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Landfill of waste

Landfill of waste

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Landfill of waste

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Tackling climate change

Landfill of waste

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste [See amending acts].

Summary

The Directive is intended to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of the landfill of waste on the environment.

It defines the different categories of waste (municipal waste, hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste and inert waste) and applies to all landfills, defined as waste disposal sites for the deposit of waste onto or into land. Landfills are divided into three classes:

  • landfills for hazardous waste;
  • landfills for non-hazardous waste;
  • landfills for inert waste.

On the other hand, the Directive does not apply to:

  • the spreading on the soil of sludges (including sewage sludges and sludges resulting from dredging operations);
  • the use in landfills of inert waste for redevelopment or restoration work;
  • the deposit of unpolluted soil or of non-hazardous inert waste resulting from prospecting and extraction, treatment and storage of mineral resources as well as from the operation of quarries;
  • the deposit of non-hazardous dredging sludges alongside small waterways from which they have been dredged and of non-hazardous sludges in surface water, including the bed and its subsoil.

A standard waste acceptance procedure is laid down so as to avoid any risks:

  • waste must be treated before being landfilled;
  • hazardous waste within the meaning of the Directive must be assigned to a hazardous waste landfill;
  • landfills for non-hazardous waste must be used for municipal waste and for non-hazardous waste;
  • landfill sites for inert waste must be used only for inert waste.

The following wastes may not be accepted in a landfill:

  • liquid waste;
  • flammable waste;
  • explosive or oxidising waste;
  • hospital and other clinical waste which is infectious;
  • used tyres, with certain exceptions;
  • any other type of waste which does not meet the acceptance criteria laid down in Annex II.

The Directive sets up a system of operating permits for landfill sites. Applications for permits must contain the following information:

  • the identity of the applicant and, in some cases, of the operator;
  • a description of the types and total quantity of waste to be deposited;
  • the capacity of the disposal site;
  • a description of the site;
  • the proposed methods for pollution prevention and abatement;
  • the proposed operation, monitoring and control plan;
  • the plan for closure and aftercare procedures;
  • the applicant’s financial security;
  • an impact assessment study, where required under Council Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment.

Member States must ensure that existing landfill sites may not continue to operate unless they comply with the provisions of the Directive as soon as possible.

Member States must report to the Commission every three years on the implementation of the Directive.

On the basis of these reports, the Commission must publish a Community report on the implementation of the Directive;

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 1999/31/EC

16.07.1999

16.07.2001

OJ L 182 of 16.07.1999

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003

20.11.2003

OJ L 284 of 31.10.2003

Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008

11.12.2008

OJ L 311 of 21.11.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 1999/31/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version  is of documentary value only.

Related Acts


Information on islands and isolated settlements excluded by Member States under Article 3(4) of the Landfill Directive [Official Journal C 316 of 13 December 2005].

Council Decision 2003/33/EC of 19 December 2002 establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC [Official Journal L 11 of 16.01.2003].

Commission Decision 2000/738/EC of 17 November 2000 concerning a questionnaire for Member States’ reports on the implementation of Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste [Official Journal L 298 of 25.11.2000].

Reports

Report from the Commission of 20 November 2009 on implementation of the community waste legislation Directive 2006/12/EC on waste, Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive 86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste, Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste and Directive 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment for the period 2004-2006 [COM(2009) 633 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The implementation of the Directive on the landfill of waste remains highly unsatisfactory and considerable efforts need to be undertaken to improve it. Ten years after the adoption of the Directive, not all Member States report having transposed and implemented all its provisions. There are still a large number of illegal landfills, which do not have the authorisations required by EU legislation on waste. A vast majority of Member States did not meet the deadline of 16 July 2009 to ensure that all sub-standard landfills (unless specifically derogated) that existed before the introduction of the Directive complied with its requirements. Only nine Member States report having met the 2006 targets for the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste from landfills and capture of landfill gas appears insufficient.
In 2009, thirteen non-conformity cases and eleven bad application cases were pending against Member States. In response to these systemic failures of Member States to properly implement the EU waste legislation, the Commission has taken a strategic approach.

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on implementation of the Community waste legislation: Directive 75/442/EEC, Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste, Directive 75/439/EEC on waste oils, Directive 86/278/EEC on sewage sludge, Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste and Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste for the period 2001-2003 [COM(2006) 406 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Some Member States have made use of the possibility of excluding certain wastes or landfills from some provisions of the Directive (for example remote sites and underground storage). In a certain number of countries, a very high number of landfills for non-hazardous waste and for inert waste will have to be re-equipped or closed by 2009 to conform to the Directive. Most Member States have defined some criteria for wastes acceptable in landfills and prepared national strategies for reducing biodegradable waste going to landfills. The Commission has initiated infringement cases because of the numerous unauthorised landfills for failing to ensure that all operators of existing landfills had presented their conditioning plans by 16 July 2002.

Report from the Commission of 30 March 2005 on the national strategies for the reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills pursuant to Article 5(1) of Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste [COM(2005) 105 – not published in the Official Journal].
By January 2004 the Commission had received the national strategies from twelve Member States (Ireland and Spain did not submit their strategies and Finland submitted its strategy too late to be included in the report). Belgium and the United Kingdom presented their strategies on a regional basis. The ten new Member States were also to submit their strategies after accession.
The report points out that all the strategies promote composting, recycling of paper and energy recovery. Most strategies stress the importance of using source segregated organic waste to obtain good quality compost. The level of detail of the strategies and the measures to achieve the targets vary considerably. Some Member States have chosen legally binding measures, while others have chosen voluntary measures and incentives. It is not possible to tell with any certainty from studying the strategies whether the reduction objectives will be met in those Member States which have not yet done so; however it seems that further effort must be made for the objectives to be achieved.

Labour Force Sample Survey

Labour Force Sample Survey

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Labour Force Sample Survey

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Employment and social policy > Social and employment situation in europe

Labour Force Sample Survey

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 of 9 March 1998 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community [See amending acts].

Summary

The development of European employment policy is based on comparable statistical information obtained in the Member States.

Each year European Union (EU) Member States conduct sample surveys of the labour forces in their population and the levels of under-employment *. The results of the statistical surveys are sent to the European Commission (Eurostat).

Data collection

The surveys are carried out using a sample of private households * or of persons residing in the country at the time of the survey. If possible, the survey is supplemented by information on persons living in collective households *.

Other collection means may be used if they produce information of an equivalent quality (such as the use of administrative records).

The Member States may make it compulsory to reply to the survey.

Representativeness of the information

Margins of error are planned in for the calculation of statistical data in Member States with a population of more than one million inhabitants. In addition, the weighting factors of results are calculated taking into account the characteristics of the population (age, sex, region, etc.).

Lastly, the methods of statistical imputation may be applied in cases where non-response to certain questions results in missing data.

Elements of the survey

Member States must provide Eurostat with whatever information is required concerning the organisation of the survey and its methodology (criteria adopted for the design and size of the sample). This information shall not include any direct identifiers of the person surveyed.

The survey must relate, in particular, to the following characteristics:

  • the characteristics of the person surveyed (sex, year of birth, marital status, etc.);
  • their principal and/or secondary activity (professional status, salary, country of employment, permanence of employment and the reasons, etc.);
  • their working time and their atypical hours of work;
  • their possible situation of underemployment;
  • their search for employment (type of employment sought, duration of search, method, etc.);
  • their possibilities for education and training;
  • their previous work experience;
  • their situation one year before the survey.

The Commission may decide to collect information on supplementary aspects not provided for in this Regulation.

Context

Regulation 577/98 repeals Regulation (EEC) No 3711/91.

Key terms used in the act
  • Private household: persons living in the same dwelling, namely family members, but also specifically long-term guests, lodgers and household staff.
  • Collective household: persons living in a non-institutional collective dwelling (such as boarding schools, dormitories of educational establishments, etc.) occupied by more than five persons who do not share household expenses.
  • Underemployment: the situation of persons working involuntarily less than the normal working time (for example, part-time workers) and those who are able to increase their hours of work, such as by taking on an additional job.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 577/98

15.3.1998

15.3.1998

L 77, 14.3.1998

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 1991/2002

10.11.2002

10.11.2002

OJ L 308, 9.11.2002

Regulation (EC) No 2104/2002

19.12.2002

19.12.2002

OJ L 324, 29.11.2002

Regulation (EC) No 2257/2003

12.01.2004

12.01.2004

OJ L 336, 23.12.2003

Regulation (EC) No 1372/2007

23.12.2007

OJ L 315, 3.12.2007

Regulation (EC) No 596/2009

18.6.2009

7.8.2009

OJ L 188, 18.7.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 577/98 have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

Related Acts

Methods of statistical calculations

Commission Regulation (EC) No 377/2008 of 25 April 2008 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community as regards the codification to be used for data transmission from 2009 onwards, the use of a sub-sample for the collection of data on structural variables and the definition of the reference quarters (Text with EEA relevance).

Land policy in developing countries

Land policy in developing countries

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Land policy in developing countries

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > Sectoral development policies

Land policy in developing countries

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 19 October 2004 – EU Guidelines to support land policy design and reform processes in developing countries [COM(2004) 686 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The European Union (EU) supports land policy reforms in developing countries. To this end, the Commission provides guidelines to target the action of the Commission and EU Member States in this area.

Land reforms give rise to public policies on the distribution and use of agricultural land. Such reforms have implications in several areas, such as the fight against poverty, environmental management, market regulation, good governance, and democracy. They should be based on national consensus, and supported by rural organisations.

Land policy support

The EU focuses on certain aspects of land reform, in order to:

  • guarantee the security of land rights, through effective institutions and by taking into account both traditional and informal land access schemes;
  • analyse existing rules and practices, as well as land conflicts and modes of transfer;
  • establish innovative land access schemes, beyond the allocation of land rights, and by taking into account village, family or individual rights;
  • support the reform of land administrations, in particular to implement simple and transparent procedures, opportunities for appeal in the event of dispute, and actions to increase public awareness;
  • promote land rental markets, which are more accessible to the poor and less susceptible to the risks associated with farming. Such measures are subject to the existence of appropriate contractual rights.

Development assistance

Official Development Assistance allocated by the European Union and its Member States can be used to support public debate, and the preparation and implementation of reforms. It should also facilitate the implementation of thematic projects (research, environment, social development, etc), and reform evaluation actions.

National reform processes should include civil society and minority groups in a participatory process. Furthermore, reforms should focus primarily on areas where inequality persists.

The EU should also participate in the creation of partnerships, in order to prioritise common approaches, the sharing of experience, as well as facilitating coordination with international donors.

Finally, to be effective, European assistance should comply with certain principles:

  • providing solutions that are specific to the local social and institutional context;
  • establishing partnerships with the competent public authorities and stakeholders from civil society;
  • conducting regular political dialogue and encouraging coordination with the competent authorities;
  • supporting long-term processes;
  • supporting equality between men and women concerning the control over and use of land resources;
  • conducting public information and awareness-raising campaigns;
  • supporting research;
  • protecting the most deprived members of the population, and in particular indigenous peoples.

Licensing of railway undertakings

Licensing of railway undertakings

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Licensing of railway undertakings

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These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Rail transport

Licensing of railway undertakings

The White Paper on Transport presents a new package of measures to revitalise the rail sector through the rapid creation of an integrated European rail network. The objective is to speed up market integration by removing major barriers to cross-border services, guaranteeing a high level of safety on the railways and reducing costs as a result of greater harmonisation of technical standards in the rail sector.

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2004/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on safety on the Community’s railways and amending Council Directive 95/18/EC on the licensing of railway undertakings and Directive 2001/14/EC on the allocation of railway infrastructure capacity and the levying of charges for the use of railway infrastructure and safety certification.

Summary

Directive 2004/49/EC

The Directive sets out the essential elements of safety systems for infrastructure managers and railway undertakings. The idea is to develop a harmonised approach to safety and harmonised conditions for the issue, content and period of validity of safety certificates.

The purpose of the Directive is to ensure the development and improvement of safety on the Community’s railways and improved access to the market for rail transport services by:

  • harmonising the regulatory structure in the Member States;
  • defining responsibilities between the actors;
  • developing common safety targets and common safety methods with a view to greater harmonisation of national rules;
  • requiring the establishment, in every Member State, of a safety authority and an accident and incident investigating body;
  • defining common principles for the management, regulation and supervision of railway safety.

Member States must ensure that safety rules are laid down, applied and enforced in an open and non-discriminatory manner, fostering the development of a single European rail transport system. The safety rules must be published and made available to all infrastructure managers, railway undertakings, applicants for a safety certificate and applicants for a safety authorisation in clear language that can be understood by the parties concerned.

The Commission may suspend the implementation of a national safety rule for a maximum of six months if there are serious doubts as to the compatibility of the rule with Community legislation, or if the Commission considers that it constitutes a means of arbitrary discrimination between Member States.

In order to be granted access to the railway infrastructure, a railway undertaking must hold a safety certificate which may cover the whole railway network of a Member State or only a defined part thereof.

The purpose of the safety certificate is to provide evidence that the railway undertaking has established its safety management system and can meet requirements laid down in technical specifications for interoperability (TSIs) and other relevant Community legislation. The safety certificate is renewable upon application by the railway undertaking at intervals not exceeding five years.

Member States must ensure that train drivers and staff accompanying the trains, as well as infrastructure managers and their staff performing vital safety tasks have fair and non-discriminatory access to training facilities.

The Directive also introduces the principle of independent accident investigation. Each Member State must ensure that investigations into accidents and incidents are conducted by a permanent body comprising at least one investigator able to perform the function of investigator-in-charge in the event of an accident or incident.

Directive 95/18/EC

The Directive concerns the criteria applicable to the issue, renewal or amendment of operating licences by Member States to railway undertakings established in the Community. Railway undertakings whose activities are limited exclusively to urban, suburban or regional services and railway undertakings and international groupings whose activities are limited to the provision of shuttle services transporting road vehicles through the Channel Tunnel are excluded from the scope of the Directive.

The Member States must designate the body responsible for issuing railway operating licences.

The conditions for obtaining a licence are as follows:

  • railway undertakings may apply for an operating licence if they satisfy the conditions laid down in this Directive;
  • requirements relating to good repute, financial fitness, professional competence and cover for civil liability. Explanations are given of the conditions under which these requirements are met.
  • railway undertakings must cover their civil liability in the event of accidents.

Validity of the licence:

  • the licensing authority may regularly review the situation, at least every five years;
  • the licensing authority may suspend, revoke or amend the operating licence under certain circumstances. The licence may thus be revoked where there is serious doubt regarding compliance with the requirements laid down in the Directive;
  • the railway undertaking shall also comply with those provisions of national law which are compatible with Community law;
  • railway undertakings which provide international transport services shall respect the agreements applicable to international rail transport in force in the Member States in which they operate.

The Member States must ensure that the licensing authority’s decisions are subject to judicial review.

Directive 2001/13/EC

The Directive is part of the “rail package” defining a trans-European Rail Freight Network (TERFN). Its purpose is to extend the provisions of Directive 95/18/EC to all railway undertakings established in the Community (except for certain undertakings whose activity is limited to particular services, e.g. local or regional), in order to harmonise their operating conditions on a uniform and non-discriminatory basis and to prevent licensing requirements becoming a barrier to entering the market. The validity of licences is extended throughout the European Union.

An independent body responsible for the issuing of licences and for carrying out the obligations of this Directive must be designated by each Member State.

The Commission can be informed at any time of problems of compatibility between national and Community legislation and it is up to it to decide whether the appropriate follow-up to such information leads to an infringement procedure or another measure.Directive 2001/14/EC

The Directive replaces Directive 95/19/EC. With regard to the allocation of capacity, it includes:

  • a clearer definition of the rights of railway undertakings and infrastructure managers;
  • a procedure for resolving situations in which there are conflicting applications for infrastructure capacity, and overcoming problems caused by lack of capacity:
  • provisions to the effect that the body in charge of capacity allocation must be independent of any railway undertaking;
  • provisions on the right of appeal.

The Directive also provides that charges for the use of infrastructure must be based on the marginal costs (costs directly connected with the use of the railways).

The Directive applies to railway infrastructure used for national and international railway services.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
2004/49/EC 30.4.04 30.04.06 L 164 of 30.4.04
Amending Acts Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 95/18/EC [adoption: cooperation SYN/1993/0488] 27.06.1995 OJ L 143 of 27.06.1995
Directive 2001/13/EC [adoption: codecision COD/1998/0266)] 15.03.2001 15.03.2003 OJ L 75 of 15.03.2001
Directive 2001/14/EC [adoption: codecision COD 1998/266] 15.03.2001 15.03.2003 OJ L 75 of 15.03.2001

Related Acts

Commission Recommendation of 7 April 2004 on the use of a common European format for licence documents issued in accordance with Council Directive 95/18/EC on the licensing of railway undertakings [COM (2004) 1279 final – Not published in the Official Journal]

The Commission recommends that:

  • licence documents issued in accordance with Directive 95/18/EC should use the standard format set out in Annex I to the Recommendation. When a licence is amended, suspended, revoked or replaced by a temporary licence, a document should be issued and presented in this standard format;
  • proof that a railway undertaking meets national requirements regarding insurance or has made equivalent arrangements for liability cover should be presented as an Annex to the licence document, using the standard format set out in Annex II to the Recommendation.

Commission Decision 2002/844/EC of 23 October 2002 amending Directive 2001/14/EC in respect of the date for changing the working timetable for rail transport [Official Journal L 289 of 26.19.2002].

Directive 2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2001 on the interoperability of the trans-European conventional rail system [Official Journal L 110 of 20.04.2001].

Directive 2001/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2001 amending Council Directive 91/440/EEC on the development of the Community’s railways [Official Journal L 075 of 15.03.2001].

Council Directive 96/49/EC of 23 July 1996 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States with regard to the transport of dangerous goods by rail [Official Journal L 235 of 17.09.1996].

Legal framework for mobile TV

Legal framework for mobile TV

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Legal framework for mobile TV

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Audiovisual and media

Legal framework for mobile TV

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 10 December 2008 – Legal Framework for Mobile TV Networks and Services: Best Practice for Authorisation – The EU Model [COM(2008) 845 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

This communication follows on from that of 2007 on the strengthening of the internal market for mobile TV, which highlighted the importance of the regulatory environment in the take-up of such services. It provides examples of best practice on national regulatory approaches to mobile TV networks and services.

Since launching its mobile TV initiative, the Commission has published overviews of the existing regulatory landscape in Europe with regular updates. This fact-finding exercise showed that Member States have taken very differing approaches to mobile TV. Consequently, the Telecommunications Council of November 2007 requested that the Commission take a more active role and proceed with identifying best practice on authorisation regimes for mobile TV and guiding the national adoption thereof.

When the Commission launched its mobile TV initiative in July 2007, only a few Member States had started addressing regulatory issues. To date, some Member States have still not established a regulatory framework for mobile TV networks and services, while others intend to extend the application of the general broadcasting regime to mobile TV broadcasting. In any case, the Commission is stressing the importance of avoiding situations of regulatory uncertainty. Furthermore, due to the wireless nature of mobile TV and hence the possible cross-border characteristic that it may acquire in the future, the authorisation regimes should also consider the internal market dimension. It is essential that the national regulatory approaches be as consistent as possible, without dismissing the local specificities.

Currently, the European mobile TV market is characterised by three main regulatory models that define the licensed operator’s rights as well as obligations:

  • extension of existing Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) rules; however, this might not suffice eventually;
  • the “plain wholesale model”, where spectrum is assigned to a single operator may raise concerns under the competition directive, in particular if the assignment is made without an open and fair procedure under non-discriminatory rules;
  • the “integrated approach”, which in the Commission’s opinion seems to best suit the launch of the mobile TV service since it will involve all relevant market players.

The regulatory regime for mobile TV services should be conceived in such a way that any undue impediments or delays are avoided. The role of regulation should be to provide minimum standards, which will guarantee the efficient use of frequencies. The central elements to consider in the regulatory regime are the:

  • general framework, which should be clear, transparent and adaptable to new developments. The authorisation procedures should be efficient and open to all market players so that a level playing field is guaranteed. Similarly, a timely legislative process needs to be ensured. In order to tailor regulation to the needs of the market, Member States should put in place public consultation mechanisms. At the same time, regular reporting by public authorities on market developments is considered best practice, so that appropriate propositions can be made if the existing rules need to be adapted accordingly.
  • authorisation regimes, which should be clear and transparent. To this end, the relationship between e-communications, spectrum and content rules should be clearly defined. Furthermore, the granting of authorisations should be centralised through a “one-stop-shop” to provide for a simplified and coordinated procedure.
  • award procedures that should be public, transparent and well defined, and for which a clear schedule should be put in place ahead of the commercial trials of mobile TV services. The award criteria should insist on quality of service, optimal use of spectrum and collaboration among the market players. The criteria should be applied in an objective, transparent and non-discriminatory manner, with due consideration given to competition rules.
  • specific aspects, which should not impose any unnecessary burdens on operators. For example, “must-carry” rules are not appropriate at this stage of mobile TV service development; however, Member States should organise discussions on “must offer” rules. At the same time, network infrastructure sharing and co-location should be encouraged, while the issues concerning interoperability and roaming should also be taken into consideration.

To further guarantee the effectiveness of the regulatory practices relating to mobile TV, the Commission aims to continue promoting the exchange of best practice between national administrators and the relevant market players.

LEADER+

LEADER+

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about LEADER+

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Regional policy > Provisions and instruments of regional policy

LEADER+

The Community Initiative Leader+ is part of the Community’s rural development policy, the second pillar of the common agricultural policy (CAP). In the period 2000-06, it is geared to the diversification of economic activity in rural areas by applying innovative, integrated and participative territorial development strategies. This communication defines the Commission’s guidelines for Leader+, focusing on cooperation between territories and networking.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Communication of 14 April 2000 to the Member States laying down guidelines for the Community Initiative for Rural Development (Leader+) [See amending acts].

Summary

Changes in the agricultural sector as a result of the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the increasing demands of consumers, environmental pressure, the rapid spread of new technology, the ageing population and rural depopulation are all factors affecting the countryside today. Under the Community’s innovative rural development policy, rural areas have embarked on a debate on their socio-economic role and are making structural adjustments in order to meet these important challenges effectively.

As the second pillar of the CAP and a major factor in economic and social cohesion, the Community’s rural development policy is not restricted to boosting the competitiveness of agriculture. It also encourages the development of new activities and sources of employment. The Community Initiatives Leader I (1991-94) and Leader II (1994-99) also played an experimental role, which has made it possible to define and implement innovative, integrated and participative local schemes.

All those participating in the experiment had such a positive overall view of it that the Commission wished to proceed further along this road. It therefore included Leader+, the new Community Initiative for rural development, in the general rules on the Structural Funds for the 2000-06 programming period.

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Objectives

Drawing on the specific resources of rural areas as part of a development strategy which is relevant and tailored to the local circumstances seems increasingly to be the only way of adapting them to an ever-changing socio-economic context.

Leader I and II taught the following lessons:

  • Strengths: the mobilising of local actors to take control of the future of their area; decentralised, integrated and bottom-up approach to territorial development; the exchange and transfer of experience through the creation of networks; the ability to include small-scale projects and support small-scale promoters.
  • Weaknesses: delays in the selection of beneficiaries in some Member States, and consequently in the launching of programmes; fragile partnerships; the accumulation of disparate procedures and the dispersal of financial resources.

The Leader+ Initiative continues its role as a laboratory, which can encourage the emergence of new approaches to integrated and sustainable rural development. These approaches will complement national and European rural development policy in the context of the “mainstream” programmes, in particular under Objective 1, Objective 2 and Objective 3 of the Structural Funds.

The aim of Leader+ is thus to encourage rural actors to think about the longer-term potential of their area. The local actors implement the original strategy that they themselves have designed, experimenting with new ways of:

  • enhancing natural and cultural heritage,
  • reinforcing the economic environment in order to create jobs,
  • improving the organisational capabilities of their community.

Cooperation is a key component of Leader+, be it between different areas in the same Member State, between rural areas in several Member States and even beyond if necessary. Relevant new rural development models will be exploited and disseminated through a major networking exercise.

Financial provisions

The Community budget for Leader+ for 2000-06 is 2 020 million at 1999 prices under the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) Guidance Section.

Leader+ supports all measures eligible for financing by the EAGGF Guidance Section, the ERDF and the European Social Fund. All expenditure related to participating in the networks and running them, providing information, and managing, monitoring and evaluating the programme is eligible for part-financing. With the exception of small-scale projects, investments in infrastructure and productive investments of a unit cost higher than a certain ceiling are not eligible.

The rules on the rates of Community contribution laid down in the general Regulation of the Structural Funds apply. In particular, the maximum EAGGF Guidance Section contribution is 75% of the total eligible volume in the regions covered by Objective 1 and 50% in other areas.

SCOPE

Unlike Leader I and II, all rural areas are eligible under Leader+, in particular those which did not take part in the earlier Community Initiatives. In order to concentrate Community resources on the most promising proposals, Community funding under actions 1 and 2 is granted to a limited number of rural territories only. Accordingly, the national authorities must set up an open and rigorous procedure for selecting which rural areas may benefit under Leader+ through one (or more) national call(s) for proposals. Selection is based on general criteria laid down in the Commission’s guidelines and specific criteria taking account of both the specific situation of the rural areas concerned and the objectives that the Member States are seeking to attain through Leader+.

The rural areas designated do not necessarily coincide with national administrative boundaries or with zones established for the purpose of eligibility under Objectives 1 and 2 of the Structural Funds. These are small rural territories which form a homogeneous unit in geographical, economic and social terms and which have the resources needed to implement a development strategy. As a general rule, the population of the territories selected should not number less than 10 000 inhabitants, and not more than 100 000 in the most densely populated areas (around 120 inhabitants/km²). However, in some areas of northern Europe, properly justified exceptions to these criteria may be accepted.

BENEFICIARIES

The final beneficiaries of assistance under Leader+ are the local action groups (LAGs). These groups draw up the development strategy for their territory and are responsible for implementing it on the basis of a specific development plan.

The LAGs create an open local partnership which clearly allocates the powers and responsibilities to the different partners. They are made up of a balanced and representative selection of partners drawn from the different socio-economic sectors in the local area. The economic and social partners and non-profit (voluntary) associations must make up at least 50% of the local partnership.

The members of the LAGs must be locally based. They either select an administrative and financial head qualified to administer public funds, or come together in a legally-constituted common structure which fulfils the same function.

ACTIONS

Leader+ is structured around three actions:

  • Action 1: Support for integrated territorial rural development strategies of a pilot nature based on the bottom-up approach and horizontal partnerships;
  • Action 2: Support for inter-territorial and transnational cooperation;
  • Action 3: the networking of all rural areas in the Community, whether or not they are beneficiaries under Leader+, and all rural development actors.

Action 1: Integrated territorial rural development strategies of a pilot nature

This action provides support for rural areas which devise and implement an integrated and sustainable pilot development strategy. These territories present the national authorities with a development plan based on a representative partnership and structured around a strong theme typical of the identity of the territory concerned.

The development plans drawn up by the LAGs must take into account the following:

  • The strategy must encourage interaction between actors, sectors and projects built around a strong theme typical of the identity and/or resources and/or specific know-how of the area.
    The priority themes are: the use of new know-how and new technologies, improving the quality of life, making the best use of natural and cultural resources, including enhancing the value of sites of Community interest selected under ” Natura 2000 ” and, lastly, adding value to local products, in particular by facilitating access to markets for small production units via collective actions. Lastly, enhancing job opportunities and/or activities for women and young people is a Community priority.
  • The development strategy must demonstrate its roots in and relevance to the area, particularly in terms of socio-economic viability and sustainability.
  • The strategy must be demonstrably innovative and a pilot scheme.

    Original and ambitious approaches to rural development intended to take further the experiment started under Leader I and II. Strategies should explore innovative approaches to development which are new to the areas concerned and not yet attempted under the Leader method.
    The “pilot” nature of a strategy can be assessed in a variety of ways: the emergence of new products and services; the adoption of innovative methods for managing available resources; interaction between economic sectors which have traditionally been separate; development of original forms of organisation and involvement of the local population.
  • Strategies must complement the operations under the mainstream programmes.

Action 2: Support for cooperation between rural territories

Only the areas selected for Action 1 of Leader+ are eligible for Action 2, which supports cooperation between rural territories. Under Action 2, financial assistance covers both upstream expenditure on technical assistance to set up cooperation and the joint project proper.

Cooperation often enables rural territories to achieve the critical mass necessary for a joint project to be viable and encourage complementary actions between partners. It involves pooling know-how and/or human and financial resources which are usually dispersed across the territories. Two types of cooperation are possible:

  • Inter-territorial cooperation within the same Member State.
    While the cooperating territories are not necessarily beneficiaries under Leader+, the cooperation themes are primarily those defined in the development plans of the eligible territories.
  • Transnational cooperation between territories in several Member States.
    In addition to territories selected under Leader+, transnational cooperation is also open to territories that took part in Leader I and II or other rural territories organised in line with the Leader approach. While only Leader+ territories are eligible for Community part-financing, promotion expenditure is eligible for all the territories involved. Where a Leader+ territory develops a transnational cooperation project with a territory which is outside the European Union but is organised in line with the Leader approach, the relevant expenditure by that territory is also eligible.

Action 3: Networking

Exchanging know-how, experience and information on rural development successes is a priority of Leader+. Active participation in the network is therefore mandatory for beneficiaries under the Initiative.

The networking of all rural areas in the European Union, whether or not they are beneficiaries under Leader+, and all rural development actors, such as the rural information and promotion carrefours, which act as relays for information about the European Union located in rural areas, stimulates cooperation and the exchange of expertise.

Each Member State lays down the rules needed to set up a network organisation unit at national level. The job of this unit is to coordinate the network, identify, analyse and disseminate good practice, organise exchanges of experience and know-how for the benefit of less-advanced territories and provide technical assistance for local and transnational cooperation.

The Commission is setting up an Observatory of rural areas at European level, which may not cost more than 2% of the total budget for Leader+. The Observatory will be responsible for organising the network of rural territories at Community level, for the purpose of:

  • gathering and disseminating information on Community rural development measures and trends in rural areas throughout Europe,
  • collecting, consolidating and disseminating good practice in rural development at Community level,
  • organising meetings at Community level for beneficiaries under Leader+ and stimulating transnational cooperation,
  • assisting the national authorities in their coordinating role and facilitating cooperation,
  • drafting reports on the implementation of and lessons learned from Leader+.

IMPLEMENTATION

Leader+ Community Initiative programmes

The Commission makes an indicative financial allocation to each Member State (see the table at the end of this sheet). On this basis, the Member States consult the most representative partners at all the appropriate levels. The Member States then have six months following the publication of the Commission’s guidelines in the Official Journal in which to submit their Leader+ Community Initiative Programme (CIP) to the Commission. The Commission must approve these programmes within five months of receiving them, whereupon it adopts the contribution of the EAGGF Guidance Section. 56 programmes were approved in 2001, of which 11 were at national level and 45 regional. The 17 remaining programmes will be adopted during the first quarter of 2002 (see the summary table at the end of this sheet).

The Member States all opted to draw up Operational Programmes accompanied by a programming complement. In line with the results of the ex ante evaluation, all the CIPs deal with:

  • the strengths, weaknesses and potential of the territory;
  • the objectives sought and the strategy to attain them;
  • the criteria, procedure and timetable for selecting the LAGs.
    Member States must inform the Commission of the number of LAGs they intend to select by means of one or more calls for tender no later than two years after their programme is approved;
  • the method chosen for selecting transnational and inter-territorial cooperation projects;
  • a financing plan for each priority by year and by source of funding;
  • the provisions needed for implementation, economic and financial management, monitoring and checking operations on the ground and evaluation;
  • arrangements for informing the end beneficiaries and the general public;
  • the coherency and value-added of the proposed measures and the expected impact on the territories concerned.

Management, control, monitoring and evaluation

The parts of the general Regulation on the Structural Funds dealing with the management, control, monitoring and evaluation of assistance apply to the Leader+ Initiative.

In terms of financial management, programmes must clearly describe the management arrangements and the procedures for the mobilisation and circulation of financial flows, in particular of Community funds. Moreover, the procedures set up must ensure effective control of expenditure.

At the level of the LAGs, a monitoring committee monitors the operations using financial and structural indicators to analyse financial execution, the actual implementation of operations and their impact on the territory. The results are then transmitted to the European Observatory for processing and dissemination. At regional and national level, a steering committee must meet at least once a year to analyse the progress on implementing Leader+.

To find out about the Community Initiative Programmes at the relevant level in each Member State, please consult the pages on Leader+ on the Directorate-General for Agriculture’s website.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Commission communication of 14 April 2000 C 139 of 18.5.2000
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Commission communication C 262 of 31.10.2003
Commission communication C 294 of 4.12.2003

Related Acts

Commission Decision C (2000) 1220 of 12 May 2000 fixing an indicative allocation by Member State of the commitment appropriations under the Community Initiative Leader+ for the period 2000-06. The allocation is as follows:

Member State Amounts
(in million)
Belgium 15
Denmark 16
Germany 247
Greece 172
Spain 467
France 252
Ireland 45
Italy 267
Luxembourg 2
Netherlands 78
Austria 71
Portugal 152
Finland 52
Sweden 38
United Kingdom 106
European network 40
Total 2020

Commission Decisions approving the national/regional Community Initiative Programmes for Leader+:

Member State Decision
SPAIN 18 programmes
Andalusia C(2001) 2158 of 5.9.2001
Aragon C(2001) 2067 of 31.7.2001
Asturias C(2001) 2857 of 18.10.2001
Balearic Islands C(2001) 4206 of 17.12.2001
Catalonia C(2001) 2128 of 27.8.2001
Castile-León, C(2001) 2176 of 20.8.2001
Castile-La Mancha C(2001) 2066 of 31.7.2001
Canary Islands C(2001) 2177 of 20.8.2001
Cantabria C(2001) 2065 of 31.7.2001
Extremadura C(2001) 2159 of 5.9.2001
Galicia C(2001) 2179 of 20.8.2001
Madrid C(2001) 2068 of 31.7.2001
Murcia C(2001) 2183 of 23.8.2001
Navarre C(2001) 2184 of 23.8.2001
Basque Country C(2002) 210 of 8.2.2002
Rioja C(2001) 2178 of 20.8.2001
Valencia C(2001) 2761 of 1.10.2001
Network C(2001) 1245 of 18.5.2001
FRANCE 1 national programme: C(2001) 2094 of 7.8.2001
NETHERLANDS 4 programmes
North C(2001) 1298 of 31.7.2001
East C(2001) 1299 of 30.7.2001
West C(2001) 1297 of 30.7.2001
South C(2001) 1300 of 31.7.2001
ITALY 22 programmes
Abruzzo C(2001) 4207 of 17.12.2001
Basilicata C(2002)247 of 19.2.2002
Bolzano C(2001) 2743 of 25.09.2001
Calabria C(2002) 246 of 19.2.2002
Campania C(2002) 168 of 29.1.2002
Emilia-Romagna C(2001) 3561 of 19.11.2001
Friuli-Venezia Giulia C(2001) 3563 of 19.11.2001
Lazio C(2001) 3626 of 26.11.2001
Liguria C(2001) 3559 of 19.11.2001
Lombardy C(2001) 3560 of 19.11.2001
Marche C(2001) 4144 of 13.12.2001
Molise C(2002) 250 of 19.2.2002
Piedmont C(2001) 3558 of 19.11.2001
Apulia C(2002) 171 of 29.1.2002
Sardinia C(2002) 248 of 19.2.2002
Sicily C(2002) 249 of 19.2.2001
Tuscany C(2001) 4012 of 3.12.2001
Trentino C(2001) 3490 of 7.11.2001
Umbria C(2001) 3489 of 7.11.2001
Valle d’Aosta C(2001) 2744 of 25.09.2001
Veneto C(2001) 3564 of 19.11.2001
Network C(2002) 251 of 19.2.2002
GERMANY 14 programmes
Baden-Württemberg C(2002) 110 of 12.3.2002
Bavaria C(2001) 1314 of 17.12.2001
Brandenburg C(2002) 1308 of 9.1.2002
Hessen C(2002) 108 of 22.3.2002
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern C(2002) 109 of 13.2.2002
Lower Saxony C(2001) 1312 of 17.12.2001
North Rhine -Westphalia C(2001) 1305 of 22.11.2001
Rhineland-Palatinate C(2002) 107 of 30.1.2002
Saxony C(2002) 106 of 29.1.2002
Schleswing-Holstein C(2001) 1306 of 29.11.2001
Saarland C(2002) 4699 of 19.12.2002
Saxony-Anhalt C(2001) 1303 of 3.12.2001
Thuringia C(2001) 1311 of 17.12.2001
Network C(2001) 1304 of 22.11.2001
DENMARK 1 programme
C(2001) 2129 of 27.08.2001
UNITED KINGDOM 4 programmes
England C(2001) 2100 of 9.8.2001
Wales C(2001) 1379 of 2.7.2001
Northern Ireland C(2001) 2741 of 21.9.2001
Scotland C(2002) 37 of 8.1.2002
BELGIUM 2 programmes
Flanders C(2001) 4738 of 20.12.2001
Wallonia C(2001) 4202 of 17.12.2001
LUXEMBOURG 1 programme
C(2001) 1315 of 13.12.2001
FINLAND 1 programme
C(2001) 785 of 22.3.2001
SWEDEN 1 programme
C(2001) 1383 of 3.7.2001
PORTUGAL 1 programme
C(2001) 3148 of 25.7.2001
GREECE 1 programme
C(2001) 3562 of 19.11.2001
IRELAND 1 programme
C(2001) 1296 of 3.7.2001

Lithuania – Strengthening of the institutional and administrative capacities

Lithuania – Strengthening of the institutional and administrative capacities

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Lithuania – Strengthening of the institutional and administrative capacities

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Lithuania

Lithuania – Strengthening of the institutional and administrative capacities

Short-term priorities:

  • major efforts in reforming the administration, border controls, customs, taxation and finance;
  • preparing a training strategy for civil servants;
  • adopting measures to strengthen the judiciary, veterinary and phytosanitary administrations, in particular infrastructures at external borders;
  • strengthening environmental institutions;
  • making a start on setting up the necessary structures for structural and regional policies.

Assessment (October 1999)

These priorities have been partially implemented.

Considerable progress has been made in reforming the public administration and border controls, though further efforts are required in customs reform. Lithuania has also improved the tax administration and developed training for civil servants and the judiciary. Significant efforts have been made to reform the veterinary and phytosanitary administrations and on the environment. However, further efforts are necessary both at a central and local level in the environmental field. Lithuania has begun to set up the structures needed for regional and structural policy, but progress is slow and major efforts are still required to complete the process.

Assessment (November 2000)

An operational paying agency was set up for the SAPARD programme, but other programmes are needed in view of the establishment of the legal, administrative and budgetary frameworks needed to manage the ISPA and SAPARD programmes. The legislative framework for financial control is not complete and the necessary administrative structures have not been put in place. The training strategy has been pursued and customs officers, police officers and border guards have received training in EU law.

Assessment (November 2001)

The national and rural development plans have been completed. Certain measures are required to complete the legal, administrative and budgetary frameworks needed to manage the ISPA and SAPARD programmes. Alignment of financial control has continued as has the implementation of the national training strategy.

Assessment (October 2002)

These priorities have not been assessed. The section on the Partnership for accession in the 2002 report focuses on issues which require more work in order to prepare Lithuania for accession.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • setting up of a unit to fight fraud, a National Audit Office and mechanisms for financial and budget control;
  • improving the functioning of the judicial system;
  • strengthening justice and home affairs institutions (relying on an adequate number of suitably trained staff);
  • strengthening the relevant foodstuffs control administration.

Assessment (October 1999)

No significant progress has been recorded in these areas.

Assessment (November 2000)

Implementation of legislation on the administration and the civil service has commenced.

Assessment (November 2001)

Good progress has been made in the application of the legislation on the administration and the civil service. A number of internal audit services have been set up. A programme to train judges on Community law and on the application of the acquis are under way. The administrative capacity of the statistical services has been strengthened.

Assessment (October 2002)

These priorities have not been implemented.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Council Decision 98/265/EC of 30 March 1998
Official Journal L 121, 23/04/1998

Council Decision 1999/856/EC of 6 December 1999
Official Journal L 335, 28/12/1999

Commission Opinion COM(97) 2007 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(98) 706 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(1999) 507 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2000) 707 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1750
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1406
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1204
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Lithuania – internal market

Lithuania – internal market

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Lithuania – internal market

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Lithuania

Lithuania – internal market

Short-term priorities:

  • further alignment in the areas of phytosanitary and veterinary administration, intellectual and industrial property, public procurement and financial services;
  • upgrading of independent standardisation and conformity assessment structures;
  • establishment of a transparent State aid inventory;
  • adoption of new competition legislation.

Assessment (October 1999)

These priorities have been implemented in part.

Progress has been made in alignment in the areas of public procurement and intellectual property. In the area of competition, significant progress has been made in the anti-trust field. However, proper State aid control is still lacking. Good progress has been made in financial services and in conformity assessment, but further efforts are required as regards standardisation and market surveillance.

Assessment (November 2000)

The legislation on public procurement has been applied. Some progress has been seen on combating piracy and the implementation of copyright. Alignment in the areas of the free movement of goods, direct investment, insurance companies, State aid and audiovisual policy has progressed well. Antitrust legislation has been applied. In the area of telecommunications, an independent regulatory body has been established.

Assessment (November 2001)

Lithuania has made good progress in implementing the legislation on public procurement and in aligning its intellectual and industrial property laws. The institutions required for the free movement of goods have been strengthened, particularly as regards standardisation and accreditation. Progress has been made with the legislation on direct investment and foreign insurance companies. Some restrictions on the free movement of capital do, however, need to be lifted. The laws on restrictive practices and State aid have been applied.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • capital liberalisation;
  • alignment of public procurement legislation;
  • strengthening competition authorities;
  • efficient enforcement of competition law;
  • continued alignment of competition law, particularly as regards State aid control;
  • upgrading standardisation and conformity assessment structures;
  • establishing a system of market surveillance;
  • alignment of horizontal technical legislation on industrial products, indirect taxation and statistics;
  • promoting business development (especially SMEs);
  • alignment of legislation in the fields of telecommunications, consumer protection and the internal energy market.

Assessment (October 1999)

No significant progress has been made in these areas.

Assessment (November 2000)

No progress has been made in these areas.

Assessment (November 2001)

Public procurement and competition laws have been aligned to the acquis, unlike the data protection law. The administrative capacity of the institutions responsible for the intellectual and industrial property laws needs to be strengthened, as does that of those responsible for consumer protection. Further efforts still need to be made with the mutual recognition of diplomas. There has been good progress in aligning the legislation on VAT and excise duties.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Decision 98/265/EC of 30.03.1998
Official Journal L 121, 23.04.1998

Decision 1999/856/EC of 06.12.1999
Official Journal L 335, 28.12.1999

Commission Opinion COM(97) 2007 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(98) 706 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(1999) 507 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2000) 707 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1750
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1204
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Lithuania – Justice and Home Affairs

Lithuania – Justice and Home Affairs

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Lithuania – Justice and Home Affairs

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Lithuania

Lithuania – Justice and Home Affairs

Short-term priorities:

  • further efforts to implement measures to combat corruption and organised crime;
  • to improve border management;
  • to improve refugee reception facilities.

Assessment (October 1999)

These priorities were implemented in part.

Some measures were taken, but the fight against corruption needed to be pursued further. Improvements were made in border management and refugee reception facilities.

Assessment (November 2000)

Border demarcation progressed. A new law on border control was adopted. Legislation relating to border control and immigration was implemented. Significant progress was made in the alignment of the right to asylum. Bodies responsible for implementation needed to be modernised and coordination needed to be improved. The fight against money laundering had to be stepped up. The European convention on criminal law had been ratified but the Convention of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on Corruption still had to be signed.

Assessment (November 2001)

Legislation on border controls, immigration and asylum continues to be enforced. Further efforts are required to reform the judiciary and combat money laundering. As such, this priority was achieved only in part.

Assessment (October 2002)

Substantial progress has been made in tightening checks at borders, including maritime borders. This has been backed up by an intensive training programme for border guards.

Progress has been made in the prevention of money laundering but legislative alignment is not yet complete. Efforts must also be made to step up cooperation between the authorities responsible for fighting organised crime.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • to complete the process of demarcating borders;
  • to develop an efficient system of border controls;
  • to implement migration policy and new legislation on asylum with a view to applying the Schengen Agreement;

Assessment (October 1999)

Progress was made in the area of visa policy.

Assessment (November 2000)

No significant progress was made in this area.

Assessment (November 2001)

Good progress was made in legislation on visas, border controls, immigration and asylum. Lithuania managed to establish procedures designed to combat illegal immigration. Further efforts were needed to combat organised crime, particularly smuggling, drug trafficking, the trade in human beings and money laundering.

Assessment (October 2002)

Land and sea borders now have adequate infrastructure and equipment. Demarcation of the border with Belarus has continued. Lithuania has drawn the attention of the Russian authorities to the need to ratify the agreement on borders.

Lithuania is in the process of completing legislative alignment in respect of visas, asylum and immigration and increasing the administrative capacity of the authorities responsible. It needs to adopt a uniform format for visas and to make provision for carrier liability. It also has to put in place minimum guarantees for asylum procedures., drugs trafficking, the trade in human beings and money laundering.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Decision 98/265/EC of 30.03.1998
Official Journal L 121 of 23.04.1998

Decision 1999/856/EC of 06.12.1999
Official Journal L 335 of 28.12.1999

Commission Opinion COM(97) 2007 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(98) 706 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(1999) 507 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2000) 707 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2001) 700 final SEC(2001) 1750
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2002) 700 final SEC(2002) 1406
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1204
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Lithuania – Environment

Lithuania – Environment

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Lithuania – Environment

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Lithuania

Lithuania – Environment

Short-term priorities:

  • continued transposition of framework legislation;
  • establishment of detailed approximation programmes and implementation strategies related to individual acts;
  • planning and initial implementation of these programmes and strategies.

Assessment (October 1999)

These priorities have been met.

Lithuania has made further progress in this area, continuing to align its legislation on the community acquis. It has also worked to ensure its enforcement.

Assessment (November 2000)

The directive on environment impact assessment has been transposed and is starting to be implemented. The transposition of the framework legislation has continued concerning air, water, waste and radiation protection. Efforts have been recorded in the devising of plans to finance investment. Administrative capacity has been stepped up.

Assessment (November 2001)

Good progress has been made in the transposition of the framework legislation in the fields of air, water, waste, radiation protection and nature protection. The directive on environmental impact assessment has also been transposed. Plans to finance investment for certain sectors have been drawn up. Lithuania has strengthened its administrative capacities at central and local level.

Assessment (October 2002)

Regarding transposition of the acquis, secondary legislation still needs to be adopted in relation to chemicals, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), industrial pollution, waste, noise and nature protection. Implementation of the acquis has continued, but further steps still need to be taken regarding waste, industrial pollution, nature protection, chemicals and GMOs.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • putting in place of monitoring and implementation control structures and capacities;
  • on-going planning and implementation of approximation programmes related to individual legal acts;
  • particular emphasis on drinking water quality, waste and nuclear safety.

Assessment (October 1999)

No significant progress has been recorded in these areas.

Assessment (November 2000)

There has been no progress in this area.

Assessment (November 2001)

Institutional capacities need to be rationalised because of the large number of institutions involved in implementing environmental legislation. Approximation has continued, particularly in the air, waste, GMO and native conservation sectors. Lithuania has begun to apply an action programme for sustainable development.

Assessment (October 2002)

Administrative and monitoring capacity has been stepped up. However, further efforts are required in relation to chemicals and GMOs. Investment programmes have continued in the water sector, and preparations have continued for establishing regional waste management plans. Preliminary areas of special protection and conservation have been selected. Particular attention needs to be paid to integrating the environment into the other sectoral policies.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Decision 98/265/EC of 30.03.1998
Official Journal L 121 of 23.04.1998

Decision 1999/856/EC of 06.12.1999
Official Journal L 335 of 28.12.1999

Commission opinion COM(97) 2007 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(98) 706 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(1999) 507 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2000) 707 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2001) 700 final – SEC (2001) 1750
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2002) 700 final – SEC (2002) 1406
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1204
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.