Category Archives: Internal Market

The internal market of the European Union is a single market in which the free movement of goods, services, capital and persons is ensured and in which European citizens are free to live, work, study and do business.
Since it was created in 1993, the single market has opened more to competition, created new jobs, defined more affordable prices for consumers and enabled businesses and citizens to benefit from a wide choice of goods and services.
The European Union is working towards further simplification of the regulations which still prevent citizens and businesses from making the most of the advantages of the single market.

Internal market: general framework
Living and working in the internal market
Free movement of people, asylum and immigration, free movement of workers
Single Market for Goods
Free movement of goods, technical harmonisation, product labelling and packaging, consumer safety, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, chemical products, motor vehicles, construction, external dimension
Single market for services
Free movement of services, professional occupations, services of general interest, transport, Information Society, postal services, financial services, banks, insurance, securities markets
Single market for capital
Free movement of capital, economic and monetary union, economic and private stakeholders, fiscal aspects, combating fraud, external relations
Businesses in the internal market
Company law, public procurement, intellectual property

Internal Market

Internal Market

Internal Market Contents

  • Internal market: general framework
  • Living and working in the internal market: Free movement of people, asylum and immigration, free movement of workers
  • Single Market for Goods: Free movement of goods, technical harmonisation, product labelling and packaging, consumer safety, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, chemical products, motor vehicles, construction, external dimension
  • Single market for services: Free movement of services, professional occupations, services of general interest, transport, Information Society, postal services, financial services, banks, insurance, securities markets
  • Single market for capital: Free movement of capital, economic and monetary union, economic and private stakeholders, fiscal aspects, combating fraud, external relations
  • Businesses in the internal market: Company law, public procurement, intellectual property

See also

Living and working in the internal market.
Overviews of European Union: Internal market.
Further information: the Internal Market and Services Directorate-General of the European Commission.

Single Market for Services

Single Market for Services

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Single market for services

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Single market for services

Single market for services

Services account for more than 70 % of the economic activity of the Member States and a similar proportion of employment. The freedom to provide services and freedom of establishment, as set out in Articles 49 and 56 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), are therefore essential to the smooth operation of the internal market. In this way, economic operators can pursue a stable, continuous activity in one or more Member States and/or offer temporary services in another Member State without having to be established there.

The European Union is therefore working towards providing frameworks for these two principles in order to guarantee the smooth functioning of the single market for services, and especially cross-border services. The EU has achieved significant progress in the area of certain services. Moreover, in 2006 it adopted the “Services” Directive which aims at removing barriers to trade and services, and at facilitating cross-border operations.

Single market for services Contents

  • Financial services: general framework
  • Financial services: banking
  • Financial services: insurance
  • Financial services: transactions in securities

GENERAL POLICIES

  • ‘Services’ Directive
  • Posting of workers in the framework of the provision of services
  • The principle of equal treatment for men and women outside the labour market
  • The competitiveness of business-related services
  • System for the recognition of professional qualifications

SECTORAL PROVISIONS

Liberal professions

  • Competition in professional services

Services of general interest

  • Reform of the EU State aid rules on Services of General Economic Interest
  • New European commitment for services of general interest
  • White Paper on services of general interest
  • Social services of general interest

Road transport

  • Common rules for access to the international road haulage market
  • Common rules for access to the international market for coach and bus services
  • Goods: Non-resident carriers in the national market

Marine transport

  • Freedom to supply services, competition, unfair pricing practices and free access to ocean trade
  • Freedom to provide services within the Member States (ocean trade)
  • Freedom to provide maritime transport services
  • Inland navigation: non-resident carriers
  • Inland navigation: transport of goods or passengers by inland waterway between Member States

Air transport

  • Air service agreements between Member States and third countries

Information society

  • Legal aspects of electronic commerce (“Directive on electronic commerce”)
  • A new framework for electronic communications services
  • Regulatory framework for electronic communications
  • Authorisation of electronic communications networks and services
  • Universal service and users’ rights
  • Access to electronic communications networks
  • Data protection in the electronic communications sector
  • Online gambling (Green Paper)

Postal services

  • The Establishment of an Internal Postal Market

Consumer credit agreements

Consumer credit agreements

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Consumer credit agreements

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Single market for capital

Consumer credit agreements

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2008/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on credit agreements for consumers and repealing Council Directive 87/102/EEC.

Summary

This Directive aims to harmonise the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States covering credit for consumers, in order to facilitate cross-border services. It shall increase the transparency of contractual conditions and improve the level of consumer protection.

However the Directive is not applicable to credit agreements that are:

  • secured by a mortgage;
  • concluded for the purchase of land or immovable property;
  • whose total amount is less than 200 euros or more than 75 000 euros;
  • relating to lease or hire where there is no obligation to purchase;
  • granted free of interest, without other charges or in the form of an overdraft facility;
  • concluded with an investment company;
  • the result of a judicial ruling;
  • linked to the payment or to the surety of a debt;
  • linked to loans granted to a limited group of the public.

Member States may also apply a less restrictive regime to organisations with social aims and activities that only profit their members, where they offer an annual percentage rate of charge which is lower than the current market rate.

During the pre-contractual phase,the creditor * or their intermediaries * must supply clear information on the main features of the credit offered in due course. In particular, this concerns:

  • the duration of the credit agreement;
  • the total amount of credit;
  • the borrowing rate and rates relating thereto;
  • the annual percentage rate of charge * and the total amount owed by the consumer *;
  • the amount, number and frequency of instalments;
  • the cash price for goods or services supplied against specific payment terms or a linked credit agreement;
  • costs linked to or resulting from the agreement;
  • contractual obligations;
  • consumer rights;
  • the consequences of late payments and defaults;
  • sureties.

Consumers shall receive this information in a standard form as stipulated in Annexe II of the Directive.

Apart from an obligation to supply comprehensive pre-contractual information, creditors must supply consumers with adequate explanations so that the latter may choose a contract which corresponds to their needs and to their financial situation. In addition creditors must evaluate the solvency of their clients before concluding an agreement, whilst also respecting the right of consumers to be informed when their request for credit is rejected.

The contract must restate the main information relating to the credit offer chosen. If the borrowing rate is modified *, the consumer must be informed of the new amount, the number and frequency of instalments.

Consumers may exercise their right to withdraw by notifying the creditor of their intention, without having to justify their decision. This must take place within fourteen days from the conclusion of the agreement.

Consumers also have the right to make early repayment of their debt. They can exercise this right at any time, as long as the creditor receives fair compensation which is objectively justified.

Member States shall ensure that creditors and credit intermediaries fulfil their obligations. They shall ensure that audits are carried out by an independent authority.

Context

This Directive repeals Directive 87/102/EEC in order to strengthen consumer protection. It must be implemented in Member States before 2 May 2010.

Key terms of the Act
  • Creditor: any natural or legal person who grants or promises to grant credit in the course of their trade, business or profession.
  • Credit intermediary: a natural or legal person who does not act as a creditor and who, in the course of their trade, business or profession:
    1. presents or offers credit agreements to consumers;
    2. assists consumers by carrying out preparatory work for agreements;
    3. concludes credit agreements with consumers on behalf of the creditor.
  • Total amount payable by the consumer: the sum of the total amount of the credit and the total cost of the credit to the consumer.
  • Annual percentage rate of charge: the total cost of the credit to the consumer, expressed as an annual percentage of the total amount of credit.
  • Borrowing rate: the interest rate expressed as a fixed or variable percentage applied on an annual basis to the amount of credit drawn down.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2008/48/EC

11.6.2008

12.5.2010

L 133/66 of 22.5.2008

Resources

Further Reading

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  • STAUDENMAYER, D., “Die EG-Richtlinie über den Verbrauchsgüterkauf”, NJW, 1999, pp. 2393 y ss.
  • STAUDER, B., “Die Gewährleistung bei Konsumentenkaufverträgen nach OR im Lichte des EU-Rechts”, ERPL, 2001, n.º 2-3, pp. 369 y ss.
  • STEINER, P., “Der Entwurf der Richtlinie des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates über Verbrauchersgüterkauf und –garantien und das geltenden österreichische Recht”, en SCHERMAIER (Coord.), Reform des Gewährleistungsrechts und europäische Rechtsangleichung, 1998, pp. 249 y ss.
  • STIJNS, S., “Les garanties commerciales et l´action récursoire du vendeur final dans la directive sur la vente au consommateir”, en J. LETE ACHIRICA (Ed.), Garantías en la venta de bienes de consumo. Les garanties dans la vente de biens de consommation, Santiago de Compostela, Ed. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2004, pp. 101 y ss.
  • TENREIRO, M., “Garanties et services après-vente: brève analyse du Livre Vert présenté par la Commission européenne”, REDC, 1994, pp. 1 y ss.
  • TENREIRO, M., “La proposition de directive sur la vente et les garanties des biens de consommation”, REDC, 1996, pp. 187 y ss.
  • THODE, “EG-Richtlinie zu bestimmten Aspekten des Verbrauchsgüterkaufs und der Garantien für Gebrauchsgüter – Ihre Auswirkungen auf das deutsche Werkvertragsrecht”, ZfBR, 2000, pp. 363 y ss.
  • TONNER, K., “Verbrauchsgüter-Richtlinie und Europäisierung des Zivilrechts”, BB, 1999, pp. 1769 y ss.
  • TONNER, K., “Die verkaufsrechtlichen Vorschriften im Diskussionsentwurf eines Schuldrechtsmodernisierungsgesetztes”, VuR, 2001, pp. 87 y ss.
  • TORIELLO, F., “La proposta di direttiva sulle garanzie nelle vendite di beni di consumo: brevi note”, Contr. Impr./Eur., 1997, pp. 815 y ss.
  • TOURNAFOND, O., “Remarques critiques sur la directive européenne du 25 mai 1999 relative à certains aspects de la vente et des garanties des bienes de consommation”, Dalloz, 2000, n.º 10, pp. 159 y ss.
  • TOURNAFOND, O., “De la transposition de la directive du 25 mai 1999 à la réforme du code civil”, Dalloz, 2002, n.º 38, pp. 2883 y ss
  • TRÖGER, T., “Zum Systemdenken im europäischen Schuldvertragsrecht – Probleme der Rechtsangleichung durch Richtlinien am Beispiel der Verbrauchsgüterkauf-Richtlinie”, ZEuP, 2003, n.º 3, pp. 245 y ss.
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  • General safety of motor vehicles

    General safety of motor vehicles

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about General safety of motor vehicles

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    General safety of motor vehicles

    2 emissions.

    Document or Iniciative

    Regulation (EC) No 661/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning type-approval requirements for the general safety of motor vehicles, their trailers and systems, components and separate technical units intended therefor (Text with EEA relevance).

    Summary

    This Regulation establishes requirements for the type-approval of:

    • the safety of motor vehicles and their trailers;
    • the energy efficiency of motor vehicles by introducing the mandatory installation of tyre pressure monitoring systems and gear shift indicators;
    • the safety and energy efficiency of tyres and their levels of noise emissions.

    Types of vehicles concerned

    This Regulation applies to:

    • motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers having at least four wheels (category M);
    • motor vehicles intended for the transportation of goods having at least four wheels (category N);
    • trailers (category O).

    Obligations of manufacturers

    Manufacturers shall guarantee that new vehicles that are sold, registered or put into service within the European Union (EU) are type-approved in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation.

    The Regulation aims at making several UNECE regulations obligatory. Type-approval in accordance with these UNECE regulations shall be considered as EC type-approval.

    In order to improve road safety, all vehicles must be equipped with an electronic stability control system. Furthermore, vehicles in categories M2, M3, N2 and N3 must be equipped with an advanced emergency braking system and a lane departure warning system.

    Tyres shall satisfy requirements relating to:

    • wet grip;
    • rolling resistance;
    • rolling noise.

    In addition, vehicles in category M1 must be equipped with a tyre pressure monitoring system and gear shift indicators.

    Obligations of the Member States

    Member States shall not grant EC type-approval or national type-approval to vehicles which do not meet the requirements laid down in this Regulation.

    Transitional provisions

    This Regulation contributes to the simplification of legislation insofar as it repeals a considerable number of basic directives and their amending acts.

    This Regulation repeals Directives 70/221/EEC, 70/222/EEC, 70/311/EEC, 70/387/EEC, 70/388/EEC, 71/320/EEC, 72/245/EEC, 74/60/EEC, 74/61/EEC, 74/297/EEC, 74/408/EEC, 74/483/EEC, 75/443/EEC, 76/114/EEC, 76/115/EEC, 76/756/EEC, 76/757/EEC, 76/758/EEC, 76/759/EEC, 76/760/EEC, 76/761/EEC, 76/762/EEC, 77/389/EEC, 77/538/EEC, 77/539/EEC, 77/540/EEC, 77/541/EEC, 77/649/EEC, 78/316/EEC, 78/317/EEC, 78/318/EEC, 78/549/EEC, 78/932/EEC, 89/297/EEC, 91/226/EEC, 92/21/EEC, 92/22/EEC, 92/24/EEC, 92/114/EEC, 94/20/EC, 95/28/EC, 96/27/EC, 96/79/EC, 97/27/EC, 98/91/EC, 2000/40/EC, 2001/56/EC, 2001/85/EC, and 2003/97/EC from 1 November 2014.

    It repeals Directive 92/23/EC from 1 November 2017.

    REFERENCES

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
    Regulation (EC) No 661/2009

    20.8.2009

    OJ L 200 of 31.7.2009

    Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

    Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users

    The European Union intends to reduce the number of deaths and the severity of injuries to pedestrians and cyclists involved in accidents with motor vehicles. Car manufacturers will therefore need to make changes to the fronts of their vehicles.

    Document or Iniciative

    Directive 2003/102/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 November 2003 relating to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users before and in the event of a collision with a motor vehicle and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC.

    Summary

    Around 8 000 pedestrians and cyclists are killed and a further 300 000 injured each year in road accidents.

    Accidents occur particularly often in urban areas. Even when cars drive at relatively low speeds, very serious injuries can be caused by a collision with a moving vehicle, particularly in the case of impact with the frontal structure of a motor vehicle. Below 40 km/h, however, it is possible to considerably reduce the severity of injuries by modifying the fronts of motor vehicles.

    The Directive sets the safety requirements which motor vehicle manufacturers will have to meet in order to reduce the severity of the injuries suffered by pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, such as cyclists and motorcyclists, when they are hit by the frontal surface of a vehicle.

    The Directive is based on Article 95 of the Treaty establishing the European Community. The harmonised technical provisions for the type-approval of motor vehicles with regard to pedestrian protection are necessary to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market.

    Scope

    The Directive applies to the frontal surfaces of vehicles, which mainly means the bonnet and the bumper.

    It applies to passenger cars (category M1 vehicles) not exceeding 2.5 tonnes and commercial vehicles (category N1 vehicles) not exceeding 2.5 tonnes and derived from M1 vehicles. There is provision for the Commission to examine the possibility of extending the scope of the directive to vehicles not exceeding 3.5 tonnes.

    Safety provisions

    The Directive proposes limit values to be observed in the construction of the frontal structures of vehicles. These values should not therefore be exceeded in a collision between a vehicle and a pedestrian. In order to ensure compliance, the vehicles will have to undergo a number of safety tests. These tests and limit values are based on recommendations made by the European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee.

    If the maximum limit values are exceeded, the Member States may no longer grant EC type-approval or register the vehicles concerned.

    The technical provisions will enter into force in two stages for which the directive sets out transitional periods. The provisions for the first stage will have to be met for all new types of vehicles from 1 October 2005 and for all new vehicles from 31 December 2012. The provisions for the second stage will be compulsory as of 1 September 2010 for all new types of vehicles and from 1 September 2015 for all new vehicles. This transitional period gives manufacturers time to comply with the limit values and incorporate these changes into the construction of new types of vehicles without having to make immediate changes to vehicles already in production.

    Given the speed of technological development in this field, manufacturers may develop alternative measures that are at least as effective as those in the Directive. Depending on the result of the feasibility study carried out by independent experts by 1 July 2004, the Commission may well amend the provisions of the directive.

    The Commission plans to conduct an initial assessment before 1 April 2006, then every two years thereafter.

    Amendment of the type-approval system

    The Directive is one of the specific Directives with which compliance is necessary in order to ensure conformity with the EC type-approval procedure. Directive 70/156/EEC should therefore be amended accordingly.

    Background

    The European Commission has made it a priority to reduce the number of persons killed and injured on Europe’s roads. Its target is to reduce road deaths by 50% by 2010.

    With this objective in mind, the European Commission entered into discussions with European, Japanese and Korean motor vehicle manufacturers. These resulted in the industry making a pledge to introduce measures aimed at improving pedestrian safety. Following the opinion of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the Commission drew up a legal instrument establishing the main aims and basic technical provisions required to ensure the requisite legal certainty in this area.

    References

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
    Directive 2003/102/EC [adoption: codecision COD/2003/0033] 7.12.2003 31.12.2003 OJ L 321 of 6.12.2003

    Related Acts

    Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users [COM(2007)560 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
    The Commission proposes combining the requirements of Directive 2005/66/EC (use of frontal protection systems) and Directive 2003/102/EC (pedestrian protection) in a single regulation, in order to improve the consistency and implementation of measures to protect pedestrians and other vulnerable road users. The Commission is reviewing existing passive requirements and is combining them with an active measure involving the use of brake-assist systems such as anti-lock brake systems (ABS). This has involved discussions between the Commission and European, Japanese and Korean car manufacturers and other interested parties.

    The proposed regulation lays down requirements for the manufacturing and operating of vehicles and details the obligations of manufacturers (approved braking systems, frontal protection), those of the Member State authorities (monitoring of the application of requirements, penalties) and detailed rules for implementation.

    Directive 2005/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 October 2005 relating to the use of frontal protection systems on motor vehicles and amending Council Directive 70/156/EEC [Official Journal L 309 of 25.11.2005].

    Commission Decision 2004/90/EC of 23 December 2003 on the technical prescriptions for the implementation of Article 3 of Directive 2003/102/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users before and in the event of a collision with a motor vehicle and amending Directive 70/156/EEC [Official Journal L31 of 4.2.2004].

    Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 11 July 2010 – Pedestrian protection: Commitment by the European automobile industry [COM(2001) 389 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
    The European Commission presents an evaluation of the commitment reached with the European automobile industry, represented by the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA).

    EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

    EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

    Document or Iniciative

    Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 September 2007 establishing a framework for the approval of motor vehicles and their trailers and of systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles.

    Summary

    The European Union (EU) is revising the system of EC type-approval for motor vehicles. The Directive retains (in revised form) the majority of the provisions of Directive 70/156/EEC and also introduces some entirely new concepts and requirements. It repeals and replaces Directive 70/156/EEC in order to have a clearer, more coherent text based on the principle of proportionality.

    Scope

    The requirement for EC type-approval for access to the internal market used to apply to private cars, motorcycles, mopeds and agricultural tractors. The European Union is extending this system to all categories of motor vehicles designed and constructed in one or more stages for use on the road and also to the systems, components and separate technical units designed and constructed for such vehicles. More precisely, the Directive is aimed at commercial vehicles (vans, lorries, semi-trailers, trailers), buses and coaches.

    Type-approval system

    The EC type-approval system is the only system in place for ensuring permanent monitoring of the conformity of output. Type-approval is based on the principle that manufacturers must issue a certificate of conformity for each vehicle manufactured, attesting that it conforms to the approved type. The manufacturer can opt for one of the following procedures: step-by-step type-approval *, single-step type-approval * or mixed type-approval *.

    The Directive introduces a new EC type-approval method known as “multi-stage type-approval”. Each manufacturer involved in manufacturing a vehicle will fill in the part of the certificate relating to its own stage. The aim of this is to adapt the process to the specific nature of commercial vehicle manufacturing. The multi-stage procedure will generally involve two steps:

    • firstly, the initial manufacturer will obtain type-approval for a chassis (including the engine, wheels, shock absorbers, brakes, etc.) and a first EC type-approval certificate will be issued;
    • subsequently, the second manufacturer will assemble the bodywork and present the finished vehicle for type-approval. Where the same manufacturer is responsible for both chassis and bodywork, the vehicle may be type-approved using the time-honoured procedure for passenger cars.

    The Directive is based on the principle of total harmonisation. EC type-approval procedures are compulsory and replace the national procedures with which they have co-existed up until now. The type-approval process is therefore noticeably simplified for manufacturers. It is enough for one Member State to type-approve a vehicle in order for all vehicles of that type to be registered throughout the Community solely on the basis of their certificate of conformity.

    Improving road safety and environmental protection

    The Directive aims to improve road safety by making a number of devices compulsory. These include ABS (anti-lock braking system), new and more effective rear-view mirrors (including the new front rear-view mirror), improved lights, side protection to prevent cyclists or pedestrians from being dragged under vehicles and anti-spray devices.

    Furthermore, it lays down additional requirements for buses and coaches (emergency exits must be adapted to the number of people which the vehicle can hold, greater ease of access for persons with reduced mobility, sufficient “survival space” in the event of the vehicle rolling over etc.).

    The Directive also focuses on various environmental obligations such as CO2 emissions, fuel consumption, engine power and smoke from diesel engines.

    Timetable

    The provisions of the proposal will be implemented from 2009 and will be phased in gradually until 2014, depending on the category of vehicle. The aim of the transition periods is to enable the industry to gradually adapt its production systems to the new requirements and enable governments to deal progressively with the increased number of requests for type-approval.

    Background

    Since 1970, Directive 70/156/EEC has been the main legal instrument for implementing the single market in the motor vehicle sector. It has been amended many times in order to keep pace with this sector’s constant development. It therefore seemed appropriate to increase its clarity by recasting it. Doing so also provides an opportunity to extend the scope of the established principles to new categories of motor vehicles.

    The first stage of the revision, Directive 2001/116/EC, put in place the technical provisions needed for the practical implementation of the type-approval of commercial vehicles. This Directive marks the second stage of the revision of Directive 70/156/EEC.

    Key terms of the act
    • Step-by-step type-approval: a vehicle-approval procedure consisting in the step-by-step collection of the whole set of EC type-approval certificates for the systems, components and separate technical units relating to the vehicle, and which leads, at the final stage, to the approval of the whole vehicle.
    • Single-step type-approval: a procedure consisting in the approval of a vehicle as a whole by means of a single operation.
    • Mixed type-approval: a step-by-step type-approval procedure for which one or more system approvals are achieved during the final stage of the approval of the whole vehicle, without it being necessary to issue the EC type-approval certificates for those systems.

    Reference

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

    Directive 2007/46/EC

    29.10.2007

    29.4.2009

    OJ L 263, 9.10.2007

    Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2007/46/EC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version is for reference purpose only.

    LAST AMENDMENTS TO THE ANNEXES

    Annex IV – List of requirements for the purpose of EC type-approval of vehicles
    Commission Regulation (EU) No 183/2011 [Official Journal L 53 of 26.2.2011].

    Annex VI
    Commission Regulation (EU) No 183/2011 [Official Journal L 53 of 26.2.2011].

    Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

    Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users

    Document or Iniciative

    Regulation (EC) No 78/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 January 2009 on the type-approval of motor vehicles with regard to the protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, amending Directive 2007/46/EC and repealing Directives 2003/102/EC and 2005/66/EC (Text with EEA relevance).

    Summary

    This Regulation lays down requirements for the construction and functioning of motor vehicles and frontal protection systems *. The aim is to reduce the number and severity of injuries to pedestrians and other vulnerable road users hit by the front of a vehicle.

    To which types of vehicle does the Regulation apply?

    This Regulation applies to:

    • motor vehicles of category M1 defined in Annex II of the Directive on the EC type-approval system for motor vehicles;
    • motor vehicles of category N1 defined in Annex II of the above-mentioned Directive;
    • frontal protection systems of those vehicles, fitted as original equipment to the vehicles or supplied as separate units.

    What are the obligations of the manufacturers?

    Manufacturers shall ensure that vehicles placed on the market are equipped with a type-approved brake assist system (BAS) *. They may add a frontal protection system which must comply with the criteria laid down in this Regulation. They shall communicate data on the specifications and test conditions of the vehicles to the vehicle approval authorities.

    The manufacturer shall submit to the authorities an application for EC type-approval in the form of an information document containing general information, construction characteristics and information relating to the bodywork of the vehicle.

    What are the obligations of the authorities of the Member States?

    The approval authority shall grant EC type-approval by type of vehicle where the relevant requirements are met by the manufacturer. Three types of letter are granted according to the requirements met by the vehicle, namely letter A (corresponding to the first level of minimum protection), B (corresponding to the second level of protection) or X (corresponding to a level of protection for certain specific vehicles).

    National authorities shall not grant EC type-approval if the frontal protection system does not meet the relevant requirements laid down in this Regulation. On the other hand, vehicles equipped with collision avoidance systems may not have to fulfil the test requirements laid down in this Regulation in the future, upon assessment by the European Commission.

    Context

    This Regulation repeals Directives 2003/102/EC and 2005/66/EC.

    Key terms of the Act
    • Frontal protection system: a separate structure or structures, such as a bull bar, or a supplementary bumper which, in addition to the original-equipment bumper, is intended to protect the external surface of the vehicle from damage in the event of a collision with an object. Structures having a mass of less than 0.5 kg, intended to protect only the vehicle’s lights, are excluded from this definition.
    • Brake assist system (BAS): a braking system with an anti-lock device (ABS) which detects in a fraction of a second that the driver is attempting an emergency brake and triggers the brake automatically in order to achieve the shortest possible braking distance.

    Reference

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

    Regulation (EC) No 78/2009

    24.2.2009

    OJ L 35 of 4.2.2009

    Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

    Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles

    Document or Iniciative

    Directive 2009/79/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 on passenger hand-holds on two-wheel motor vehicles (Codified version) (Text with EEA relevance).

    Summary

    This Directive sets out requirements for passenger hand-holds for all types of two-wheel motor vehicles in Category L.

    Types of vehicle concerned by the Directive

    This Directive shall apply to:

    • mopeds: two-wheel vehicles (Category L1e) with a maximum design speed not exceeding 45 km/h;
    • motorcycles: two-wheel vehicles without sidecars (Category L3e) or with sidecars (Category L4e), with a cylinder capacity exceeding 50 cm3, for internal combustion engines, and/or the maximum design speed of which exceeds 45 km/h.

    General prescriptions for passenger hand-holds

    Two-wheel vehicles must be equipped with a passenger hand-hold system, composed of a strap or one or more hand-grips.

    The strap must be fitted to the seat of the vehicle so that it may easily be used by the passenger. The strap and its attachment must withstand a vertical traction force of 2000 N with a maximum pressure of 2 MPa.

    The hand-grip must be close to the saddle. Like the strap, it must withstand a vertical traction force of 2000 N with a maximum pressure of 2 MPa. If two handgrips are used, they must be fitted symmetrically.

    Procedure for the granting of EC component type-approval

    The manufacturer of the vehicle makes an application for EC type-approval to the type-approval authority of the Member State, using an information document.

    The certificate of conformity is issued by the competent authority, which has a period of one month to inform the competent authorities of Member States.

    In the event of non-compliance with the requirements of this Directive, Member States may refuse EC type-approval for any two-wheel motor vehicle for reasons relating to the passenger restraint device.

    Context

    This Directive repeals Directive 93/32/EC.

    REFERENCES

    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
    Directive 2009/79/EC

    21.8.2009

    OJ L 201 of 1.8.09

    Technical implications of road safety

    Technical implications of road safety

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Technical implications of road safety

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    Technical implications of road safety

    The technical implications of road safety cover both vehicle and infrastructure safety. By 2020, the European Commission aims to halve the number of deaths on the roads (in relation to the 2010 figures) in the European Union (EU).
    To achieve this objective, the Commission promotes the use of modern technologies to improve road safety. It defines a legislative framework which aims to make vehicles and road infrastructure safer. The protection of vulnerable passengers is also a policy priority.

    GENERAL PROVISIONS

    • General safety of motor vehicles
    • Road safety: Road Safety Action Programme (2003-2010)
    • Road safety: cross-border application of the legislation
    • EC type-approval system for motor vehicles

    SPECIFIC PROVISIONS

    Restraint devices for passengers

    • Passenger restraint devices on two-wheel vehicles
    • Compulsory fitting of safety belts

    Vehicle protection in the event of impact

    • Motor vehicles with trailers: front underrun protection devices (until 2014)
    • Motor vehicles with trailers: protection of occupants in the event of a frontal impact (until 2014)
    • Motor vehicles with trailers: behaviour of steering device under impact (until 2014)
    • Motor vehicles with trailers: lateral protection for goods vehicles (until 2014)

    Reduction of blind spots

    • Rear-view mirrors and supplementary devices for indirect vision (until 2014)

    Protection of vulnerable road users

    • Protection of pedestrians and vulnerable road users
    • Protection of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users
    • Vulnerable road users and frontal protection systems

    Control devices

    • Speed limitation on-board devices of certain categories of motor vehicles (until 2014)
    • Maximum authorised settings for speed limitation devices in commercial vehicles
    • Driving time in the road transport sector

    Intelligent automobile security systems

    • Le service eCall
      (FR)
    • eCall: Time for deployment
    • eSafety: the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for road safety
    • In-vehicle emergency call system “eCall” (Second eSafety Communication)
    • i2010 Intelligent Car Initiative (third eSafety communication)

    Motor vehicles with trailers: lateral protection for goods vehicles

    Motor vehicles with trailers: lateral protection for goods vehicles

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Motor vehicles with trailers: lateral protection for goods vehicles

    Topics

    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

    Motor vehicles with trailers: lateral protection for goods vehicles (until 2014)

    To harmonize the requirements to be met by vehicles as regards the side-guards of motor vehicles and their trailers.

    2) Document or Iniciative

    Council Directive 89/297/EEC of 13 April 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the lateral protection (side-guards) of certain motor vehicles and their trailers [Official Journal L124 of 05.05.1989].

    3) Summary

    The Directive applies to big and heavy goods vehicles and their trailers (categories N2, N3, O3 and O4 as defined in Council Directive 70/156/EEC on type-approval of motor vehicles and their trailers) intended for road use with or without bodywork and having a maximum design speed above 25 km/h. It does not apply to buses as their normal bodywork fulfils the requirements.

    No Member State may refuse, for reasons connected with lateral protection, to grant type-approval to vehicles which meet the requirements set out in the annex or prevent their sale, registration and use. Any modifications to parts or characteristics referred to in the annex shall be transmitted to the Member State which carried out the EC type-approval. The Member State may then decide whether to hold fresh tests on the modified type.

    Annexes containing technical requirements for lateral protection and application form for EC type-approval. Appendix containing model of annex to type-approval certificate with information on lateral protection.

    Consultation of a standing committee by the Commission before adapting the annex to technical progress.

    Act Date of entry into force Deadline for implementation in the Member States
    Directive 89/297/EEC 30.10.1989

    4) Implementing Measures

    5) Follow-Up Work