Category Archives: H

Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Humanitarian aid

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid

The European Union is the world’s leading provider of humanitarian aid. This aid, which takes the form of financing, provision of goods or services, or technical assistance, aims to help prepare for and deal urgently with the crises which seriously affect populations outside the Union, whether these be natural disasters, disasters caused by human activity, or structural crises.
The Union’s action is based on the fundamental humanitarian principles of humanity, neutrality, impartiality and independence, and comprises three instruments: emergency aid, food aid, and aid for refugees and displaced persons. ECHO coordinates this action and cooperates closely with partners who implement aid on the ground, in particular the United Nations and non-governmental organisations.

GENERAL PROVISIONS

  • European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid
  • Towards a European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid
  • Instrument for humanitarian aid
  • EU guidelines on the promotion of compliance with international humanitarian law
  • Promotion of compliance with international humanitarian law: Guidelines
  • Partnership with the United Nations: development assistance and humanitarian aid
  • Framework Partnership Agreement with humanitarian organisations (2008-2012)
  • Towards the establishment of a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps
  • Strengthening the European disaster response capacity
  • Disaster and crisis response in Non-EU Member Countries
  • Civil Protection Mechanism
  • Financing of civil protection measures (2007-2013)
  • EU response to fragile situations
  • Disaster risk reduction in developing countries
  • Linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD)

Food aid

  • Humanitarian Food Assistance
  • Facility for rapid response to soaring food prices

Human rights

  • Children in EU external action

HUMANITARIAN AID OFFICE – ECHO

  • Directorate-General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO)
  • ECHO Annual Report 2009
  • ECHO Annual Report 2008
  • ECHO: 2007 Annual Report
  • DG ECHO: Annual Report 2006
  • DG ECHO: Annual Report 2005
  • 2004 ECHO annual review
  • 2002 report on ECHO
  • 2001 report on ECHO

European Union institutions and bodies

  • European Parliament: Committee on foreign affairs
  • Council of the European Unión: Foreign affairs
  • European Commission: Humanitarian aid and civil protection, European External Action Service
  • Economic and Social Committee: External relations section
  • Committee of the Regions: Commission for citizenship, governance, institutional affairs and external relations (CIVEX)

Enactments

Article 214 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union provides the following:

1. The Union’s operations in the field of humanitarian aid shall be conducted within the
framework of the principles and objectives of the external action of the Union. Such operations
shall be intended to provide ad hoc assistance and relief and protection for people in third countries who are victims of natural or man-made disasters, in order to meet the humanitarian needs resulting from these different situations. The Union’s measures and those of the Member States shall complement and reinforce each other.
2. Humanitarian aid operations shall be conducted in compliance with the principles of
international law and with the principles of impartiality, neutrality and non-discrimination.
3. The European Parliament and the Council, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative
procedure, shall establish the measures defining the framework within which the Union’s
humanitarian aid operations shall be implemented.
4. The Union may conclude with third countries and competent international organisations any
agreement helping to achieve the objectives referred to in paragraph 1 and in Article 21 of the Treaty on European Union.
The first subparagraph shall be without prejudice to Member States’ competence to negotiate in
international bodies and to conclude agreements.
5. In order to establish a framework for joint contributions from young Europeans to the
humanitarian aid operations of the Union, a European Voluntary Humanitarian Aid Corps shall be set up. The European Parliament and the Council, acting by means of regulations in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall determine the rules and procedures for the operation of the Corps.
6. The Commission may take any useful initiative to promote coordination between actions of the Union and those of the Member States, in order to enhance the efficiency and complementarity of Union and national humanitarian aid measures.
7. The Union shall ensure that its humanitarian aid operations are coordinated and consistent
with those of international organisations and bodies, in particular those forming part of the United Nations system.

Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Budget

Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 89/130/EEC on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices [See amending acts]

Summary

Firstly, the Directive defines GNPmp in accordance with the current European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (ESA). GNPmp is calculated by adding to gross domestic product at market prices (GDPmp, ESA code: N 1) the compensation of employees (R 10) and the property and entrepreneurial income (R 40) received from the rest of the world less the corresponding flows paid to the rest of the world. GDPmp represents the final result of productive activity by resident production units. Referring to the ESA, GDPmp may be presented in three ways:

  • from the output angle: GDPmp (N 1) is the difference between output of goods and services (P 10) and intermediate consumption (P 20) plus VAT on products (R 21) and net taxes linked to imports (excluding value added tax (VAT)) (R 29);
  • from the expenditure angle: GDPmp (N 1) is the sum of final consumption (P 30) on the economic territory by households and private non-profit institutions and general government, gross fixed capital formation (P 41), change in stocks (P 42), and the difference between exports (P 50) and imports (P 60);
  • from the income angle: GDPmp (N 1) is the sum of compensation of employees (R 10), gross operating surplus of the economy (N 2), and taxes linked to production and imports (R 20) less subsidies (R 30).

Member States establish GNPmp in accordance with the definition given in the Directive. Before 1 October each year, they provide the Commission, in the context of national accounting procedures, with figures for the GNPmp aggregate and its components according to the ESA definitions referred to above. Member States also supply the information necessary to show how the aggregate was found. The figures cover the preceding year and any changes made to the figures for previous financial years. The Commission is assisted by a committee.

The Agreement on the European Economic Area amends the Directive. It states that Liechtenstein is exempt from providing the data required by the Directive and that Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland will provide the data as from 1995 at the latest.

Background

In practice, the Directive has been replaced de facto but not de jure since 2002 by Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1287/2003 of 15 July 2003 on the harmonisation of gross national income at market prices (GNI Regulation).

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 89/130/EEC 13 March 1989 16 February 1990 OJ L 49 of 21.2.1989
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003 20.11.2003 OJ L 284 of 31.10.2003

Related Acts

Implementing measures:

Decision 93/475/EEC, Euratom [Official Journal L 224 of 3.9.1993]

Commission Decision of 22 July 1993 defining production and import subsidies for the purpose of the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 93/570/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 276 of 9.11.1993]

Commission Decision of 4 October 1993 defining the distinction between ‘other taxes linked to production’ and ‘intermediate consumption’ for the purpose of the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 94/168/EC [Official Journal L 77 of 19.3.1994]

Commission Decision of 22 February 1994 on measures to be taken for the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices. The purpose of this Decision is to improve the exhaustiveness of GDPmp as a major component of the GNPmp of the Member States as regards economic activity within the production boundary of the European system of integrated economic accounts (“ESA”). This includes economic activity which is lawful in itself but which is not carried on in conformity with tax and social security regulations. Economic activity which is unlawful as such according to national legislation is outside the scope of the measures provided for by this Decision.

Decision 95/309/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 186 of 5.8.1995]

Commission Decision of 18 July 1995 specifying the principles for estimating dwelling services for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 97/157/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 60 of 1.3.1997]

Commission Decision of 12 February 1997 defining the treatment of the income of undertakings for collective investment for the purpose of the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 97/619/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 252 of 16.9.1997]

Commission Decision of 3 September 1997 on changes to the Member States’ GNP estimates for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 98/501/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 225 of 12.8.1998]

Commission Decision of 24 July 1998 concerning certain specific transactions identified within the work on the protocol of the Excessive Deficit Procedure, for the application of Article 1 of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonisation of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 1999/622/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 245 of 17.9.1999]

Commission Decision of 8 September 1999 on the treatment of repayments of VAT to non-taxable units and to taxable units for their exempt activities, for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonisation of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 109/2005 of 24 January 2005 on the definition of the economic territory of Member States for the purposes of Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1287/2003 on the harmonisation of gross national income at market prices [Official Journal L 021 of 25.01.2005].

 

Health and well-being of young people

Health and well-being of young people

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Health and well-being of young people

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

Health and well-being of young people

Document or Iniciative

Resolution of the Council and the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 20 November on the health and well-being of young people [Official Journal C 319 of 13.12.2008].

Summary

Even though the health of Europe’s young people is considered to be in general rather satisfactory, concerns remain regarding nutrition, physical activity, alcohol abuse, as well as sexual and mental health. In this context, it is essential to promote a healthy lifestyle, to adopt preventive measures and to take gender issues into consideration.

Several aspects related to living conditions pose a risk to young people’s health and well-being. To ensure the healthy development of young people, their physical and social environments should be wholesome. This aim is best achieved by giving further support to parents.

The extent of social inclusion and level of education of young people is closely related to their health and well-being. Hence, it is important that young people are kept well informed of the advantages of a healthy lifestyle and that they are encouraged to become more responsible and autonomous with regard to their own health.

In order to ensure that youth health policy is efficient, the state of play should be assessed to provide better tailored strategies that take into consideration the needs of and differences among young people. The strategies should be based on a comprehensive and cross-sectoral approach. Youth health policy should involve the local, regional, national and European levels and be developed in close partnership with a wide range of stakeholders.

Consequently, the Council is inviting Member States to:

  • mainstream the “youth” dimension into all initiatives that are related to health issues and implement appropriate measures for youth health policy;
  • allow all relevant stakeholders, including young people themselves, to participate in developing and implementing the initiatives related to health issues;
  • support young people’s access to both cultural and physical leisure-time activities;
  • consider youth health issues in information and the media programmes and policies;
  • promote youth workers’ and organisations’ training on health issues and prevention measures.

The Commission is also invited to ensure the mainstreaming of the “youth” dimension in all initiatives related to health issues, as well as to include all stakeholders and the young people themselves at all stages of development of the initiatives on youth health policy.

Finally, the Council is inviting Member States and the Commission to collaborate, in order to:

  • expand knowledge of youth health issues by increasing research into and regular reporting on the topic;
  • include data on youth health and well-being into the Commission’s triennial report on young people’s situation in Europe;
  • inform the public about issues that affect the health of young people;
  • promote exchanges at the local, regional, national and European levels on best practice related to youth health;
  • promote the use of existing European Union (EU) instruments in the development of youth health-related projects;
  • encourage stronger collaboration on youth health issues among young people, youth organisations and other relevant stakeholders as well as civil society.

Background

The White Paper on youth of 21 November 2001 recognised the importance of health in empowering young people, fostering their social inclusion and developing their active citizenship. The European Youth Pact, adopted in March 2005, further emphasised the need to mainstream the “youth” dimension, in particular issues related youth health, to other relevant European policies.

Hygiene for food of animal origin

Hygiene for food of animal origin

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hygiene for food of animal origin

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Veterinary checks animal health rules food hygiene

Hygiene for food of animal origin

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, of 29 April 2004, laying down specific hygiene rules for food of animal origin. [See amending act(s)].

Summary

Foodstuffs of animal origin listed in Annex I of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union may present microbiological and chemical hazards, necessitating the adoption of specific hygiene rules contributing to the completion of the internal market and ensuring a high level of public health protection. These rules supplement those laid down in Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs, which primarily concerns the approval of operators.

GENERAL OBLIGATIONS

The provisions of this Regulation apply to unprocessed and processed products of animal origin, but not to foods consisting of both products of plant origin and processed products of animal origin, unless expressly indicated to the contrary. Furthermore, this Regulation does not apply to the retail trade or to primary production for private consumption, for which the provisions of the above-mentioned Regulation on the hygiene of foodstuffs are sufficient.

Registration and approval of establishments

Establishments handling products of animal origin must be registered and, where necessary, approved by the competent authority in their Member State. This does not apply to establishments engaged only in primary production, transport or storage of products not requiring temperature-controlled storage conditions, or retail operations not subject to the Regulation.

In accordance with Regulation (EC) 882/2004 on official controls performed to ensure the verification of compliance with feed and food law and with the provisions relating to animal health and animal welfare. Member States must keep up-to-date lists of approved establishments, which are given an approval number with additional codes indicating the type of products of animal origin manufactured.

Health marking and identification

Where required by the Regulation, products of animal origin must be given a health mark applied in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 laying down specific rules on the organisation of official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption or, failing this, an identification mark applied to products before they leave the product establishment if their packaging and/or wrapping is removed or it is further processed in another establishment. This mark must be legible, indelible and clearly visible for the competent authorities, and must show the name of the exporting country and the establishment’s approval number where the operations took place. When applied in an establishment located within the European Union, the mark must be oval in shape and include the abbreviation CE, EC, EF, EG, EK or EY.

Imports from Non-EU Member Countries

The Commission draws up lists of Non-EU Member Countries from which imports of products of animal origin are permitted, in accordance with the Regulation (EC) 854/2004 on official controls. In principle, a third country may only be included on these lists if a European control has taken place in that country and demonstrates that the competent authority provides appropriate guarantees that their provisions comply with or are equivalent to European legislation.

Furthermore, Regulation (EC) 854/2004 provides that an establishment may only be included in these lists if the competent authority in the originating third country guarantees:

  • >that the aforementioned establishment, as well as any other establishment handling raw materials of animal origin used in the production of the products of animal origin concerned, comply with the relevant European requirements, specifically with those of Regulation (EC) 853/2004 or those which have been defined as equivalent to these requirements following the decision to include this third country in the relevant list, in accordance with Article 11;
  • >that an official inspection service in this country carries out monitoring of the establishments and makes available to the Commission, where necessary, all relevant information on the establishments providing raw materials;
  • >that this service has the power to prevent establishments from exporting to the Union in the even that they do not comply with the requirements detailed above.

When drawing up these lists, particular account is taken of:

  • the existing legislation of the third country, and the organisation and powers of the competent authority and the inspection services;
  • where applicable, the situation regarding animal health, zoonoses and plant health, as well as the procedures for notifying the Commission and the competent international bodies of animal or plant diseases which occur;
  • experience gained in relation to marketing vis-à-vis the third country and its collaboration in exchanging information, particularly on health risks;
  • the results of EU inspections/audits carried out in the country concerned;
  • the existence, in the third country concerned, of legislation on animal nutrition and programmes for monitoring zoonoses and residues.

By way of derogation, there are special provisions for imports of fishery products.

Food chain information

The Regulation also provides instructions to ensure that slaughterhouse operators receive food chain information on all animals except wild game.

SECTORAL APPROACH

In Annex II to the Regulation, a sectoral approach is taken to determining the specific hygiene provisions applicable to foodstuffs of animal origin.

In order to take account of traditional production methods, the competent authority may grant special conditions for applying the appropriate hygiene rules in the sectors concerned.

Meat of domestic ungulates

This section is concerned mainly with meat from domestic animals of the bovine, porcine, ovine and caprine species.

Animals for slaughter must be collected and transported carefully so as not to cause unnecessary distress. Animals showing symptoms of disease or from contaminated herds or flocks may not be transported, except with special authorisation.

Ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections must be carried out in accordance with the Regulation on official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption.

With a view to minimising the possibility of any contamination of meat, specific hygiene rules cover the following aspects:

  • construction and equipment of slaughterhouses;
  • the slaughter process in general and emergency slaughter in particular: stunning, bleeding, skinning, dressing and evisceration;
  • cutting and boning operations in cutting plants;
  • control of health marking of meat by an official veterinarian;
  • storage, transport and maturation of meat (temperature at which it is kept).

Meat of poultry and lagomorphs

The following provisions apply to meat of farmed birds and of rabbits, hares and rodents.

Poultry and lagomorphs must be collected and transported carefully so as not to cause unnecessary distress. Those showing symptoms of disease or from contaminated flocks may not be transported, except with special authorisation.

Ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections must be carried out in accordance with the Regulation on official controls.

Specific hygiene standards are laid down with the aim of minimising the possibility of any contamination of the meat produced, covering the following elements:

  • transport of birds to the slaughterhouse;
  • construction, design and equipping of slaughterhouses and cutting plants;
  • the slaughter process: stunning, bleeding, skinning or plucking, dressing and evisceration;
  • cutting and boning work;
  • poultry reared for the purpose of producing ‘foie gras’.

Meat of farmed game

Unless the competent authority considers them inappropriate, meat of farmed game coming from even-toed mammals (Cervidae and Suidae) must be produced and marketed under the conditions laid down for meat of domestic ungulates (see above).

The provisions relating to poultry meat will apply to the production and marketing of meat from ratites (flightless birds).

In the interest of animal welfare, the competent authority may, in certain circumstances, authorise the slaughter of farmed game at the place of origin instead of at an approved establishment.

Wild game meat

Specific hygiene provisions cover the following elements:

  • training of hunters in health and hygiene;
  • killing, evisceration and transport of wild game to an approved establishment;
  • game handling establishments.

Minced meat, meat preparations and mechanically separated/recovered meat (MSM)

This section does not apply to the production and marketing of minced meat intended for the processing industry, which is subject to the requirements for fresh meat.

Specific hygiene rules cover the following elements:

  • equipping and approval of production establishments;
  • raw materials used (or prohibited) in the production of minced meat;
  • production, conservation and use of minced meat, meat preparations obtained from minced meat, and mechanically separated meat (MSM);
  • product labelling.

Meat products

There are hygiene standards specific to meat products. Depending on the type of animal, they cover the raw materials which may not be used in the manufacture of meat products.

Live bivalve molluscs

With the exception of the provisions on purification, the following rules also apply to live echinoderms, tunicates and marine gastropods.

Live bivalve molluscs harvested from the wild and intended for human consumption must comply with high health standards applicable at all stages of the production chain:

  • production of live bivalve molluscs: three types of production area (Class A, B or C);
  • harvesting of molluscs and their transport to a dispatch or purification centre, relaying area or processing plant;
  • relaying of molluscs in approved areas under optimal conditions of traceability and purification;
  • essential equipment and hygiene conditions in dispatch and purification centres;
  • health standards applicable to live bivalve molluscs: freshness and viability; microbiological criteria, evaluation of the presence of marine biotoxins and harmful substances in relation to the permissible daily intake;
  • health marking, wrapping, labelling, storage and transport of live bivalve molluscs;
  • the rules applicable to pectinides harvested outside classified areas.

Fishery products

Fishery products caught in their natural environment may have to be handled for bleeding, heading, gutting and the removal of fins. They are then chilled, frozen or processed and/or wrapped/packaged on board vessels in accordance with the rules laid down in this section.

Specific hygiene requirements cover the following elements:

  • equipment and facilities on fishing vessels, factory vessels and freezer vessels: areas for receiving products taken on board, work and storage areas, refrigeration and freezing installations, pumping of waste and disinfection;
  • hygiene on board fishing vessels, factory vessels and freezer vessels: cleanliness, protection from any form of contamination, washing with water and cold treatment;
  • conditions of hygiene during and after the landing of fishery products: protection against any form of contamination, equipment used, auction and wholesale markets;
  • fresh and frozen products, mechanically separated fish flesh, endo-parasites harmful to human health (visual examination), and cooked crustaceans and molluscs;
  • processed fishery products;
  • health standards applicable to fishery products: evaluation of the presence of substances and toxins harmful to human health;
  • wrapping, packaging, storage and transport of fishery products.

Raw milk and milk products

As regards primary production of raw milk, the specific health requirements are as follows:

  • raw milk and colostrum must come from females of the species (cows, buffaloes, ewes, goats, other) which are in a good general state of health that do not show any symptoms of infectious diseases communicable to humans through the milk or colostrum and which are not suffering from any infection of the genital tract with discharge, enteritis with diarrhoea and fever, or a recognisable inflammation of the udder. The animals must not have any udder wound likely to affect the milk or the colostrum;
  • subject to further, more specific provisions, raw milk must comply with microbiological criteria and standards for plate count and somatic cell count.
  • milking, collection and transport of raw milk and colostrum must comply with clearly-defined hygiene rules in order to avoid any contamination. The same applies to persons involved, premises, equipment and utensils used in production.

The Regulation sets out the general hygiene requirements for heat-treated drinking milk and other milk products, dealing mainly with the preparation of pasteurised milk and Ultra High Temperature (UHT) milk.

Wrapping and packaging must be designed to protect milk and/or milk products from harmful effects of external origin. For control purposes, the labelling must clearly show the characteristics of the product, including where applicable the terms ‘raw milk’, ‘made with raw milk’, ‘colostrum’ or ‘colostrum-based’.

Eggs and egg products

At the producer’s premises and until sale to the consumer, eggs must be kept clean, dry, free of extraneous odour, protected from shocks and direct sunlight, stored and transported at an optimal temperature for conservation. They must be delivered to consumers within 21 days of laying.

The hygiene rules governing egg products (e.g. albumin) cover:

  • the availability of suitable rooms within approved production establishments in order to separate egg product manufacturing operations;
  • the raw materials used in egg products: conditions for using eggshells and liquid egg;
  • the manufacture of egg products in such a way as to avoid any contamination during production, handling and storage;
  • analytical specifications for various residues and for butyric and lactic acids;
  • labelling and identification marking.

Frogs’ legs and snails

Only approved establishments with the required facilities, having due regard to handling and preparation, may prepare and kill frogs and snails.

Frogs and snails which are found dead are not fit for consumption. The same applies to those considered to present a hazard on the basis of an organoleptic examination carried out by sampling.

Rendered animal fats and greaves

Hygiene standards for storage, preparation and preservation apply to establishments collecting or processing raw materials.

The hygiene rules in respect of rendered animal fats, greaves and by-products cover:

  • raw materials: these must come from animals deemed fit for consumption after inspection, consisting of adipose tissues or bones which are reasonably free from blood and impurities;
  • the originating establishment which must be registered or approved pursuant to Regulation 852/2004 and pursuant to this Regulation;
  • preservation during the collection, transport and storage of these raw materials;
  • the rendering methods: heat, pressure, decantation, prohibition of solvents;
  • the composition of animal fats;
  • the storage of finished products intended for human consumption.

Treated stomachs, bladders and intestines

In addition to the storage requirements for these products, specific hygiene rules govern the production and placing on the market of treated stomachs, bladders and intestines, as regards the animals they come from and the establishments where they are treated.

Only products which have been cleaned and scraped, then salted, heated or dried, and treated to avoid any new contamination, are suitable for human consumption. There are also rules on conservation, in particular the temperature of products that are not salted or dried.

Gelatine

The following raw materials, derived from animals declared fit for consumption after inspection and slaughtered according to the existing hygiene rules, may be used in the manufacture of gelatine which is to be used in foodstuffs:

  • bones, tendons and sinews;
  • hides and skins of farmed ruminant animals, pigs, poultry and wild game;
  • fish skin and bones.

Specific provisions apply to:

  • collection centres and tanneries authorised to supply raw materials;
  • the transport and storage of raw materials;
  • the gelatine manufacturing process;
  • the maximum limits for residues in finished products;
  • labelling.

Collagen

Collagen may be manufactured from the same raw materials as gelatine, with the exception of hides and skins that have undergone a tanning process.

Specific provisions also apply to:

  • collection centres and tanneries authorised to supply raw materials;
  • the transport and storage of raw materials;
  • the collagen manufacturing process;
  • the maximum limits for residues in finished products;
  • labelling.

BACKGROUND

This Regulation forms part of the ‘hygiene package’, a body of law laying down hygiene rules for foodstuffs, which, in addition to this Regulation, includes the following acts:

  • Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 defining the food safety objectives to be achieved, leaving food operators responsible for adopting the safety measures to be implemented in order to guarantee food safety;
  • Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 putting in place a Community framework for official controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption and laying down specific rules for fresh meat, bivalve molluscs, milk and milk products.

The following acts supplement the Community legislation on food hygiene:

  • Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 laying down the general principles of food law. This Regulation explains the food safety procedures and establishes the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA);
  • Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 reorganising official controls on foodstuffs and feedingstuffs so as to integrate controls at all stages of production and in all sectors;
  • Directive 2002/99/EC laying down the conditions for placing products of animal origin on the market and the restrictions applicable to products from non-EU countries or regions of non-EU countries subject to animal health restrictions.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 853/2004

20.5.2004

OJ L 139 of 30.4.2004

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 219/2009

20.4.2009

OJ L 87 of 31.3.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Commission Regulation (EC) No 2074/2005 of 5 December 2005 laying down implementing measures for certain products under Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and for the organisation of official controls under Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, derogating from Regulation (EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Regulations (EC) No 853/2004 and (EC) 854/2004 [Official Journal L 338, 22.12.2005].
See consolidated version

Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the experience gained from the application of the hygiene Regulations (EC) No 852/2004, (EC) No 853/2004 and (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on they hygiene of foodstuffs [COM(2009) 403 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission reviews the experience gained from the application of the aforementioned regulations. It presents the progress achieved and the difficulties encountered by all the interested actors in the implementation of the 2006 – 2008 hygiene package. It concludes that overall Member States have taken the necessary administrative and control steps to ensure compliance, but that there is still room for improvement in relation to implementation. The main difficulties identified are in relation to:

  • certain exemptions from the scope of the hygiene Regulations;
  • certain definitions laid down in these Regulations;
  • certain practical aspects concerning the approval of establishments handling foods of animal origin and the marking of such foods;
  • the import regime for certain foods;
  • the implementation of HACCP-based procedures in certain food businesses; and
  • the implementation of official controls in certain sectors.

This report does not suggest any detailed solutions. However, on the basis of the difficulties identified, the Commission will consider the need for any proposals to improve the food hygiene package.

Harmonisation of turnover taxes

Harmonisation of turnover taxes

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Harmonisation of turnover taxes

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Taxation

Harmonisation of turnover taxes

1) Objective

To phase in a common system of value-added tax.

2) Community Measures

First Council Directive 67/227/EEC of 11 April 1967 on the harmonisation of legislation of Member States concerning turnover taxes.

Amended by the following measures:

Council Directive 69/463/EEC of 9 December 1969;
Council Directive 77/388/EEC of 17 May 1977.

3) Contents

The following text contains a consolidation of the Directives.

By 1 January 1972 at the latest each Member State is to replace, its system of turnover taxes by the common system of value-added tax, but without an accompanying harmonisation of rates and exemptions.

The common system is to be based on the neutrality principle: within each Member State similar goods and services are to bear the same tax burden, whatever the length of the production and distribution chain.

The structure of, and the procedure for applying, the common system of value-added tax are to be the subject of a second Directive.

During a second stage and on a proposal from the Commission presented before 1 January 1969, the Council is to adopt measures relating to the abolition of tax controls at intra-Community frontiers.

4) Deadline For Implementation Of The Legislation In The Member States

  • Directive 67/227/EEC: 12.04.1967
  • Directive 69/463/EEC: 15.12.1969
  • Directive 77/388/EEC: 23.05.1977

5) Date Of Entry Into Force (If Different From The Above)

  • Directive 67/227/EEC: 01.01.1970, apart from derogations
  • Directive 69/463/EEC: 01.01.1972
  • Directive 77/388/EEC: 31.12.1978

6) References

Official Journal L 71, 14.04.1967
Official Journal L 320, 20.12.1969
Official Journal L 145, 23.05.1977

7) Follow-Up Work

8) Commission Implementing Measures

 

Hiring of vehicles for the carriage of goods

Hiring of vehicles for the carriage of goods

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hiring of vehicles for the carriage of goods

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Road transport

Hiring of vehicles for the carriage of goods

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2006/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 January 2006 on the use of vehicles hired without drivers for the carriage of goods by road [Official Journal L 33 of 4.2.2006].

Summary

From a macroeconomic point of view, the use of hired vehicles * permits an optimum allocation of resources by limiting the wasteful use of factors of production.

From a microeconomic point of view, this possibility brings an element of flexibility to the organisation of transport and thus increases the productivity of the undertakings concerned.

Each Member State must allow the use within its territory of vehicles * hired by undertakings established on the territory of another Member State, provided that:

  • the vehicle has been registered or put into circulation in compliance with the laws in the latter Member State;
  • the contract relates solely to the hiring of a vehicle without a driver and is not accompanied by a service contract concluded with the same undertaking covering driving or accompanying personnel;
  • the hired vehicle is at the sole disposal of the undertaking using it during the period of the hire contract;
  • the hired vehicle is driven by personnel of the undertaking using it.

The following documents providing proof of the vehicle’s compliance with the requirements must be carried on board:

  • the contract of hire, or a certified extract from that contract giving in particular the name of the lessor, the name of the lessee, the date and duration of the contract and the identification of the vehicle;
  • where the driver is not the person hiring the vehicle, the driver’s employment contract or a certified extract from that contract giving in particular the name of the employer, the name of the employee and the date and duration of the employment contract or a recent pay slip.

The Directive does not affect the application of the rules concerning:

  • the organisation of the market for the carriage of goods by road for hire or reward and own account or access to the market and to quota restrictions on road capacities;
  • prices and conditions for the carriage of goods by road;
  • the formation of hire prices;
  • the import of vehicles;
  • the conditions governing access to the activity or occupation of road-vehicle lessor.
Key terms used in the act
  • vehicle: a motor vehicle, a trailer, a semi-trailer, or a combination of vehicles intended exclusively for the carriage of goods;
  • hired vehicle: any vehicle which, for remuneration and for a determined period, is put at the disposal of an undertaking which engages in the carriage of goods by road for hire or reward or for its own account on the basis of a contract with the undertaking which makes the vehicles available.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2006/1/EC 18.1.2006 OJ L 33 of 4.2.2006

 

Hercule programme

Hercule programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hercule programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Fight against fraud > Protecting the European Union’s financial interests

Hercule programme

Document or Iniciative

Decision No 804/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 establishing a Community action programme to promote activities in the field of the protection of the Community’s financial interests (Hercule programme) [See amending acts].

Summary

The Hercule programme was established by Decision 804/2004/EC for the period 2004-06. By Decision 878/2007/EC, the programme was extended for the period 2007-13.

HERCULE (2004-06)

With a budget of nearly 12 million, the Hercule programme was designed to support the following measures:

  • the organisation of seminars and conferences;
  • the promotion of scientific studies and discussions on Community policies in the field of the protection of the Community’s financial interests;
  • the coordination of activities relating to the protection of the Community’s financial interests;
  • training and awareness;
  • promoting exchanges of specialised staff;
  • the dissemination of scientific information;
  • the development and supply of specific IT tools;
  • technical assistance;
  • promoting and enhancing the exchange of data. On condition that they were located in one of the 25 Member States, in the EFTA/EEA countries, on the basis of the EEA Agreement (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), in Bulgaria, Romania or Turkey, three types of organisation were eligible to receive a grant in 2004-06:
  • national or regional administrations;
  • research and education institutes with legal personality;
  • non-profit-making bodies with legal personality. Aid applications were assessed on the basis of the criteria set out in the annex to the Decision. These criteria were, inter alia, consistency of the proposed activity with the objectives of the programme, complementary nature with respect to other activities receiving support and feasibility, i.e. the specific possibilities of implementation through the means proposed.

The aid amount could not exceed the following rates:

  • 50 % of eligible expenditure for technical support;
  • 80 % of eligible expenditure for training measures, promoting exchanges between specialised staff and organising seminars and conferences;
  • 90 % of eligible expenditure for organising seminars, conferences and other events.

In addition, the amount of an operating grant awarded to finance a body’s operating expenditure could not exceed 70 % of the body’s eligible expenditure for the calendar year. If operating grants were renewed, they were degressive.

HERCULE II (2007-13)

The Hercule II programme covers the period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. The financial envelope for that period is 98.5 million.

The programme provides for Community financing through the granting of aid, but is also available for public procurement contracts. The rules for Community financing are laid down in Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1605/2002 as subsequently amended. In contrast to the previous programme, “operating” grants can no longer be awarded. Consequently, all the funds available for 2007-013 are to be used for activity promotion through grants for activities or public procurement.

The main objectives of the Hercule II programme are:

  • to enhance cooperation between the actors in the fight against fraud damaging to the Community’s financial interests, i.e. the competent authorities in the Member States, the Commission and the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF);
  • to reinforce the networks for exchange of information between Member States, the accession countries and the candidate countries;
  • to provide operational and technical support to law enforcement agencies in the Member States, particularly the customs authorities.

The Hercule II programme is designed to multiply and reinforce measures against cigarette smuggling and counterfeiting.

The organisations which are eligible for grants are the same as in the previous period, provided they are located in one of the 27 Member States, in the EFTA-EEA countries, on the basis of the EEA Agreement (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway) or in one of the EU candidate countries, on the basis of a memorandum of understanding. In addition, the western Balkan states, Russia and the countries covered by the European neighbourhood policy are also eligible for aid in respect of expenditure relating to participation by their representatives.

The Commission assesses applications on the basis of criteria such as the consistency of the proposed activity with the programme objectives, the relationship between the costs and benefits of the measure, the scope of the public targeted, etc. However, the aid granted cannot cover all the expenditure. The maximum rates of aid, which are the same as those that were in force for 2004-06, are as follows:

  • 50 % of eligible expenditure for technical support;
  • 80 % of eligible expenditure for training measures, promoting exchanges between specialised staff and organising seminars and conferences, in respect of national or regional administrations:
  • 90 % of eligible expenditure for organising seminars, conferences and other events, in respect of research and education institutes or non-profit-making organisations.

Throughout the period of the contract or agreement and up to five years after the final payment, the Commission may carry out inspections on the use of the Community financing. If necessary, the Commission may decide to recover the grant paid. The Commission and the persons authorised by it have the right to access the places in which the measure is implemented as well as all the information required in order to carry out the inspection. The European Court of Auditors and OLAF have the same rights.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 804/2004/EC 01.5.2004 OJ L 143, 30.4.2004
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 878/2007/EC 26.7.2007 OJ L 193, 25.07.2007

Hungary – Regional Policy

Hungary – Regional Policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hungary – Regional Policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Hungary

Hungary – Regional Policy

Short-term priorities:

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • ongoing improvements to the budgetary procedures, financial instruments and control and monitoring mechanisms with a view to participating in the European Union’s structural programmes after accession.

Assessment (October 1999)

Hungary has continued to consolidate its internal financial mechanisms at central level.

Assessment (November 2000)

No progress to report.

Assessment (November 2001)

Hungary has continued to adapt its legislative framework and has defined its institutional structure relating to the planning and implementation of aid provided by the Structural and Cohesion Funds. The Ministry for the Economy is still responsible for planning and programming. The Treasury should be the future paying authority. The Ministry of Finance is responsible for regulating and supervising public finances. Specific measures are under way to start an ex-ante evaluation of the national development plan with the help of the Phare programme. A computer surveillance pilot system has been set up and should be extended to the future managing authorities.

Assessment (October 2002)

Hungary has made further progress in preparing for the implementation of the structural policies. As regards territorial organisation, in January 2002 Hungary confirmed the provisional NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Statistical Units) classification designating the whole country as one single unit corresponding to NUTS level I, with seven regions corresponding to NUTS level II. Hungary has re-defined the responsibilities of various ministries which are going to be in charge of programming and managing the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund. Directly attached to the Prime Minister’s office, the National Development Office will be in charge of co-ordinating the preparation of the National Development Plan and act as the managing authority for the future Objective 1 Community Support Framework (CSF) and for the Cohesion Fund. The ministries responsible for managing the future operational programmes (OPs) have been formally designated. The programming process started in January 2001 but has suffered a considerable delay, thus the first part of the national development plan and its ex ante evaluation are still under preparation. A unit responsible for partnership, information and communication has been established within the National Development Office demonstrating the willingness of the authorities to bring together the socio-economic partners for implementing the cohesion policy. With regard to monitoring and evaluation, the National Development Office has recently set up a unit comprising seven experts. The software MEMOR, developed for collecting data on pre-accession instruments, includes a “Structural Funds” module which will be tested in 2002. Concerning financial management and control, the Ministry of Finance is responsible for elaborating management and control systems as well as on-the-spot checks. Furthermore, the ministries responsible for managing the Structural Funds have established Internal Audit Units. Although there is already a system of multi-annual planning of budgetary expenditure in Hungary including provisions for transfers between budget appropriations, the government is committed to further amending the Act on Public Finance to ensure the increased flexibility of procedures. In relation to statistical information, the compilation of regional data has continued. On the other hand, there has been no development regarding the legislative framework.

Hungary has provisionally closed negotiations on the Regional Policy chapter without requesting any transitional arrangements. In order to complete its preparation for membership, Hungary’s efforts now need to focus on finalising the programming documents and strengthening the administrative capacity of the ministries and organisations concerned. New initiatives to ensure effective inter-ministerial co-ordination are also welcome. Significant progress is necessary in the technical preparation for future projects eligible for Community support. The compliance of monitoring and evaluation systems with the requirements of the Acquis Communautaire demands major developments.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Decision 99/850/EC of 06.12.1999
Official Journal L 335, 28.12.1999

Commission opinion COM(97) 2001 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(98) 700 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(1999) 505 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2000) 705 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1748
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002)1404
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1205
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Hungary – Economic policy

Hungary – Economic policy

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hungary – Economic policy

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Hungary

Hungary – Economic policy

Short-term priorities:

  • consolidation of the independence of the National Bank, particularly with regard to government borrowing.

Assessment (November 2000)

No measure has been taken to consolidate the independence of the National Bank as regards government borrowing.

Assessment (November 2001)

Some progress has been made in this area.

Assessment (October 2002)

A large number of objectives have already been achieved on the basis of previous accession partnerships. The 2002 partnership report therefore focuses on very specific outstanding issues and does not provide an overview of Hungary’s preparedness for economic and monetary union.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • regular review of the joint assessment of economic policy priorities, within the Europe Agreement framework, focusing on satisfying the Copenhagen criteria for membership of the Union and the acquis in the area of economic and monetary policy (co-ordination of economic policies, submission of convergence programmes, avoidance of excessive deficits);
  • while Hungary is not required to adopt the euro immediately upon accession, it is expected to pursue policies which aim to achieve real convergence in accordance with the Union’s objectives of economic and social cohesion, and nominal convergence compatible with the ultimate goal of adoption of the euro.

Assessment (October 1999)

Hungary completed a first Joint Assessment in 1997 and is progressing on the second Joint Assessment. Hungary has also continued to progress in its preparation for joining Economic and Monetary Union. The government deficit has been further reduced and the inflation rate has declined. The National Bank is pursuing an exchange rate policy which will result in the forint being linked entirely to the euro by 1 January 2000.

Assessment (November 2000)

No progress has been made on this priority

Assessment (November 2001)

Some progress has been made in this area.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Decision 99/850/EC of 06.12.1999
Official Journal L 335 of 28.12.1999

Commission opinion COM(97) 2001 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(98) 700 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(1999) 505 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2000)705 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2001) 700 – SEC(2001) 1747
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1404
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1205
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Hungary – Agriculture

Hungary – Agriculture

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hungary – Agriculture

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007 > Partnership for the accession of Hungary

Hungary – Agriculture

Short-term priorities:

  • veterinary and plant health sector: further alignment and upgrading of inspections, particularly at the future external borders;
  • modernisation of meat and milk processing plants so that they meet Community hygiene and public health standards;
  • establishment of a vineyard register.

Assessment (November 2000)

No further alignment has been achieved in the veterinary sector. Progress has been made on plant health. There have been no new developments where controls at external borders are concerned and no progress has been made on modernising meat and milk processing plants.

Assessment (November 2001)

Efforts have been made in the veterinary field and to modernise meat and dairy production sites. An operational vineyard register should soon be established.

Assessment (October 2002)

Hungary is continuing with alignment in the veterinary and plant health sector. Border inspection posts and agri-food establishments must be brought up to standard.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Medium-term priorities:

  • alignment with the Community’s agricultural legislation (especially as regards veterinary and plant health matters and external border controls in particular); attention to environmental aspects of agriculture and biodiversity;
  • development of the capacity to implement and enforce the common agricultural policy, in particular the fundamental management mechanisms and administrative structures needed to monitor the agricultural markets;
  • implementation of structural and rural development measures;
  • adoption and implementation of veterinary and plant health requirements;
  • upgrading of certain food processing plants and testing and diagnostic facilities;
  • restructuring of the agri-food sector.

Assessment (October 1999)

Hungary has made only limited progress in this area, notably by preparing to implement gradually the common agricultural policy.

Assessment (November 2000)

No progress has been made on this priority.

Assessment (November 2001)

Hungary has made some progress in establishing the administrative and legal framework for the common organisations of the market. A food strategy was adopted in April 2001 and a food safety agency is due to be established.

Assessment (October 2002)

Hungary continues to make progress but efforts must be made to implement the integrated administration and control system and set up the Sapard agency.

Assessment (November 2003)

Please refer to the fact sheets on the adoption of the Community acquis.

Following the signing of the Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia acceded to the European Union on 1 May 2004.

References

Decision 99/850/EC of 6.12.1999
Official Journal L 335, 28.12.1999

Commission opinion COM(97) 2001 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(98) 700 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(1999) 505 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2000) 705 final
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1748
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission report COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1404
Not published in the Official Journal

Commission Report COM(2003) 675 final – SEC(2003) 1205
Not published in the Official Journal

Treaty of Accession to the European Union [Official Journal L 236, 23.09.2003]

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.