Category Archives: Motor Vehicles

The car industry accounts for 3% of European GDP and 7% of employment in the manufacturing sector, and is emerging as a key sector in the European economy. The European car industry must be strong in its resolve to meet the challenges of preserving and improving the sector’s global competitiveness while achieving further progress in terms of safety and environmental performance and guaranteeing acceptable prices for consumers.

Internal Market

Internal Market

Internal Market Contents

  • Internal market: general framework
  • Living and working in the internal market: Free movement of people, asylum and immigration, free movement of workers
  • Single Market for Goods: Free movement of goods, technical harmonisation, product labelling and packaging, consumer safety, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, chemical products, motor vehicles, construction, external dimension
  • Single market for services: Free movement of services, professional occupations, services of general interest, transport, Information Society, postal services, financial services, banks, insurance, securities markets
  • Single market for capital: Free movement of capital, economic and monetary union, economic and private stakeholders, fiscal aspects, combating fraud, external relations
  • Businesses in the internal market: Company law, public procurement, intellectual property

See also

Living and working in the internal market.
Overviews of European Union: Internal market.
Further information: the Internal Market and Services Directorate-General of the European Commission.

General safety of motor vehicles

General safety of motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about General safety of motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

General safety of motor vehicles

2 emissions.

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning type-approval requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles, their trailers and systems, components and separate technical units intended therefor (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation establishes requirements for the type-approval of:

  • the safety of motor vehicles and their trailers;
  • the energy efficiency of motor vehicles by introducing the mandatory installation of tyre pressure monitoring systems and gear shift indicators;
  • the safety and energy efficiency of tyres and their levels of noise emissions.

Types of vehicles concerned

This Regulation applies to:

  • motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers having at least four wheels (category M);
  • motor vehicles intended for the transportation of goods having at least four wheels (category N);
  • trailers (category O).

Obligations of manufacturers

Manufacturers shall guarantee that new vehicles that are sold, registered or put into service within the European Union (EU) are type-approved in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation.

The Regulation aims at making several UNECE regulations obligatory. Type-approval in accordance with these UNECE regulations shall be considered as EC type-approval.

In order to improve road safety, all vehicles must be equipped with an electronic stability control system. Furthermore, vehicles in categories M2, M3, N2 and N3 must be equipped with an advanced emergency braking system and a lane departure warning system.

Tyres shall satisfy requirements relating to:

  • wet grip;
  • rolling resistance;
  • rolling noise.

In addition, vehicles in category M1 must be equipped with a tyre pressure monitoring system and gear shift indicators.

Obligations of the Member States

Member States shall not grant EC type-approval or national type-approval to vehicles which do not meet the requirements laid down in this Regulation.

Transitional provisions

This Regulation contributes to the simplification of legislation insofar as it repeals a considerable number of basic directives and their amending acts.

This Regulation repeals Directives 70/221/EEC, 70/222/EEC, 70/311/EEC, 70/387/EEC, 70/388/EEC, 71/320/EEC, 72/245/EEC, 74/60/EEC, 74/61/EEC, 74/297/EEC, 74/408/EEC, 74/483/EEC, 75/443/EEC, 76/114/EEC, 76/115/EEC, 76/756/EEC, 76/757/EEC, 76/758/EEC, 76/759/EEC, 76/760/EEC, 76/761/EEC, 76/762/EEC, 77/389/EEC, 77/538/EEC, 77/539/EEC, 77/540/EEC, 77/541/EEC, 77/649/EEC, 78/316/EEC, 78/317/EEC, 78/318/EEC, 78/549/EEC, 78/932/EEC, 89/297/EEC, 91/226/EEC, 92/21/EEC, 92/22/EEC, 92/24/EEC, 92/114/EEC, 94/20/EC, 95/28/EC, 96/27/EC, 96/79/EC, 97/27/EC, 98/91/EC, 2000/40/EC, 2001/56/EC, 2001/85/EC, and 2003/97/EC from 1 November 2014.

It repeals Directive 92/23/EC from 1 November 2017.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 661/2009

20.8.2009

OJ L 200 of 31.7.2009

Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

The European Union intends to reduce the number of deaths and the severity of injuries to pedestrians and cyclists involved in accidents with motor vehicles. Car manufacturers will therefore need to make changes to the fronts of their vehicles.

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2003/102/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 relating to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users before and in the event of a collision with a motor vehicle and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC.

Summary

Around 8 000 pedestrians and cyclists are killed and a further 300 000 injured each year in road accidents.

Accidents occur particularly often in urban areas. Even when cars drive at relatively low speeds, very serious injuries can be caused by a collision with a moving vehicle, particularly in the case of impact with the frontal structure of a motor vehicle. Below 40 km/h, however, it is possible to considerably reduce the severity of injuries by modifying the fronts of motor vehicles.

The Directive sets the safety requirements which motor vehicle manufacturers will have to meet in order to reduce the severity of the injuries suffered by pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, such as cyclists and motorcyclists, when they are hit by the frontal surface of a vehicle.

The Directive is based on Article 95 of the Treaty establishing the European Community. The harmonised technical provisions for the type-approval of motor vehicles with regard to pedestrian protection are necessary to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market.

Scope

The Directive applies to the frontal surfaces of vehicles, which mainly means the bonnet and the bumper.

It applies to passenger cars (category M1 vehicles) not exceeding 2.5 tonnes and commercial vehicles (category N1 vehicles) not exceeding 2.5 tonnes and derived from M1 vehicles. There is provision for the Commission to examine the possibility of extending the scope of the directive to vehicles not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.

Safety provisions

The Directive proposes limit values to be observed in the construction of the frontal structures of vehicles. These values should not therefore be exceeded in a collision between a vehicle and a pedestrian. In order to ensure compliance, the vehicles will have to undergo a number of safety tests. These tests and limit values are based on recommendations made by the European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee.

If the maximum limit values are exceeded, the Member States may no longer grant EC type-approval or register the vehicles concerned.

The technical provisions will enter into force in two stages for which the directive sets out transitional periods. The provisions for the first stage will have to be met for all new types of vehicles from 1 October 2005 and for all new vehicles from 31 December 2012. The provisions for the second stage will be compulsory as of 1 September 2010 for all new types of vehicles and from 1 September 2015 for all new vehicles. This transitional period gives manufacturers time to comply with the limit values and incorporate these changes into the construction of new types of vehicles without having to make immediate changes to vehicles already in production.

Given the speed of technological development in this field, manufacturers may develop alternative measures that are at least as effective as those in the Directive. Depending on the result of the feasibility study carried out by independent experts by 1 July 2004, the Commission may well amend the provisions of the directive.

The Commission plans to conduct an initial assessment before 1 April 2006, then every two years thereafter.

Amendment of the type-approval system

The Directive is one of the specific Directives with which compliance is necessary in order to ensure conformity with the EC type-approval procedure. Directive 70/156/EEC should therefore be amended accordingly.

Background

The European Commission has made it a priority to reduce the number of persons killed and injured on Europe’s roads. Its target is to reduce road deaths by 50% by 2010.

With this objective in mind, the European Commission entered into discussions with European, Japanese and Korean motor vehicle manufacturers. These resulted in the industry making a pledge to introduce measures aimed at improving pedestrian safety. Following the opinion of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the Commission drew up a legal instrument establishing the main aims and basic technical provisions required to ensure the requisite legal certainty in this area.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2003/102/EC [adoption: codecision COD/2003/0033] 7.12.2003 31.12.2003 OJ L 321 of 6.12.2003

Related Acts

Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users [COM(2007)560 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission proposes combining the requirements of Directive 2005/66/EC (use of frontal protection systems) and Directive 2003/102/EC (pedestrian protection) in a single regulation, in order to improve the consistency and implementation of measures to protect pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. The Commission is reviewing existing passive requirements and is combining them with an active measure involving the use of brake-assist systems such as anti-lock brake systems (ABS). This has involved discussions between the Commission and European, Japanese and Korean car manufacturers and other interested parties.

The proposed regulation lays down requirements for the manufacturing and operating of vehicles and details the obligations of manufacturers (approved braking systems, frontal protection), those of the Member State authorities (monitoring of the application of requirements, penalties) and detailed rules for implementation.

Directive 2005/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 relating to the use of frontal protection systems on motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC [Official Journal L 309 of 25.11.2005].

Commission Decision 2004/90/EC of 23 December 2003 on the technical prescriptions for the implementation of Article 3 of Directive 2003/102/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users before and in the event of a collision with a motor vehicle and amending Directive 70/156/EEC [Official Journal L31 of 4.2.2004].

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 11 July 2010 – Pedestrian protection: Commitment by the European automobile industry [COM(2001) 389 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The European Commission presents an evaluation of the commitment reached with the European automobile industry, represented by the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA).

EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles.

Summary

The European Union (EU) is revising the system of EC type-approval for motor vehicles. The Directive retains (in revised form) the majority of the provisions of Directive 70/156/EEC and also introduces some entirely new concepts and requirements. It repeals and replaces Directive 70/156/EEC in order to have a clearer, more coherent text based on the principle of proportionality.

Scope

The requirement for EC type-approval for access to the internal market used to apply to private cars, motorcycles, mopeds and agricultural tractors. The European Union is extending this system to all categories of motor vehicles designed and constructed in one or more stages for use on the road and also to the systems, components and separate technical units designed and constructed for such vehicles. More precisely, the Directive is aimed at commercial vehicles (vans, lorries, semi-trailers, trailers), buses and coaches.

Type-approval system

The EC type-approval system is the only system in place for ensuring permanent monitoring of the conformity of output. Type-approval is based on the principle that manufacturers must issue a certificate of conformity for each vehicle manufactured, attesting that it conforms to the approved type. The manufacturer can opt for one of the following procedures: step-by-step type-approval *, single-step type-approval * or mixed type-approval *.

The Directive introduces a new EC type-approval method known as “multi-stage type-approval”. Each manufacturer involved in manufacturing a vehicle will fill in the part of the certificate relating to its own stage. The aim of this is to adapt the process to the specific nature of commercial vehicle manufacturing. The multi-stage procedure will generally involve two steps:

  • firstly, the initial manufacturer will obtain type-approval for a chassis (including the engine, wheels, shock absorbers, brakes, etc.) and a first EC type-approval certificate will be issued;
  • subsequently, the second manufacturer will assemble the bodywork and present the finished vehicle for type-approval. Where the same manufacturer is responsible for both chassis and bodywork, the vehicle may be type-approved using the time-honoured procedure for passenger cars.

The Directive is based on the principle of total harmonisation. EC type-approval procedures are compulsory and replace the national procedures with which they have co-existed up until now. The type-approval process is therefore noticeably simplified for manufacturers. It is enough for one Member State to type-approve a vehicle in order for all vehicles of that type to be registered throughout the Community solely on the basis of their certificate of conformity.

Improving road safety and environmental protection

The Directive aims to improve road safety by making a number of devices compulsory. These include ABS (anti-lock braking system), new and more effective rear-view mirrors (including the new front rear-view mirror), improved lights, side protection to prevent cyclists or pedestrians from being dragged under vehicles and anti-spray devices.

Furthermore, it lays down additional requirements for buses and coaches (emergency exits must be adapted to the number of people which the vehicle can hold, greater ease of access for persons with reduced mobility, sufficient “survival space” in the event of the vehicle rolling over etc.).

The Directive also focuses on various environmental obligations such as CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, engine power and smoke from diesel engines.

Timetable

The provisions of the proposal will be implemented from 2009 and will be phased in gradually until 2014, depending on the category of vehicle. The aim of the transition periods is to enable the industry to gradually adapt its production systems to the new requirements and enable governments to deal progressively with the increased number of requests for type-approval.

Background

Since 1970, Directive 70/156/EEC has been the main legal instrument for implementing the single market in the motor vehicle sector. It has been amended many times in order to keep pace with this sector’s constant development. It therefore seemed appropriate to increase its clarity by recasting it. Doing so also provides an opportunity to extend the scope of the established principles to new categories of motor vehicles.

The first stage of the revision, Directive 2001/116/EC, put in place the technical provisions needed for the practical implementation of the type-approval of commercial vehicles. This Directive marks the second stage of the revision of Directive 70/156/EEC.

Key terms of the act
  • Step-by-step type-approval: a vehicle-approval procedure consisting in the step-by-step collection of the whole set of EC type-approval certificates for the systems, components and separate technical units relating to the vehicle, and which leads, at the final stage, to the approval of the whole vehicle.
  • Single-step type-approval: a procedure consisting in the approval of a vehicle as a whole by means of a single operation.
  • Mixed type-approval: a step-by-step type-approval procedure for which one or more system approvals are achieved during the final stage of the approval of the whole vehicle, without it being necessary to issue the EC type-approval certificates for those systems.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2007/46/EC

29.10.2007

29.4.2009

OJ L 263, 9.10.2007

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2007/46/EC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version is for reference purpose only.

LAST AMENDMENTS TO THE ANNEXES

Annex IV – List of requirements for the purpose of EC type-approval of vehicles
Commission Regulation (EU) No 183/2011 [Official Journal L 53 of 26.2.2011].

Annex VI
Commission Regulation (EU) No 183/2011 [Official Journal L 53 of 26.2.2011].

Motor vehicles with trailers: front underrun protection devices

Motor vehicles with trailers: front underrun protection devices

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles with trailers: front underrun protection devices

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Motor vehicles with trailers: front underrun protection devices (until 2014)

To improve the protection of the occupants of passenger cars and light vans from injury in the event of a head-on collision with heavy goods vehicles.

2) Document or Iniciative

Directive 2000/40/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 26 June 2000 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the front underrun protection of motor vehicles and amending Directive 70/156/EEC of the Council [Official Journal L 203 of 10.08.2000].

3) Summary

The Community has acceded to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform conditions of approval and reciprocal recognition of approval for motor vehicle equipment and parts. Through its accession to the Agreement, the Community subscribed to a defined list of Regulations, including Regulation No 93 concerning front underrun protective devices for commercial vehicles having a mass exceeding 3.5 tonnes.

In order to reduce the number of European road accident casualties, the Commission proposes the introduction of the measures established by that Regulation into the EC type-approval procedure set up by Council Directive 70/156/EEC.

A front underrun protective device is defined as “a front underrun protective device which is intended to be part of a vehicle and which can be approved as a separate technical unit in accordance with Directive 70/156/EEC”.

Member States may not refuse to grant type-approval (EC or national), or prohibit the registration, sale or entry into service of vehicles on grounds relating to their front underrun protection if it complies with the technical requirements of the Directive.

Member States may no longer grant type-approval (EC or national) and must prohibit the registration, sale or entry into service of vehicles on grounds relating to their front underrun protection if it does not comply with the technical requirements of the Directive.

Applications for EC type-approval must be submitted by the manufacturer of the front underrun protective device, using the model information document in the Annex to the Directive as a basis. A representative sample of the type of device to be approved must be submitted to the technical service responsible for conducting the type-approval tests.

The technical requirements which have to be complied with in order to obtain a type-approval in accordance with the Directive are those set out in United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Regulation 93.

Act Date of entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States
Directive 2000/40/EC 10.08.2000 10.08.2001

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work

Regulation No 93 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) – Uniform provisions concerning the approval of front underrun protective devices (FUPDs), vehicles with regard to the installation of an FUPD of an approved type, and vehicles with regard to their front underrun protection (FUP) [Official Journal L 032 of 01.02.2002].

Motor vehicles with trailers: protection of occupants in the event of a frontal impact

Motor vehicles with trailers: protection of occupants in the event of a frontal impact

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles with trailers: protection of occupants in the event of a frontal impact

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Motor vehicles with trailers: protection of occupants in the event of a frontal impact (until 2014)

To reduce the number of road accident victims in Europe to improve the protection of occupants of motor vehicles in the event of a head-on collision.

2) Document or Iniciative

Directive 96/79/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 1996 on the protection of occupants of motor vehicles in the event of a frontal impact and amending Directive 70/156/EEC [Official Journal L 18 of 21.01.1997].

Amended by:

Commission Directive 1999/98/EC of 15 December 1999 [Official Journal L 9 of 13.01.2000].

3) Summary

Directive 96/79/EC

The Directive establishes test requirements for devices which aim to protect the occupants of motor vehicles in the event of a frontal impact. In particular, biomechanical criteria are introduced to ensure a high level of protection.

For the purposes of this Directive, a protective system is defined as the fittings and devices intended to restrain the occupants in their seats (such as seatbelts, airbags, etc.). Thus the Directive establishes methods for testing these devices.

No Member State may, on grounds concerning the protection of occupants of vehicles in the event of a frontal impact, refuse, in respect of a vehicle type, to grant EC type-approval or national type-approval, or prohibit the registration, sale or entry into service of a vehicle, if it complies with the requirements of this Directive.

Directive 1999/98/EC

Directive 1999/98 amends the Annexes to the previous Directive incorporating the conclusions of assessment tests on the ankle of the Hybrid III dummy, including tests on vehicles.

Act Date
of entry into force
Final date for implementation in the Member States
Directive 96/79/EC 10.02.1997 01.04.1997
Directive 1999/98/EC 02.02.2000 30.09.2000

4) Implementing Measures

5) Follow-Up Work

 

Compulsory fitting of safety belts

Compulsory fitting of safety belts

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Compulsory fitting of safety belts

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Compulsory fitting of safety belts

Acts

Directive 2005/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 amending Council Directive 74/408/EEC relating to motor vehicles with regard to the seats, their anchorages and head restraints.

Directive 2005/40/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 amending Council Directive 77/541/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to safety belts and restraint systems of motor vehicles.

Directive 2005/41/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 amending Council Directive 76/115/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to anchorages for motor-vehicle safety belts.

Summary

The three Directives make it compulsory to fit safety belts in all vehicles, thereby improving their passive safety.

Fitting and use of safety belts

As many vehicles as possible must be fitted with safety belts in order to ensure the optimum effectiveness of the measures relating to the compulsory use of belts fitted in vehicles, an obligation imposed by Directive 91/671/EEC, as amended by Directive 2003/20/EC.

Failure to use the safety belt is the second-biggest cause of deaths, after non-observance of speed limits and before drunken driving. The obligations to fit and use safety belts will bring about a substantial improvement in road safety within the European Union and a reduction in the number of victims of road accidents.

Scope

The obligation to fit safety belts, initially relating to cars, is henceforth extended to all categories of vehicles and therefore to all commercial vehicles, particularly coaches and minibuses. The compulsory fitting of safety belts in coaches in particular is intended to prevent the risks of passengers being thrown out when coaches overturn after leaving the road, which is the most frequent accident for this type of vehicles.

Technical requirements

The three Directives establish a uniform legal framework for manufacturers by defining the technical requirements which motor vehicles must meet with regard to:

  • seats, seat anchorages and head restraints (Directive 2005/39/EC amending Directive 74/408/EEC);
  • safety belts and restraint systems (Directive 2005/40/EC amending Directive 77/541/EEC);
  • safety-belt anchorages (Directive 2005/41/EC amending Directive 76/115/EEC).

Timetable

The provisions of the three Directives apply, from 20 October 2006, to the new types of vehicles and will be extended, from 20 October 2007, to vehicles of the type already in production.

Safety belts for disabled persons

Technical standards relating to safety belts for disabled persons will be drawn up in the near future in order to ensure a level of safety equivalent to that laid down by the present Directives.

Context

The obligations relating to the fitting and use of safety belts help to achieve the objective, set by the European Commission in its European Action Programme for Road Safety of reducing the number of victims of road accidents by half by 2010.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2005/39/EC 20.10.2005 20.04.2006 OJ L 255 of 30.09.2005
Directive 2005/40/EC 20.10.2005 20.04.2006 OJ L 255 of 30.09.2005
Directive 2005/41/EC 20.10.2005 20.04.2006 OJ L 255 of 30.09.2005

Related Acts

Council Directive 91/671/EEC of 16 December 1991 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to compulsory use of safety belts in vehicles of less than 3.5 tonnes [OJ L 373 of 31.12.1991];

Directive 2003/20/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 April 2003 amending Directive 91/671/EEC [OJ L 115 of 09.05.2003].

The obligation to use the safety belt when the vehicle is in motion is extended to all categories of vehicles and to all seats fitted with one (Directive 2003/20/EC). It related initially only to vehicles of less than 3.5 tonnes fitted with restraint systems and, for certain vehicles (coaches, light goods vehicles), did not apply to the back seats (Directive 91/671/EEC).

The use of restraint systems specially adapted to the size and weight of children also becomes compulsory (Directive 2003/20/EC). Research has emphasised that the use of restraint systems for children can help to attenuate considerably the seriousness of injuries in the event of an accident. Children were initially authorised to travel without being restrained by an appropriate device if one was not available (Directive 91/671/EEC).

Certain exemptions may be granted, particularly in order to allow certain professional activities to be carried out efficiently, to ensure the proper functioning of activities relating to law-and-order, safety or emergency services, or to take account of the special conditions in certain types of transport.

These new provisions come into force in the Member States from 9 May 2006.

 

Vulnerable road users and frontal protection systems

Vulnerable road users and frontal protection systems

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Vulnerable road users and frontal protection systems

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Vulnerable road users and frontal protection systems

Technical requirements for the frontal protection systems of motor vehicles are laid down with the aim of improving the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users in the event of a collision with a vehicle equipped with such a system.

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2005/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 relating to the use of frontal protection systems on motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC.

Summary

Frontal protection systems or “bull bars”, which are increasingly common and present an increased safety risk to pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, must now meet certain technical requirements.

The improvement of the frontal structures of vehicles actually helps to considerably attenuate the severity of injuries to pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, particularly if the vehicle is moving at reduced speed (under 40 km/h) at the time of collision.

Scope

The vehicles covered by the Directive are passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (category M1 and N1 vehicles weighing less than 3.5 tonnes).

The technical requirements of the Directive apply not only to frontal protection systems fitted to a vehicle as original equipment but also to systems supplied as separate technical units.

Technical requirements

The Directive lays down technical requirements for the testing, construction and installation of frontal protection systems. These requirements form part of the Community type-approval procedure established by Directive 70/156/EEC.

Timetable

These provisions apply from 25 November 2006 to new types of vehicles as well as to new types of frontal protection systems supplied as separate technical units.

As of 25 May 2007, they will apply to all new vehicles and all frontal protection systems available as separate technical units.

By 25 August 2010 at the latest, the Commission will re-examine these provisions in the light of technical progress and experience gained.

Context

The technical requirements laid down for frontal protection systems are part of the recent focus on the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, particularly under Directive 2003/102/EC relating to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users before and in the event of a collision with a motor vehicle. Road safety measures have thus been extended beyond the protection of only the occupants of vehicles.

The technical requirements laid down for frontal protection systems help to achieve the objective set by the European Commission in its European Road Safety Action Programme to halve the number of road accident victims by 2010.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2005/66/EC 15.12.2005 25.08.2006 OJ L 309 of 25.11.2005

Related Act

Directive 2003/102/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 relating to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road usersbefore and in the event of a collision with a motor vehicle and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC [OJ L 321 of 6.12.2003].

Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 78/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 January 2009 on the type-approval of motor vehicles with regard to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, amending Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 2003/102/EC and 2005/66/EC (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation lays down requirements for the construction and functioning of motor vehicles and frontal protection systems *. The aim is to reduce the number and severity of injuries to pedestrians and other vulnerable road users hit by the front of a vehicle.

To which types of vehicle does the Regulation apply?

This Regulation applies to:

  • motor vehicles of category M1 defined in Annex II of the Directive on the EC type-approval system for motor vehicles;
  • motor vehicles of category N1 defined in Annex II of the above-mentioned Directive;
  • frontal protection systems of those vehicles, fitted as original equipment to the vehicles or supplied as separate units.

What are the obligations of the manufacturers?

Manufacturers shall ensure that vehicles placed on the market are equipped with a type-approved brake assist system (BAS) *. They may add a frontal protection system which must comply with the criteria laid down in this Regulation. They shall communicate data on the specifications and test conditions of the vehicles to the vehicle approval authorities.

The manufacturer shall submit to the authorities an application for EC type-approval in the form of an information document containing general information, construction characteristics and information relating to the bodywork of the vehicle.

What are the obligations of the authorities of the Member States?

The approval authority shall grant EC type-approval by type of vehicle where the relevant requirements are met by the manufacturer. Three types of letter are granted according to the requirements met by the vehicle, namely letter A (corresponding to the first level of minimum protection), B (corresponding to the second level of protection) or X (corresponding to a level of protection for certain specific vehicles).

National authorities shall not grant EC type-approval if the frontal protection system does not meet the relevant requirements laid down in this Regulation. On the other hand, vehicles equipped with collision avoidance systems may not have to fulfil the test requirements laid down in this Regulation in the future, upon assessment by the European Commission.

Context

This Regulation repeals Directives 2003/102/EC and 2005/66/EC.

Key terms of the Act
  • Frontal protection system: a separate structure or structures, such as a bull bar, or a supplementary bumper which, in addition to the original-equipment bumper, is intended to protect the external surface of the vehicle from damage in the event of a collision with an object. Structures having a mass of less than 0.5 kg, intended to protect only the vehicle’s lights, are excluded from this definition.
  • Brake assist system (BAS): a braking system with an anti-lock device (ABS) which detects in a fraction of a second that the driver is attempting an emergency brake and triggers the brake automatically in order to achieve the shortest possible braking distance.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 78/2009

24.2.2009

OJ L 35 of 4.2.2009

Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2009/79/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on passenger hand-holds on two-wheel motor vehicles (Codified version) (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Directive sets out requirements for passenger hand-holds for all types of two-wheel motor vehicles in Category L.

Types of vehicle concerned by the Directive

This Directive shall apply to:

  • mopeds: two-wheel vehicles (Category L1e) with a maximum design speed not exceeding 45 km/h;
  • motorcycles: two-wheel vehicles without sidecars (Category L3e) or with sidecars (Category L4e), with a cylinder capacity exceeding 50 cm3, for internal combustion engines, and/or the maximum design speed of which exceeds 45 km/h.

General prescriptions for passenger hand-holds

Two-wheel vehicles must be equipped with a passenger hand-hold system, composed of a strap or one or more hand-grips.

The strap must be fitted to the seat of the vehicle so that it may easily be used by the passenger. The strap and its attachment must withstand a vertical traction force of 2000 N with a maximum pressure of 2 MPa.

The hand-grip must be close to the saddle. Like the strap, it must withstand a vertical traction force of 2000 N with a maximum pressure of 2 MPa. If two handgrips are used, they must be fitted symmetrically.

Procedure for the granting of EC component type-approval

The manufacturer of the vehicle makes an application for EC type-approval to the type-approval authority of the Member State, using an information document.

The certificate of conformity is issued by the competent authority, which has a period of one month to inform the competent authorities of Member States.

In the event of non-compliance with the requirements of this Directive, Member States may refuse EC type-approval for any two-wheel motor vehicle for reasons relating to the passenger restraint device.

Context

This Directive repeals Directive 93/32/EC.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2009/79/EC

21.8.2009

OJ L 201 of 1.8.09