y ss.
  • GRAF VON WESTPAHLEN, F. (Dir.), Handbuch des Kaufvertragsrechts in den EG-Staaten, Köln, 1992.
  • GRAF VON WESTPAHLEN, F., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie im Blick auf den Regress zwischen Händler und Hersteller”, DB, 1999, pp. 2552 y ss.
  • GRAVANTE, “Die Regelung des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs – Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in das italienische Recht”, EuLF, 2002, pp. 356 y ss.
  • GRUBER, M., “Die Umsetzumg der Verbrauchersgüterkauf-Richtlinie in Österreich”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 153 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN, S., Europäisches Schuldvertragsrecht – das Europäische Recht der Unternehmensgeschäfte, Berlin, New York, 1999.
  • GRUNDMANN, S., “European sales law. Reform and adoption of international models in German sales law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 239 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN, S., “Verbraucherrecht, Unternehmensrecht, Privatrecht – warum sind sich UN-Kaufrecht und EU-Kaufrechts-Richtlinie so ähnlich?”, AcP, 2002, n.º 202, pp. 40 y ss.
  • GRUNDMANN, S.,/BIANCA, C. (Coord.), EU-Kaufrechtsrichtlinie, Köln, V. Otto Schmidt, 2002.
  • GRUNDMANN, S./MEDICUS, D./ROLLAND, R. (Coord.), Europäisches Kaufgewährleistungsrecht. Reform und Internationalisierung des deutschen Schuldrechts, Köln, 2000.
  • GSELL, “Kaufrechtsrichtinie und Schuldrechtsmodernisierung”, JZ, 2001, pp. 65 y ss.; “Nutzungsentschädigung bei kaufrechtlicher Nacherfüllung?”, NJW, 2003, pp. 1969 y ss.
  • HAAR, B., “Verbraucherschutz durch Informationsregeln beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf: zur Struktur der Garantie gem. § 477 Abs. 1 BGB”, VuR, 2004, n.º 5, pp. 161 y ss.
  • HAAS, “Entwurf eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes: Kauf- und Werkvertragsrecht”, BB, 2001, pp. 1313 y ss.
  • HAMMEN, H., “Zum Verhältnis der Garantie zu den Mängelrechten aus § 437 BGB”, NJW, 2003, n.º 36, pp. 2588 y ss.
  • HÄNLEIN, A., “Die Richtlinie zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter”, DB, 1999, pp. 1641 y ss.
  • HAZAN, M., “Attuata la direttiva 99/44/CE: di rafforza la tutela del consumatore”, I contratti, 2002, pp. 391 y ss.
  • HERMANNS, “Gewährleistungsvorschriften und Gebrauchsgüterrichtlinie”, ZfS, 2001, pp. 437 y ss.
  • HERTEL, “Gekauft wie besichtigt“ – Beschaffenheitsvereinbarung und Ausschluss der Mängelrechte beim Altbauverkauf nach neuem Schuldrecht”, ZNotP, 2002, pp. 126 y ss.
  • HÖFFE, S., Die Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG und ihre Auswirkungen auf den Schadenersatz beim Kauf, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2002,
  • HOFFMANN, J., “Verbrauchsgüterkaufrechtsrichtlinie und Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetz”, ZRP, 2001, pp. 347 y ss.
  • HONDIUS, E., “Kaufen ohne Risiko: Der europäische Richtlinienentwurf zum Verbraucherkauf und zur Verbrauchergarantie”, ZEuP, 1997, pp. 130 y ss.
  • HONDIUS, E./JELOSCHEK, C., “Die Kaufrichlinie und das Niederländische recht: für den Westen kaum etwas neues”, en S.
  • GRUNDMANN/D. MEDICUS/W. ROLLAND (Coord), Europäisches Kaufgewährleistungsrecht, Köln, Heymanns Verlag, 2000, pp. 208 y ss.
  • HONSELL, “Die EU-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und ihre Umsetzung ins BGB”, JZ, 2001, pp. 278 y ss.
  • HUBER, “Kaufrecht – made in Europe! Die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und ihre Folgen für das deutsche Gewährleistungsrecht”, Festschrift Henrich, 2000, pp. 297 y ss.
  • HÜBNER, U., “Der Verbrauchersgüterkauf: ein weiterer Schritt in Richtung Europäisierung des Privatrechts”, EuZW, 1999, pp. 481.
  • HUCKE, “Die Auswirkungen der Europäischen VerbrauchsgüterkaufRichtlinie auf das deutsche Schuldrecht”, IstR, 2000, pp. 277 y ss.
  • IURILLI, C., “Riequilibrio delle posizioni contrattuali e limiti all’esercizio dello ‘ius variandi’ nei contratti del consumatore” Giur. it., 2001, pp.652 y ss.
  • IURILLI, C., Autonomia contrattuale e garanzie nella vendita di beni de consumo, Milano, Giuffrè, 2004.
  • JACK, A., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie in englisches Recht”, Internationales Handelsrech, 2004, n.º 2, pp. 54 y ss.
  • JANSSEN, “Kollision des einheitlichen UN-Kaufrechts mit dem Verbraucherschutzrecht am Beispiel der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und –garantien”, VuR, 1999, pp. 324 y ss.
  • JORDEN, S., Verbrauchergarantien: die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Verbrauchsgütergarantien und ihre Umsetzung in das deutsche Zivilrecht, München, VVF, 2001.
  • JORDEN/LEHMANN, “Verbrauchsgüterkauf und Schuldrechtsmodernisierung”, JZ, 2001, pp. 952 y ss.
  • JUD, B., “Der Richtlinienentwurf der EU über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und das österreischische Recht”, ÖJZ, 1997, pp. 441 y ss.
  • JUD, B., “Die Rangordnung der Gewährleistungsbehelfe. Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie, österreichisches, deutsches und UNKaufrecht im Vergleich”, en HELMS (Coord.), Jahrbuch Junger Zivilrechtswissenschaftler 2001, pp. 205 y ss.
  • JUD, B., “Regressrecht des Letztverkäufers: art. 4 der RL 99/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und die Reform in Österreich und Deutschland”, ZfRV, 2001, nº 6, pp. 201 y ss.
  • JUNKER, “Vom Bürgerlichen zum kleinbürgerlichen Gesetzbuch – Der Richtlinienvorschlag über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, DZWir, 1997, pp. 271 y ss.
  • KANDUT, G., Das Gewährleistungsrecht beim Kauf, Wien, Verlag Österreich, 1992.
  • KELDER, M. G., “De richtlijn betreffende beppalde aspecten van de verkoop en garanties voor consumptiegoederen”, Bedrijfsjuridische berichten, 1999, n.º 19, pp. 181 y ss.
  • KESSELER, C., “Der Kauf gebrauchter Waren nach dem Diskussionsentwurf eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes”, ZRP, 2001, pp. 70 y ss.
  • KIRCHER, W., “Zum Vorschlag für eine Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und –garantien”, ZRP, 1997, pp. 290 y ss.
  • KIRCHER, W., Die Voraussetzungen der Sachmängelhaftung beim Warenkauf – eine vergleichende Darstellung des deutschen und des englischen Rechts unter Berücksichtigung des UN Kaufrechts und aktueller Reformbestrebungen, 1998.
  • KOCH, “Auswirkungen der Schuldrechtsreform auf die Gestaltung Allgemeiner Geschäftsbedingungen”, WM, 2002, pp. 2217 y ss.
  • KREJCI, H., Reform des Gewährleistungsrechts, Wien, Verlag Österreich, 1994.
  • LEHMANN, M., “Informationsverantwortung und Gewährleistung für Werbeangaben beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, JZ, 2000, pp. 280 y ss.
  • LEHMANN/DÜRRSCHMIDT, “Haftung für irreführende Werbung über Garantien – Zum Vorschlag einer Richtlinie des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und -garantien vom 18. 6. 1996”, GRUR, 1997, pp. 549 y ss.
  • LEHR, W./WENDEL, H., “Die EU-Richtlinie über Verbrauchsgüterkauf und -garantien – Auswirkungen auf Handel und Produzenten”, EWS, 1999, pp. 321 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Appunti per l’attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE e per la revisione della garanzia per vizi nella vendita”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 83 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Proposta di modificazione del codice civile per l´attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 133 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Riparazione o sostituzione dell cosa e garanzia por vizi de nella vendita. Dal codice civile alla direttiva 1999/44”, Riv. dir. civ., 2001, I, pp. 837 y ss.
  • LUMINOSO, A., “Il sistema dei rimedi: la riparazione e la sostituzione del bene difettoso e il diritto di regresso del venditore”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 45 y ss.
  • MACARIO, F., “Brevi considerazioni sull’attuazione della direttiva in tema di garanzie nella vendita di beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 143 y ss.
  • MAGNUS, “Der Regreßanspruch des Letztverkäufers nach der Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, en BASEDOW/MEIER/
  • MAINGUY, D., “Propos dissidents sur la transposition pour la directie du 25 mai 1999 sur certains aspects de la vente et des garanties des bienes de consommation”, JCP, 2002, n.º 48, pp. 2109 y ss.
  • MANNINO, “L´attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE in Francia”, Europa e dir. priv., 2003.
  • MAROTZKE, “Kein Gewährleistungsausschluss bei der Veräußerung beweglicher Massegegenstände an Verbraucher?”, ZInsO, 2002, pp. 501 y ss.
  • MARTÍN SANTISTEBAN, S., “Nuova disciplina della vendita dei beni di consumo nel diritto spagnolo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2003, pp. 868 y ss.
  • MARTIN, V., Gesetzliche mängelhaftung gemäß der Europäischen Richtlinie über den Verbrauchrsgïterkauf und Bürgerliches Gewährleistungsrecht, Diss. Unv. Bonn, 2001.
  • MASTRORILLI, A., La garanzia per vizi nella vendita. Disciplina codicistica e nuova normativa europea, Milano, Giuffrè, 2004.
  • MATTHES, “Der Herstellerregress nach § 479 BGB in Allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen. Ausgewählte Probleme”, NJW, 2002, pp. 2505 y ss.
  • MATTHIESSEN/LINDNER, “EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf – Anlass für eine Reform des deutschen Schuldrechts”, NJ, 1999, pp. 617 y ss.
  • MEDICUS, D., “Ein neues Kaufrecht für Verbraucher?”, ZIP, 1996, pp. 1925 y ss.
  • MICKLITZ, H. W., “Ein einheitliches Kaufrecht für Verbraucher in der EG?”, EuZW, 1997, pp. 229 y ss.
  • MICKLITZ, H. W., “Die Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie”, EuZW, 1999, pp. 485 y ss.
  • MITTMANN, A., Einheitliches UN-Kaufrecht und europäische Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie. Konkurrenz- und Auslegungsprobleme, Frankfurt am Main, Lang, 2004.
  • MORGENROTH, S. J., “Die Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie 1999/44/EG in Spanien”, RIW, 2003, pp. 837 y ss.
  • MORGENROTH, S. J., Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie in Spanien und Deutschland. Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates vom 25. Mai 1999 zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter in Spanien und Deutschland, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Wien, Lang, 2003.
  • MOTA PINTO, P., “Conformidade e garantias na venda e bens de consumo. A Directiva 1999/44/CE e o direito portugués”, Estudos de Direito do Consumidor, Coimbra, 2000, pp. 199 y ss.
  • MOTA PINTO, P., Cumprimento defeituoso do contrato de compra e venda. Anteprojecto de Diploma de Transposiçao da Directiva 1999/44/CE para o Direito Postuguês, Lisboa, 2002.
  • NAU, E., Das Gewährleistungsrecht in BGB, UN-Kaufrecht und den Reformvorschlägen der Schuldrechtskommission: ein Vergleich unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Richtlinie (1999/44/EG) über den Verbrauchersgüterkauf, Franckfurt am Main, Lang, 2003.
  • NIEBLING, “Fahrzeugkauf in der Europäischen Union – Garantie und Mängelansprüche nach der Schuldrechtsreform”, MDR, 2002, pp. 853 y ss.
  • NIETZER/STEIN, “Richtlinie zum Verbrauchsgüterkauf – Auswirkungen in Deutschland und Frankreich”, ZvglRW, 2000, n.º 99, pp. 41 y ss.
  • PADOVINI, F., “Sul carattere imperativo delle disposizionik nazionali di attuazione della direttiva 1999/44/CE (dedicata a taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni de consumo)”, en AAVV, L´attuazione della Direttiva 99/44/CE in Italia e in Europa, Milano, Cedam, 2002, pp. 213 y ss.
  • PAISANT, G./LEVENEUR, L., “Quelle transposition pour la directive du 25 mai 1999 sur les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation?”, JCP, 2002, n.º 21, pp. 924 y ss.,
  • PARLEDOSI, P., “La direttiva sulle garanzie nella vendita: ovvero, di buone intenzioni e risultati opachi”, Riv. crit. dir. priv., 2001, pp. 437 y ss.
  • PATTI, S., “Sul superamento della distinzione tra vizi e aliud pro alio nella Direttiva 1999/44/CE”, Riv. dir. civ., 2002, II, pp. 623 y ss.
  • PATTI, S., (Coord.), Commentario sulla vendita dei beni di consumo, Milano, Giuffré, 2004.
  • PEIFER, “Die Haftung des Verkäufers für Werbeangaben”, JR, 2001, pp. 265 y ss.
  • PETERL, R., Deutsches und französisches Kaufrecht und die EUVerbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie, Hamburg, Kovac, 2004.
  • PFEIFFER, “Teil 2: Sachmangelbegriff – Ausklammerung der Zuviellieferung”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 138 y ss.
  • PFEIFFER, “Teil 3: Unzumutbarkeit beider Arten der Nacherfüllung”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 217 y ss.
  • PFEIFFER, “Unkorrektheiten bei der Umsetzung der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie in das deutsche Recht, Teil 1: Sachmangelbegriff – Hierarchie statt Kumulation der Mangelkriterien”, ZGS, 2002, pp. 94 y ss .
  • PICHONNAZ, P., “Überlegungen zur «autonomen» Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in der Schweiz”, en M.
  • SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 287 y ss.
  • PICOD, F., “La Directive 1999/44/CE. Genése et principes”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 23 y ss.
  • PIGNARRE, G., “Les droits (légaux) de l´acheteur”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 61 y ss.
  • PINNA, A., “Il termini nella disciplina delle garanzie e la direttiva 1999/44/CE sulle vendite dei beni di consumo”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2000, pp. 516 y ss.
  • PINNA, A., “La transposition en droit francais”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 223 y ss.
  • PRIEß, M., Der Begriff des Sachsmangels im deutschen und im englischen Kaufrecht. Reformbedarf aufgrund der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, Frankfurt am Mani-Berlin, Lang, 2001.
  • RAINER, J. M., “Zu Sprache und Stil der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie. Ein Überblick anhand der deutschen, englischen, französischen, italienischen und spanischen Fassung”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 147 y ss.
  • REICH, N., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG in das deutsche Recht”, NJW, 1999, pp. 2397 y ss.
  • REINKING, “Auswirkungen des Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetzes auf den Neu- und Gebrauchtwagenkauf ”, DAR, 2001, pp. 8 y ss.
  • REINKING, “Die Haftung des Autoverkäufers für Sach- und Rechtsmängel nach neuem Recht”, DAR, 2002, pp. 15 y ss.
  • REINKING, “Gebrauchtwagenkauf von Unternehmen an Verbraucher im neuen Schuldrecht”, ZGS, 2003, pp. 105 y ss.
  • RENDA, A., “Prime annotazioni in merito alla imminente direttiva sulle garanzie contrattuali: una occasione mancata?”, Diritto dei consumi, 1997, pp. 565 y ss.
  • REPGEN, T., Kein Abschied von der Privatautonomie. Die Funktion zwingenden Rechts in der Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie, München, Schöningh, 2001.
  • RIEGER, G., “Die Richtlinie zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Verbrauchsgüter vor dem Hintergrund des geltenden Rechts”, VuR, 1999, pp. 287 y ss.
  • RING, G/OLSEN-RING, L., Einführung in das skandinavishce Recht, München, 1999.
  • HOWELLS, G./TWIGG-FLESNER, C., “Much ado about nothing?”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 303 y ss.
  • JACQUOT, F., “The legal guarantee under French law. A comparison with the E. C. Green Paper”, Cons.L.J., 1995, pp. 138 y ss.
  • JELOSCHEK, “The Transposition of Directive 99/44/EC into Austrian Law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 163 y ss.
  • JONGENEEL, R. H. C.,“The sale of goods in the Netherlands Civil Code: A contribution to the discussion about the Green Paper on guarantees for consumer goods and after-sales services”, Cons.L.J., 1995, pp. 143 y ss.
  • KRUISINGA, S. A., “What do Consumer and Commercial Sales Law Have in Common? A Comparison of the EC Directive on Consumer Sales Law and the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 177 y ss.
  • LETE ACHIRICA, J., “The Impact on Spanish Contract Law of the EC Directive on the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 351 y ss.
  • RINGSTMEIER/HOMANN, “Die Auswirkungen der Schuldrechtsreform auf die Insolvenzverwaltung”, ZIP, 2002, pp. 505 y ss.
  • RIVA, I., “Garanzia per vizi e contratto preliminare di vendita”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 2001, pp. 1019 y ss.
  • ROMANA LODOLINI, P., “La Direttiva 1999/44/CE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio su taluni aspetti della vendita e delle garanzie dei beni di consumo: prime osservazioni”, in Europa e dir. priv., 1999, pp. 1275 y ss.
  • RUMMEL, Kommentar zum ABGB, Band 1, Wien, Manzsche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1990.
  • RUSCELLO, F., “Le garanzie post-vendita nella Direttiva 1999/44/CE del 25 maggio 1999”, Studium Iuris, 2001, pp. 832 y ss.
  • SCHNYDER/EINHORN/GIRSBERGER (Coord.), Private Law in the International Arena – From National Conflict Rules Towards Harmonistation and Unification – Liber Amicorum Kurt Siehr, 2000, pp. 429 y ss.
  • PARISI, F., “The Harmonization of Legal Warranties in European Sales Law: An Economic Analysis”, George Mason University, School of Law, Law and Economics Working Paper Series, 01-20.
  • SCOTTON, M., “Directive 99/44/EC on Certain Aspects of the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 297 y ss.
  • SEFTON-FREEN, R., “The implementation of the directive on guarantees in France”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 225 y ss.
  • SIVELAND, H., “Sweden- Delayed Reforms Due to the Consumer Sales Directive?”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 259 y ss.
  • SACHSEN GESSAPHE, K. A., “Der Rückgriff des Letztverkäufers, neues europäisches und deutsches Kaufrecht”, RIW, 2001, pp. 721 y ss.
  • SACHSEN GESSAPHE, K. A., “Neues Kaufrecht und Lieferbedingungen im unternehmerischen Geschäftsverkehr”, en Festschrift für H.J. Sonnenberger, 2004, pp. 99 y ss.
  • SAENGER, I., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie über Verbraucherkäufe in Deutschland”, en M.
  • SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 191 y ss.
  • SCHÄFER, P.,/PFEIFFER, K., “Die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, ZIP, 1999, pp. 1829 y ss.
  • SCHELLHAMMER, “Das neue Kaufrecht – Rechtsmängelhaftung, Rechtskauf und Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, MDR, 2002, pp. 485 y ss.
  • SCHERMAIER, M., (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003.
  • SCHERMAIER, M., “Rechtsangleichung und Rechtswissenschaft im kaufrechtlichen Sächmängelrecht”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 3 y ss
  • SCHLECHTRIEM, P., “Verbraucherkaufverträge – ein neuer Richtlinienentwurf ”, JZ, 1997, pp. 441 y ss.
  • SCHLECHTRIEM, P., “Die Anpassung des deutschen Rechts an die Klausel-Richtlinie und den Richtlinienvorschlag zum Verbraucherkaufrecht”, ZSR, 1999, pp. 335 y ss.
  • SCHLECHTRIEM, P., “Das geplante Gewährleistungsrecht im Licht der europäischen Richtlinie zum Gebrauchsgüterkauf ”, en ERNST/ZIMMERMANN (Coord.), Zivilrechtswissenschaft und Schuldrechtsreform, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2001, pp. 205 y ss.
  • SCHLESINGER, P., “La garanzie nella vendita di beni de consumo”, Corr. giur., 2002, pp. 562 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT, “Änderungen des Kaufrechts durch die Schuldrechtsreform und deren Bedeutung für die Praxis der Insolvenzverwaltung”, ZInsO, 2002, pp. 103 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT-KESSEL, M., “Der Rückgriff des Letztverkäufers”, ÖJZ, 2000, n.º 55, pp. 668 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT-RÄNTSCH, J., “Zum Stand der Kaufrechtsrichtlinie”, ZIP, 1998, pp. 849 y ss.
  • SCHMIDT-RÄNTSCH, J., “Gedanken zur Umsetzung der kommenden Kaufrechtsrichtlinie”, ZEuP, 1999, pp. 294 y ss.
  • SCHNYDER, A./STRAUB, R. M.,“Das EG-Grünbuch über Verbrauchsgütergarantien und Kundendienst. Erster Schritt zu einem einheitlichen EG-Kaufrecht?”, ZEuP, 1996, pp. 8 y ss.
  • SCHREIER, B., Vergleich der Umsetzung ausgewählter Verbraucherschutzrichtlinien in Deutschland und Norwegen. Vergleich der Umsetzung der AGB-Richtlinie 93/13/EWG, der Haustürwiderrufs-Richtlinie 85/577/EWG und der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie 99/44/EG, Hamburg, Verl. Kovac, J, 2004.
  • SCHUBEL, “Mysterium Lieferkette”, ZIP, 2002, pp. 2061 y ss.
  • SCHUBEL, “Schuldrechtsmodernisierung 2001/2002 – Das neue Kaufrecht”, JuS, 2002, pp. 313 y ss.
  • SCHUHMACHER/HAYBÄCK, “Die Anpassung des österreichischen Rechts an die EU-Vertragsklauselrichtlinie sowie an die Verbrauchsgüterkaufrichtlinie”, ZSR, 1999, pp. 361 y ss.
  • SCHULTE-NÖLKE, “Anforderungen an haftungseinschränkende Beschaffenheitsvereinbarungen beim Verbrauchsgüterkauf ”, ZGS, 2003, pp. 184 y ss.
  • SCHULZE STEINEN, P., “Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf in Finnland”, Internationales Handelsrecht, 2003, n.º 5, pp. 212 y ss.
  • SCHURR, F. A., “Die neue Richtlinie 99/44/EG über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf und ihre Umsetzungschancen und Gefahren für das deutsche Kaufrecht”, ZfRV, 1999, pp. 222 y ss.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., “Die zukünftige Sachmängelgewährleistung in Europa
  • SCHWARTZE, A., Die Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie vor ihrer Umsetzung”, ZEuP, 2000, pp. 544 y ss.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., “Perspektiven für eine zukünftige Sachmängelgewährleistung in Europa
  • SCHWARTZE, A., Rechtsvergleichende und funktionale Betrachtung der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie vor ihrer Umsetzung in den Mitgliedstaaten”, ZEuP, 2000, n.º 3, pp. 323 y ss.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., Europäische Sachmängelgewährleistung beim Warenkauf. Optionale Rechtsangleichung auf der Grundlage eines funktionalen Rechsvergleichs, Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck, 2000.
  • SCHWARTZE, A., “Sachprobleme für die Umsetzumg aus Genese, Inhalt und Dogmatik der Richtlinie über Verbracuherkäufe”, en M. SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/CE, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 127 y ss.
  • SINDE MONTEIRO, “Proposta de Directiva do Parlamento Europeu e do conselho relativa à venda e às garantias dos bens de consumo”, revista Jurídica da Universidade Moderna, 1998, pp. 461 y ss.
  • SIRKS, A. J. B., “Die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG in den Niederlanden”, en M.
  • SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Verbraucherkauf in Europa. Altes Gewährleistungsrecht und die Umsetzung der Richtlinie 1999/44/EG, München, Sellier, 2003, pp. 275 y ss.
  • SMITS, J. M., “Naar een nieuw Europees consumentenkooprecht”, Nederlands Juristenblad, 2000, n.º 37, pp. 1827 y ss.
  • SOBICH, P., “Neues Kaufrecht im Vereinigten Königsreich: die Umsetzung der Verbrauchersgüter Kaufrichtlinie (99/44/EWG) durch die Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumer Regulacions 2002”, RIW, 2003, nº 10, pp. 740 y ss.
  • SPINDLER/KLÖHN, “Neue Qualifikationsprobleme im E-Commerce – Verträge über die Verschaffung digitalisierter Informationen als Kaufvertrag, Werkvertrag, Verbrauchsgüterkauf?”, CR, 2003, pp. 81 y ss.
  • STAUDENMAYER, D., “The Directive on the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees — A Milestone in the European Consumer and Private Law”, ERPL, 2000, n.º 4, pp. 547 y ss.
  • BRUUN NIELSEN, “Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees ans its influence on Danish law”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 189 y ss.
  • Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Transport > Bodies and objectives

    Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    Document or Iniciative

    Commission Green Paper dated 25.9.2007 “Towards a new culture for urban mobility” [COM (2007) 551 final – not published in the Official Journal].

    Summary

    This Green Paper is the product of wide public consultation initiated in 2007. It opens up a second consultation process which lasts until 15 March 2008. With urban mobility being an asset for growth and employment, as well as an essential condition for a sustainable development policy, the Commission will use the consultation undertaken to subsequently propose an overall strategy in the form of an action plan.

    The target audience for the consultation process is vast: it includes people living in towns and cities, transport users, transport company employers and employees, industry, public authorities and relevant associations. The resulting strategy will also be supported by the experience acquired by the Commission in this field with the CIVITAS initiative and with the 1995 Green Paper and its communication on “a Citizens’ Network”.

    A central idea of the forthcoming strategy is the need to integrate the various urban mobility policies in a single approach. Examples of European added value could be to:

    • Promote the exchange of good practice at all levels: local, regional, national and European;
    • Underpin the establishment of common standards and harmonisation;
    • Offer financial support to those who are in greatest need of such support;
    • Encourage research, the application of which would enable an improvement in mobility;
    • Simplify legislation, if necessary.

    The Commission proposes to encourage the emergence of a real “urban mobility culture” integrating economic development, accessibility and improvement to quality of life and the environment.

    For this purpose, the Green Paper identifies five challenges:

    Improve fluidity in towns

    Congestion is one of the key urban issues. It has numerous repercussions: economic, social and environmental. The Green Paper mentions a number of possible actions:

    • Make the modes of transport which are capable of replacing the car safe and appealing;
    • Encourage co-modality;
    • Encourage walking and cycling and develop the infrastructure for these methods of travel;
    • Optimise car use by carpooling and optimise “virtual mobility” (tele-working, tele-shopping, etc.);
    • Implement a parking policy designed to reduce traffic;
    • Encourage follow-on connections with public transport;
    • Optimise existing infrastructures;
    • Introduce urban charges, as seen in London or in Stockholm;
    • Encourage the introduction of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to enable better trip planning;
    • Encourage the use of cleaner and smaller vehicles for making deliveries in and around towns;
    • Improve the integration of freight distribution in urban areas within local policy-making and institutional settings.

    Reduce pollution

    Although technological progress has made it possible to produce vehicles emitting lower levels of pollution, urban areas remain a major and increasing source of CO2 emissions. Pollution emissions have been reduced, particularly as a result of the progressive application of EURO emission standards. A legislative framework also exists for the use of biofuels. Nevertheless, the ecological position remains unsatisfactory.

    The Commission proposes to:

    • Support research and technological development of vehicles using alternative fuels (biofuels, hydrogen, fuel cells);
    • Encourage the promotion of broad market introduction of new technologies by means of economic incentives;
    • Encourage the exchange of good practice between Member States in the area of urban transport;
    • Encourage a public procurement policy that respects the environment;
    • Internalisation of external costs associated with energy consumption and pollution for a vehicle’s entire life from its introduction on the market;
    • Encourage “eco driving” to enable energy consumption to be reduced, as part of training given by driving schools; encourage the use of traffic management systems (which will be improved, particularly as a result of the Galileo programme); support the development of more “intelligent” cars;
    • Apply traffic restrictions in certain cases.

    Intelligent urban transport…

    The Galileo programme will permit the development of various applications for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). These already exist but sufficient use has yet to be made of them. The Commission proposes:

    • Use of smart charging systems;
    • Dynamic management of existing infrastructures using better information;
    • Wider dissemination of good practice in the area of ITS.

    that is also more accessible

    Elderly and disabled people, as well as people with reduced mobility, are calling for easy access to urban transport infrastructure. The parties involved in the Green Paper also consider that co-modality deserves more attention and that greater support should be given to integrated solutions.

    In large built-up areas, there are trends towards suburbanisation and urban sprawl. If interlinking of the transport network does not take place, certain areas are at risk of social isolation. The Commission proposes the following points for consideration:

    • Improve the quality of collective transport;
    • Coordinate urban and suburban transport with regional planning;
    • Better integration of passenger and goods transport in urban planning;

    Safety and security

    In 2005, 41 600 people were killed on the roads in the EU. Two thirds of these accidents and one third of deaths occurred in an urban area. More often than not, the victims are the most vulnerable people, namely cyclists or pedestrians. Furthermore, the issue of public transport safety often puts people off using certain modes of transport. From a range of possible options, the Commission proposes the following:

    • Improving vehicle safety using new technologies;
    • Improving the quality of infrastructures, especially for pedestrians and cyclists;
    • Encouraging people to be more aware of their behaviour with regard to road safety.

    Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    The Green Paper also stresses the need to elicit an urban mobility culture by means of education, training and raising awareness. The EU could initiate training and discussion activities, such as:

    • Organising a European campaign to raise public awareness of urban mobility;
    • Strengthening the harmonisation of statistics from the various Member States and implementing common definitions;
    • Setting up an observatory aimed at collecting, harmonising and using the necessary data for policy-makers and for the general public which is also aimed at promoting the exchange of good practice.

    The Green Paper proposes several options for financing the proposed measures:

    • More consistent use of existing financial instruments, such as the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund, for the development of an integrated and sustainable urban transport system;
    • Establishment of market-based mechanisms, such as the Emissions Trading Scheme;
    • Contributions from the traveller, the private sector, public-private partnerships to the financing of urban and suburban collective transport.


    Another Normative about Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

    Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

    Green Paper: Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    Document or Iniciative

    Commission Green Paper dated 25.9.2007 “Towards a new culture for urban mobility” [COM (2007) 551 final – not published in the Official Journal].

    Summary

    This Green Paper is the product of wide public consultation initiated in 2007. It opens up a second consultation process which lasts until 15 March 2008. With urban mobility being an asset for growth and employment, as well as an essential condition for a sustainable development policy, the Commission will use the consultation undertaken to subsequently propose an overall strategy in the form of an action plan.

    The target audience for the consultation process is vast: it includes people living in towns and cities, transport users, transport company employers and employees, industry, public authorities and relevant associations. The resulting strategy will also be supported by the experience acquired by the Commission in this field with the CIVITAS initiative and with the 1995 Green Paper and its communication on “a Citizens’ Network”.

    A central idea of the forthcoming strategy is the need to integrate the various urban mobility policies in a single approach. Examples of European added value could be to:

    • Promote the exchange of good practice at all levels: local, regional, national and European;
    • Underpin the establishment of common standards and harmonisation;
    • Offer financial support to those who are in greatest need of such support;
    • Encourage research, the application of which would enable an improvement in mobility;
    • Simplify legislation, if necessary.

    The Commission proposes to encourage the emergence of a real “urban mobility culture” integrating economic development, accessibility and improvement to quality of life and the environment.

    For this purpose, the Green Paper identifies five challenges:

    Improve fluidity in towns

    Congestion is one of the key urban issues. It has numerous repercussions: economic, social and environmental. The Green Paper mentions a number of possible actions:

    • Make the modes of transport which are capable of replacing the car safe and appealing;
    • Encourage co-modality;
    • Encourage walking and cycling and develop the infrastructure for these methods of travel;
    • Optimise car use by carpooling and optimise “virtual mobility” (tele-working, tele-shopping, etc.);
    • Implement a parking policy designed to reduce traffic;
    • Encourage follow-on connections with public transport;
    • Optimise existing infrastructures;
    • Introduce urban charges, as seen in London or in Stockholm;
    • Encourage the introduction of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) to enable better trip planning;
    • Encourage the use of cleaner and smaller vehicles for making deliveries in and around towns;
    • Improve the integration of freight distribution in urban areas within local policy-making and institutional settings.

    Reduce pollution

    Although technological progress has made it possible to produce vehicles emitting lower levels of pollution, urban areas remain a major and increasing source of CO2 emissions. Pollution emissions have been reduced, particularly as a result of the progressive application of EURO emission standards. A legislative framework also exists for the use of biofuels. Nevertheless, the ecological position remains unsatisfactory.

    The Commission proposes to:

    • Support research and technological development of vehicles using alternative fuels (biofuels, hydrogen, fuel cells);
    • Encourage the promotion of broad market introduction of new technologies by means of economic incentives;
    • Encourage the exchange of good practice between Member States in the area of urban transport;
    • Encourage a public procurement policy that respects the environment;
    • Internalisation of external costs associated with energy consumption and pollution for a vehicle’s entire life from its introduction on the market;
    • Encourage “eco driving” to enable energy consumption to be reduced, as part of training given by driving schools; encourage the use of traffic management systems (which will be improved, particularly as a result of the Galileo programme); support the development of more “intelligent” cars;
    • Apply traffic restrictions in certain cases.

    Intelligent urban transport…

    The Galileo programme will permit the development of various applications for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). These already exist but sufficient use has yet to be made of them. The Commission proposes:

    • Use of smart charging systems;
    • Dynamic management of existing infrastructures using better information;
    • Wider dissemination of good practice in the area of ITS.

    that is also more accessible

    Elderly and disabled people, as well as people with reduced mobility, are calling for easy access to urban transport infrastructure. The parties involved in the Green Paper also consider that co-modality deserves more attention and that greater support should be given to integrated solutions.

    In large built-up areas, there are trends towards suburbanisation and urban sprawl. If interlinking of the transport network does not take place, certain areas are at risk of social isolation. The Commission proposes the following points for consideration:

    • Improve the quality of collective transport;
    • Coordinate urban and suburban transport with regional planning;
    • Better integration of passenger and goods transport in urban planning;

    Safety and security

    In 2005, 41 600 people were killed on the roads in the EU. Two thirds of these accidents and one third of deaths occurred in an urban area. More often than not, the victims are the most vulnerable people, namely cyclists or pedestrians. Furthermore, the issue of public transport safety often puts people off using certain modes of transport. From a range of possible options, the Commission proposes the following:

    • Improving vehicle safety using new technologies;
    • Improving the quality of infrastructures, especially for pedestrians and cyclists;
    • Encouraging people to be more aware of their behaviour with regard to road safety.

    Towards a new culture for urban mobility

    The Green Paper also stresses the need to elicit an urban mobility culture by means of education, training and raising awareness. The EU could initiate training and discussion activities, such as:

    • Organising a European campaign to raise public awareness of urban mobility;
    • Strengthening the harmonisation of statistics from the various Member States and implementing common definitions;
    • Setting up an observatory aimed at collecting, harmonising and using the necessary data for policy-makers and for the general public which is also aimed at promoting the exchange of good practice.

    The Green Paper proposes several options for financing the proposed measures:

    • More consistent use of existing financial instruments, such as the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund, for the development of an integrated and sustainable urban transport system;
    • Establishment of market-based mechanisms, such as the Emissions Trading Scheme;
    • Contributions from the traveller, the private sector, public-private partnerships to the financing of urban and suburban collective transport.

    Computerised reservation systems

    Computerised reservation systems

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Computerised reservation systems

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

    Computerised reservation systems

    Document or Iniciative

    Regulation (EC) No 80/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 January 2009 on a Code of Conduct for computerised reservation systems and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 2299/89.

    Summary

    This Regulation aims to establish a harmonised code of conduct regarding the use of computerised reservation systems in order to ensure fair competition and to protect consumers’ rights.

    Scope

    This Regulation shall apply to:?

    • any computerised reservation system (CRS) * used or offered for use in the Community for air transport services;
    • rail-transport products * used or offered for use in the Community and which are incorporated alongside air-transport products into the principal display of a CRS.

    RULES OF CONDUCT FOR SYSTEM VENDORS

    Relationship with transport providers

    A system vendor * may not:

    • impose unfair or discriminatory conditions in contracts concluded with participating carriers or their subscribers;
    • prevent a participating carrier from using other reservation systems.

    Distribution facilities

    All system vendors shall apply the same treatment to all participating carriers with regard to distributing their transport products and shall inform them of changes to their distribution facilities or loading procedures. Furthermore, a system vendor shall ensure that its distribution facilities * are clearly separated from the management and marketing facilities of participating carriers.

    Displays

    The presentation of data related to the transport products offered shall not mislead the consumer.

    Flights operated by air carriers banned from operating in the Community shall be displayed in a clear and distinctive manner. The system vendor shall enable users to clearly identify the operating air carrier.

    System vendors from third countries have an obligation to treat Community carriers in a manner that is equivalent to their treatment of national carriers. The Commission shall ensure that in third countries, Community air carriers are not treated in a discriminatory manner by system vendors. Should this be the case, the Commission may require system vendors operating in the Community to treat air carriers from third countries in a similar manner.

    RULES OF CONDUCT FOR TRANSPORT PROVIDERS

    Participating carriers shall submit accurate data to a CRS in such as way as to enable it to comply with the rules on displaying data.

    A parent carrier, subject to reciprocity, shall not discriminate against a competing CRS by refusing, for example, to provide the latter with the same information on its own transport products that it provides to its own CRS.

    A parent carrier shall not directly or indirectly favour its own CRS by obliging a subscriber to use a particular CRS to sell its transport products.

    PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA

    All system vendors shall be responsible for processing personal data. Personal data shall only be processed for the purpose of making reservations or issuing tickets for transport products.

    AUDIT

    System vendors shall submit an independently audited report every four years or upon request from the Commission.

    INFRINGEMENTS AND PENALTIES

    Where the Commission finds that there is an infringement of this Regulation, it may require the undertakings or associations of undertakings concerned to bring such an infringement to an end and impose on the latter fines not exceeding 10 % of the total turnover. The Commission shall first issue to the undertakings or associations of undertakings concerned a statement of objections.

    This Regulation repeals Regulation (EEC)n° 2299/89.

    Key terms of the Act
    • Transport product: the carriage of a passenger between two airports or rail stations;
    • Computerised reservation system or ‘CRS’: a computerised system containing information about, inter alia, schedules, availability and fares, of more than one air carrier, with or without facilities to make reservations or issue tickets, to the extent that some or all of these services are made available to subscribers;
    • System vendor: any entity and its affiliates which is or are responsible for the operation or marketing of a CRS;
    • Distribution facilities: facilities provided by a system vendor for the provision of information about air carriers’ and rail-transport operators’ schedules, availability, fares and related services and for making reservations and/or issuing tickets, and for any other related services.

    References

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

    Regulation (EC) No 80/2009

    29.3.2009

    OJ L 35 of 4.2.2009

    ?

    Action Plan on Urban Mobility

    Action Plan on Urban Mobility

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Action Plan on Urban Mobility

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Transport > Mobility and passenger rights

    Action Plan on Urban Mobility

    Document or Iniciative

    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Action Plan on Urban Mobility [COM(2009) 490 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

    Summary

    This Action Plan proposes a set of measures intended to ensure more efficient and more sustainable urban mobility.

    Why an Action Plan on Urban Mobility?

    This Action Plan meets the following needs:

    • the transport system must be competitive;
    • the European Union (EU) must fulfil its commitments in the areas of tackling climate change, growth and jobs, social cohesion, and health and safety;
    • urban areas must address demographic trends and social concerns (persons with reduced mobility, families and children);
    • urban mobility has a considerable impact on the efficiency of long-distance transport. Most long-distance transport starts or ends in urban areas, and urban mobility is thus regarded as an integral element of trans-European transport networks.

    While reaffirming the principle of subsidiarity, the EU suggests improved European coordination. It also proposes to establish a coherent framework to accompany the measures taken at local level.

    What is the role of the European Union?

    The EU can encourage the different authorities (local, regional and national) to implement long-term integrated policies. In addition, the EU will assist authorities in finding innovative solutions and in sharing best practices at European level.

    The main actions proposed by the Commission

    The Action Plan proposes the following action themes:

    • Promoting integrated policies

    Urban mobility policies must be linked to other policies concerning infrastructure, land use, social aspects of accessibility and mobility, environmental protection and industrial policy.

    • Focusing on citizens

    Citizens must be at the heart of mobility policy. As such, passengers must be better informed and their rights must be better protected. In addition, the accessibility of urban transport for persons with reduced mobility is still insufficient. The Commission will also support campaigns intended to change citizens’ transport habits (walking or cycling, use of public transport, more energy-efficient driving, etc.).

    • Supporting greener urban transport

    The Commission will continue to support the development of greener urban transport through:

    • the Seventh Framework Programme for research and development (for example, the CIVITAS initiative);
    • the European Green Cars Initiative.
    • Strengthening funding

    The Commission must help authorities and stakeholders to explore funding opportunities, including through the Structural and Cohesion Funds and the Intelligent Energy Europe programme.

    • Sharing experience and knowledge

    The EU will contribute to the collection and sharing of data and information on mobility actions. It will thus help cities with less knowledge and financial capacity to benefit from the experience of more advanced cities. The EU will set up an urban mobility observatory to accompany this approach.

    At international level, the EU will work towards the exchange of information and best practices between EU cities and third countries.

    • Optimising urban mobility

    The EU will offer assistance on:

    • improving logistics efficiency for long-distance freight transport in cities;
    • developing Intelligent Transport System  (ITS) applications for urban mobility.

    Looking ahead

    This Action Plan will be reviewed by the Commission in 2012. The Commission will then determine whether further actions are appropriate.

    Context

    This Action Plan meets the need to rethink mobility in urban areas. It should be made more efficient, more family-friendly and more environmentally-friendly.