Category Archives: Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles, implemented at Community level pursuant to Article 114 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), is based on the Community’s WVTA (whole vehicle type-approval) system.
Under this system, manufacturers can obtain certification for a vehicle type in one Member State if it meets the harmonised technical requirements and then market it EU-wide with no need for further tests.
Total technical harmonisation has already been achieved in different vehicle categories (passenger cars, motorcycles, agricultural and forestry tractors, utility vehicles, coaches, moped and motorcycle trailers) and will soon be extended to other vehicle categories (other types of tractors and trailers).
It is essential that European car manufacturers be ensured access to as large a market as possible. While the Community type-approval system allows manufacturers to benefit fully from the opportunities offered by the internal market, worldwide technical harmonisation in the context of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) offers them a market which extends beyond European borders.

Internal Market

Internal Market

Internal Market Contents

  • Internal market: general framework
  • Living and working in the internal market: Free movement of people, asylum and immigration, free movement of workers
  • Single Market for Goods: Free movement of goods, technical harmonisation, product labelling and packaging, consumer safety, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, chemical products, motor vehicles, construction, external dimension
  • Single market for services: Free movement of services, professional occupations, services of general interest, transport, Information Society, postal services, financial services, banks, insurance, securities markets
  • Single market for capital: Free movement of capital, economic and monetary union, economic and private stakeholders, fiscal aspects, combating fraud, external relations
  • Businesses in the internal market: Company law, public procurement, intellectual property

See also

Living and working in the internal market.
Overviews of European Union: Internal market.
Further information: the Internal Market and Services Directorate-General of the European Commission.

Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers

Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles with trailers (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 76/759/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to direction indicator lamps for motor vehicles and their trailers [See amendingacts].

Summary

Each Member State must grant component EC type-approval for any type of direction indicator lamp which satisfies the construction and testing requirements laid down in the Annexes to the Directive, and issue an EC component type-approval mark conforming to the model shown in the Annex to the Directive for each type. The Member State which has granted EC component type-approval must take the measures required in order to verify that production models conform to the approved type.

According to the system of granting approval set out in the Directive, Member States may not:

  • prohibit the placing on the market of direction indicator lamps on grounds relating to their construction or method of functioning if they bear the EC component type-approval mark;
  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval of any vehicle on grounds relating to its direction indicator lamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC;
  • refuse or prohibit the sale, registration, entry into service or use of any vehicle on grounds relating to its direction indicator lamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.

Nevertheless, a Member State may prohibit the placing on the market of direction indicator lamps bearing the EC component type-approval mark which consistently fail to conform to the approved type.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 76/759/EC

30.7.1976

1.7.1977

OJ L 262 of 27.9.1976

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 1999/15/EC

2.5.1999

1.10.1999

OJ L 97 of 12.4.1999

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 76/759/EC have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version  is for reference only.

Headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps for motor vehicles

Headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps for motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps for motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps for motor vehicles (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 76/761/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to motor-vehicle headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps and to incandescent electric filament lamps for such headlamps [See amending acts].

Summary

Each Member State must grant component type-approval for any type of headlamp which functions as a main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamp, and any type of light source (incandescent and other lamps) for such headlamps which satisfy the construction and testing requirements laid down in the Annexes to the Directive. The Member State which has granted EC component type-approval must take the measures required in order to verify that production models conform to the approved type.

Member States must issue an EC component type-approval mark for each type of headlamp which functions as a main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamp and for each type of light source for such headlamps.

According to the system of granting approval set out in the Directive, Member States may not:

  • prohibit the placing on the market of headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps on grounds relating to their construction or method of functioning if they bear the EC component type-approval mark.
  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval or prohibit the sale, registration, entry into service or use of any vehicle on grounds relating to headlamps which function as main-beam and/or dipped-beam headlamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 76/761/EEC

30.7.1976

1.7.1977

OJ L 262 of 27.9.1976

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 1999/17/EC

2.5.1999

1.10.1999

JO L 97 of 12.4.1999

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 76/761/EEC have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated version is for reference only.

Parking lamps on motor vehicles

Parking lamps on motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Parking lamps on motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Parking lamps on motor vehicles (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 77/540/EEC of 28 June 1977 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to parking lamps for motor vehicles [See amendingacts].

Summary

This Directive concerns any motor vehicle intended for use on the road, with or without bodywork, having at least four wheels and a maximum design speed exceeding 25 km/h, as well as its trailers.

Vehicles which run on rails, agricultural or forestry tractors and any mobile machinery.

Each Member State must grant component EC type-approval for any type of parking lamp which satisfies the construction and testing requirements laid down in the Annexes to the Directive, and issue an EC component type-approval mark for each type of parking lamp approved. The Member State which has granted EC component type-approval must take the measures required in order to verify that production models conform to the approved type.

According to the system of granting approval set out in the Directive, Member States may not:

  • prohibit the placing on the market of parking lamps on grounds relating to their construction or method of functioning if they bear the EC component type-approval mark.
  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval of any vehicle on grounds relating to parking lamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.
  • refuse or prohibit the sale, registration, entry into service or use of any vehicle on grounds relating to parking lamps if these bear the EEC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.

Nevertheless, a Member State may prohibit the placing on the market of parking lamps bearing the EC component type-approval mark that consistently fail to conform to the approved type.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 77/540/EEC

29.6.1977

29.6.1978

OJ L 220 of 29.8.1977

Amending Act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 1999/16/EC

2.5.1999

1.10.1999

OJ L 97 of 12.4.1999

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 77/540/EEC have been integrated into the original text. This consolidated version is for reference only.

Front fog lamps on motor vehicles

Front fog lamps on motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Front fog lamps on motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Front fog lamps on motor vehicles (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 76/762/EEC of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to front fog lamps for motor vehicles and filament lamps for such lamps [See amending acts].

Summary

Each Member State must grant EC component type-approval for any type of front fog lamp which satisfies the construction and testing requirements laid down in the Annexes to the Directive. The Member State which has granted EC component type-approval must take the measures required in order to verify that production models conform to the approved type.

Member States must issue an EC component type-approval mark for each type of front fog lamp.

According to the system of granting approval set out in the Directive, Member States may not

  • prohibit the placing on the market of front fog lamps on grounds relating to their construction or method of functioning if they bear the EC component type-approval mark.
  • refuse to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval or prohibit the sale, registration, entry into service or use of any vehicle on grounds relating to front fog lamps if these bear the EC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 76/762/EEC

30.7.1976

1.7.1977

OJ L 262 of 27.9.1976

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 1999/18/EC

2.5.1999

1.10.1999

OJ L 97 of 12.4.1999

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 76/762/EEC have been integrated into the original text. This consolidated version  is for reference only.

Motor vehicles and their trailers: steering equipment

Motor vehicles and their trailers: steering equipment

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles and their trailers: steering equipment

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Motor vehicles and their trailers: steering equipment (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 70/311/EEC of 8 June 1970 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the steering equipment for motor vehicles and their trailers [See amending acts].

Summary

“Steering equipment” means equipment used to alter the direction of movement of the vehicle.

No Member State may refuse to grant EC type approval or national type approval of a vehicle on grounds relating to its steering equipment, if this equipment satisfies the requirements set out in the Annex to the Directive.

Member States may not prohibit the sale, registration or entry into service of vehicles on grounds relating to the steering equipment if the vehicles comply with the requirements of Directive 70/311/EEC.

However, from 1 October 2000, Member States may no longer grant EC type-approval, and may refuse to grant national type-approval for any type of vehicle on grounds relating to the steering equipment if the requirements of Directive 70/311/EEC are not fulfilled.

References

Act Date
of entry into force
Final date for implementation in the Member States
Directive 70/311/EEC 11.06.1970 11.12.1971
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 92/62/EEC 02.07.1992 31.12.1992 OJ L 199 of 18.07.1992
Directive 99/7/EC 16.02.1999 30.06.1999 OJ L 40 of 13.02.1999

 

Braking devices of certain motor vehicles

Braking devices of certain motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Braking devices of certain motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Braking devices of certain motor vehicles (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 71/320/EEC of 26 July 1971 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the braking devices of certain categories of motor vehicles and of their trailers [See amendingacts].

Summary

This Directive lays down the procedures relating to EC type-approval for the braking devices of certain vehicles.

This Directive concerns any motor vehicle intended for use on the road, with or without bodywork, having at least four wheels and a maximum design speed exceeding 25 km/h, and its trailers, falling into categories M (M1, M2, M3), N (N1, N2, N3) and O (O1, O2, O3, O4).

Braking device means the combination of parts whose function is progressively to reduce the speed of a moving vehicle or to bring it to a halt, or to keep it stationary if it is already halted.

The braking device defined must fulfil the following conditions:

  • Service braking: allows the driver to control the movement of the vehicle without removing his hands from the steering control,
  • Secondary braking: allows the driver to halt the vehicle while keeping at least one hand on the steering control.
  • Stationary braking: enables the vehicle to be held stationary.

A braking device must have at least two controls which are independent of each other. The control of the service braking device must be independent of the control of the parking braking device.

The Directive also lays down safety requirements, a procedure for testing the efficiency of braking devices and a system of vehicle testing.

No Member State may refuse to grant EC type approval or national type approval of a vehicle on grounds relating to its braking devices if that vehicle is fitted with the devices specified in the Annexes to the Directive and if the devices satisfy the requirements set out therein.

This Directive is repealed by Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 from 1 November 2014.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 71/320/EEC

30.7.1971

30.0.1973

OJ L 202 of 6.9.1971

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 85/647/EEC

23.12.1985

10.10.1986

OJ L 380 of 31.12.1985

Directive 98/12/EC

7.4.1998

31.12.1998

OJ L 81 of 18.3.1998

The successive amendments and corrections to Council Directive 71/320/EEC have been integrated into the original text. This consolidated version is for reference only.

Motor vehicles with trailers: heating systems for the passenger compartment

Motor vehicles with trailers: heating systems for the passenger compartment

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles with trailers: heating systems for the passenger compartment

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Motor vehicles with trailers: heating systems for the passenger compartment (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2001/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 relating to heating systems for motor vehicles and their trailers, amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC and repealing Council Directive 78/548/EEC [See amending acts].

Summary

Directive 2001/56/EC sets out requirements concerning heating systems for the passenger compartments of motor vehicles.

Directive 2001/56/EC is one of the specific Directives concerning the EC type-approval procedure laid down in Directive 70/156/EEC. The technical requirements it sets out therefore concern the type-approval of motor vehicles equipped with a heating system and heating systems as components.

“Heating system” means any type of device that is designed to increase the temperature of the interior of a vehicle, including any load area.

Directive 2001/56/EC extends the scope of Directive 78/548/EEC that covered only heating systems using the heat from the engine. In future, “combustion heaters” will also be covered. A “combustion heater” is defined in the Directive as a device directly using liquid or gaseous fuel and not using the waste heat from the engine used for propulsion of the vehicle.

Directive 2001/56/EC also extends the scope of Council Directive 78/548/EEC to cover not only category M1 vehicles (private cars) but all vehicles in categories M, N and O (vehicles for the carriage of persons and goods, and trailers) where a heating system is fitted.

With effect from 9 May 2004, for EC approval to be granted for a vehicle type with regard to the heating system or a type of combustion heater the requirements of Directive 2001/56/EC must be met. With effect from 9 May 2005, all new vehicles must meet these requirements.

Directive 78/548/EEC is repealed with effect from 9 May 2004.

Heating systems fuelled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)

Directive 2004/78/EC amends Directive 2001/56/EC by introducing additional safety requirements for motor-vehicles heating systems fuelled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

With effect from 1 January 2006, these new technical requirements will apply to EC approval for types of vehicle equipped with heating systems fuelled by LPG or types of combustion heaters fuelled by LPG. With effect from 1 January 2007, all new vehicles equipped with heating systems fuelled by LPG will have to meet these requirements.

The introduction of additional requirements for heating systems fuelled by LPG was provided for in Article 5 of Directive 2001/56/EC, since that Article initially applied only to heating systems running on liquid fuel such as petrol or diesel.

Background

Many types of vehicle are nowadays equipped with systems for heating the passenger compartments (buses) , load areas (lorries) or resting space (caravans). For obvious reasons of safety and environmental protection, requirements corresponding to the strictest technological standards are essential.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2001/56/EC 09.11.2001 09.05.2003 OJ L 292 of 09.11.2001

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2004/78/EC 20.05.2004 30.09.2004 OJ L 153 of 30.04.2004
Directive 2006/119/EC 18.12.2006 30.09.2007 OJ L 330 of 28.11.2006

Motor vehicles with trailers: rear fog lamps

Motor vehicles with trailers: rear fog lamps

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles with trailers: rear fog lamps

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Motor vehicles with trailers: rear fog lamps (until 2014)

To introduce harmonised technical requirements for rear fog lamps in order to allow the implementation of the Community type- approval procedure.

2) Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 77/538/EEC of 28 June 1977 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to rear fog lamps for motor vehicles and their trailers [Official Journal L 220 of 29.08.1977].

Amended by:
Commission Directive 89/518/EEC of 1 August 1989 [Official Journal L 265 of 12.09.1989];
Commission Directive 99/14/EC of 16 March 1999 [Official Journal L 97 of 12.04.1999].

3) SUMMARY

Directive 77/538/EEC

“Rear fog lamp” means the lamp used to render the vehicle more readily visible from the rear in dense fog.

Each Member State must grant component type-approval for any type of rear fog lamp which satisfies the construction and testing requirements laid down in the Annexes to the Directive, and issue an EEC component type-approval mark. The Member State which has granted EEC component type-approval must take the measures required in order to verify that production models conform to the approved type.

Member States may not:

  • prohibit the placing on the market of rear fog lamps on grounds relating to their construction or method of functioning if they bear the EEC component type-approval mark.
  • refuse to grant EEC type-approval or national type-approval of any vehicle on grounds relating to its rear fog lamps if these bear the EEC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.
  • prohibit the sale, registration, entry into service or use of any vehicle on grounds relating to its rear fog lamps if these bear the EEC component type-approval mark and are fitted in accordance with the requirements laid down in Directive 76/756/EEC.

Directive 89/518/EEC

This Directive adapts the previous Directive to technical progress, and simplifies the EEC component type-approval mark for rear fog lamps where they are grouped together with, combined with or reciprocally incorporated in other lamps. The definitions set out in Directive 76/756/EEC (grouped lamps, combined lamps, light source with regard to filament lamps, etc.) are also applicable to Directive 77/538/EEC.

Directive 99/14/EC

In the light of technical progress, this Directive radically amends the Annexes to Directive 77/538/EEC, in particular with regard to the information document and type-approval certificate. Directive 99/14/EC also simplifies the type-approval procedures to maintain the equivalence between Directive 77/538/EEC and the corresponding regulations of the United Nations’ Economic Commission for Europe.

From 1 April 2000, Member States may no longer grant EC type-approval, and may refuse to grant national type-approval, for any type of vehicle on grounds relating to rear fog lamps, if the requirements of Directive 77/538/EEC are not fulfilled.

Any amendments necessary to adapt the provisions in the Annexes to technical progress will be adopted pursuant to the procedure set out in Article 13 of Directive 70/156/EEC.

Act Date of entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States
Directive 77/538/EEC 29.06.1977 29.12.1978
Directive 89/518/EEC 17.08.1989 31.12.1989
Directive 99/14/EC 02.05.1999 01.10.1999

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work

Motor vehicles with trailers: masses and dimensions of cars

Motor vehicles with trailers: masses and dimensions of cars

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles with trailers: masses and dimensions of cars

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical harmonisation for motor vehicles

Motor vehicles with trailers: masses and dimensions of cars (until 2014)

To harmonise the national laws concerning the masses and dimensions of cars.

2) Community Measures

Council Directive 92/21/EEC of 31 March 1992 on the masses and dimensions of motor vehicles of category M1 [Official Journal L 129 of 14.05.1992].

Amended by Commission Directive 95/48/EC of 20 September 1995 [Official Journal L 233 of 30.09.1995].

3) Content

Directive 92/21/EEC

The Directive lays down the maximum permissible dimensions of the vehicles concerned with regard to length, width and height.

Furthermore, it contains requirements relating to the determination of the maximum technically permissible laden weight and the distribution of this weight among the vehicle axles.

The Directive also contains requirements for the maximum authorised towable mass for motor vehicles.

Directive 95/48/EC

Following experience gained with the practical application of Directive 92/21/EEC, Directive 95/48/EC specifies more precisely certain provisions in Directive 92/21/EEC in order to ensure uniform interpretation in all Member States.

This Directive replaces the Annexes to Directive 92/21/EEC.

The Directive specifies that it will be necessary in the future to lay down special loading conditions for seats which are not designed for, or capable of, accommodating adult passengers. The definition of such seats and the specification of the loading conditions require further consideration. The corresponding amendments are therefore postponed to a later date.

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States
Directive 92/21/EEC 04.09.1992 01.10.1992
Directive 95/48/EEC 20.10.1995 31.12.1995

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work