Category Archives: Energy efficiency

Reducing energy consumption and eliminating energy wastage are among the main goals of the European Union (EU). EU support for improving energy efficiency will prove decisive for competitiveness, security of supply and for meeting the commitments on climate change made under the Kyoto Protocol. There is significant potential for reducing consumption, especially in energy-intensive sectors such as buildings, manufacturing, energy conversion and transport. At the end of 2006, the EU pledged to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020. To achieve this goal, it is working to mobilise public opinion, decision-makers and market operators and to set minimum energy efficiency standards and rules on labelling for products, services and infrastructure.

Cogeneration

Cogeneration

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Cogeneration

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Cogeneration

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC [See amending act].

Summary

The principle of cogeneration

Cogeneration is a technique allowing the production of both heat and electricity. The heat is in the form of high pressure water vapour or hot water.

An electricity/heat cogeneration plant operates by means of gas turbines or engines. Natural gas is the form of primary energy most commonly used to fuel cogeneration plants. However, renewable energy sources and waste can also be used.

Unlike traditional power stations where exhaust gases are directly evacuated by the chimney, the gases produced by cogeneration are first cooled before being evacuated by the chimney, releasing their energy into a hot water/steam circuit.

Electricity/heat cogeneration installations can achieve energy efficiency levels of around 90 %. The development of cogeneration could avoid the emission of some 250 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions in 2020.

Promotion of cogeneration

The objective of this Directive is to establish a transparent common framework to promote and facilitate the installation of cogeneration plants. This overall objective comprises two specific aims:

  • in the short term, the Directive should make it possible to consolidate existing cogeneration installations and promote new plants;
  • in the medium to long term, the Directive should create the necessary framework for high efficiency cogeneration to reduce emissions of CO2 and other substances and to contribute to sustainable development.

There are already examples of regulatory developments in some Member States, such as Belgium (green certificates and cogeneration quotas), Spain (a decree on the sale of cogeneration electricity) or Germany (a law on cogeneration).

The Commission has established harmonised efficiency reference values for separate production of electricity and heat (see under “Related Acts”). Member States must ensure, on the basis of the harmonised efficiency reference values and within six months of their adoption, that the origin of electricity produced from high-efficiency cogeneration can be guaranteed according to objective, transparent and non-discriminatory criteria laid down by each Member State.

Member States must ensure that the guarantee of origin of the electricity enables producers to demonstrate that the electricity they sell is produced from high-efficiency cogeneration.

A guarantee of origin must:

  • specify the lower calorific value of the fuel source from which the electricity was produced, specify the use of the heat generated together with the electricity and the dates and places of production;
  • specify the quantity of electricity from high-efficiency cogeneration that the guarantee represents (this quantity being calculated in accordance with Annex II);
  • specify the primary energy savings calculated in accordance with Annex III based on harmonised efficiency reference values established by the Commission.

Member States must analyse the national potential for the application of high-efficiency cogeneration.

Background

Cogeneration saves energy and improves security of supply. However, there is still considerable unexploited potential for cogeneration in the Member States. Moreover cogeneration would make it possible to:

  • reduces losses on the electrical grid because cogeneration installations are usually closer to the consumption point;
  • increase competition among electricity producers;
  • set up new enterprises;
  • save energy in isolated or extremely remote areas.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2004/8/EC

21.2.2004

21.2.2006

OJ L 52 of 21.2.2004

Amending act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 219/2009

20.4.2009

OJ L 87 of 31.3.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2004/8/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for information only.

Related Acts

Proposal for a Directive

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 2011 on energy efficiency and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC [COM(2011) 370 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

The European Commission has set itself the overall objective of reducing energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. To that end, it proposes a new energy efficiency strategy which follows on from its Energy Efficiency Plan 2011. This Proposal for a Directive includes elements of that Plan with a view to making them legally binding.
It also proposes to repeal Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC insofar as they no longer make it possible to tap energy saving potential to the full.

Communication

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council –Europe can save more energy by combined heat and power generation [COM(2008) 771 final – Not published in the Official Journal officiel].
The European Commission reports on the application of Directive 2004/8/EC in the Member States. 22 Member States have partially transposed the Directive and published reports on their cogeneration potential, and on the administrative changes that have been implemented. 11 Member States have communicated an analysis of their national potential.
The Commission underlines the obstacles impeding the development of cogeneration and states that further efforts are still required. It therefore invites Member States to apply the Directive as a matter of urgency. Infringement procedures could be implemented if this is not the case.

Directives

Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings [Official Journal L 153 of 18.6.2010].

Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market [Official Journal L 283 of 27.10.2001].

Council Directive 92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 on efficiency requirements for new hot-water boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels [Official Journal L 167 of 22.6.1992].

Decisions

Commission Decision 2007/74/EC of 21 December 2006 establishing harmonised efficiency reference values for separate production of electricity and heat in application of Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [Official Journal L 32 of 6 February 2007].

Commission Decision 2008/952/EC of 19 November 2008, establishing detailed guidelines for the implementation and application of Annex II to Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [Official Journal L 338 of 17 December 2008].

Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

Action Plan for energy efficiency

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Action Plan for energy efficiency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Action Plan for energy efficiency (2000-2006)

The Commission presents an Action Plan aimed at reducing energy consumption by improving energy efficiency. The goal is to protect the environment, enhance security of energy supply and establish a more sustainable energy policy.

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, of 26 April 2000, entitled: “Action Plan to improve energy efficiency in the European Community” [COM(2000) 247 – not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Background

Energy efficiency means reducing energy consumption without reducing the use of energy-consuming plant and equipment. The aim is to make better use of energy. Energy efficiency means promoting behaviour, working methods and manufacturing techniques which are less energy-intensive.

The measures to promote energy efficiency form part of the wider objectives of the European Community’s energy and environment policy. Greater energy efficiency has a major role to play in meeting the targets set in the Kyoto Protocol. It encourages a more sustainable energy policy and is a key element in the security of energy supply in the European Community, a subject which has given cause for concern in recent years.

The Action Plan is a follow-up to the Commission communication adopted in April 1998 on the rational use of energy and the Council resolution on energy efficiency.

This summary presents the measures proposed by the Action Plan and, where appropriate, gives an update of certain measures taken since its adoption.

Barriers to energy efficiency

There are many barriers to energy efficiency, such as inefficient use of energy in the industrial sector. Commercial barriers are also a major obstacle to improving energy efficiency, as they can prevent access to technologies and the spread of efficient energy forms. These include in particular:

  • the practice of selling energy by kWh rather than as a service;
  • energy prices that do not reflect the real costs of energy as they do not include the externalities;
  • institutional and legal barriers;
  • lack of or incomplete information which often hampers the use of cost-effective and energy-efficient technology.

Objectives

According to the 1998 Communication, the European Community’s energy consumption could be reduced by 18% compared with the current situation by improving energy efficiency. The Action Plan proposes a target of a 1% decrease per annum until 2010 over and above that currently envisaged. This means that two thirds of the overall objective should be achieved by 2010.

In order to meet this overall objective, the Commission has set detailed targets with the aim of developing action in the area of energy and environment policy, refocusing attention on the subject, underlining the possibility of exceeding the objectives set and, finally, introducing measures to ensure the long-term improvement of energy efficiency, through the use of market forces and new technologies.

Implementation

A wide range of instruments is to be used to implement the plan at European Community and national level. Many of the proposed actions are not mandatory (voluntary agreements, for example). The Community policies reinforce and supplement those of the Member States and the Community has an important coordinating role, through the SAVE programme in particular. It is important to note that SAVE projects will be undertaken in the areas described below. They are an important instrument for implementing the plan. A significant role is also attributed to the Fifth R&D Framework Programme.

The proposed actions are divided into three categories:

  • measures to integrate energy efficiency into other Community policies;
  • initiatives to strengthen and extend existing policies;
  • new policies and measures.

Category 1: Measures to integrate energy efficiency into other Community policies

There are six main areas:

Transport

The transport sector is a priority area for energy efficiency as it is responsible for over 30% of final energy consumption. The measures are mostly of a non-technological nature and include promoting the establishment of new infrastructures and, consequently, intermodality;

Modern enterprise policy

It is necessary to encourage sustainable development. This primarily concerns industries and can be achieved through voluntary agreements;

Regional and urban policy

This dimension should be integrated into the allocation of resources through the Structural Funds, the Regional Fund, the Cohesion Fund, etc.;

Research and Development

The Fifth Framework Programme of Research and Development and in particular the energy programme contribute to the research in this area. Of the 1 042 million allocated to energy between 1999 and 2002, 440 million will be allocated to energy efficiency;

Taxation and tariff policy

The Commission considers initiatives in these two areas important for improving energy efficiency. Tax exemptions for investments in energy efficiency are a possible example. In this connection, the Commission has already proposed a Community framework for taxation of energy products;

International cooperation and pre-accession activities

Approximation of legislation, harmonised efficiency standards, etc. as well as a measure of international liberalisation are desirable. In this context, the Energy Charter concluded with third countries and the participation of accession countries in programmes such as SAVE are important initiatives.

Category 2: Measures to strengthen and expand existing measures

It is necessary to strengthen and expand measures in four priority areas:

Transport

The proposed measures involve both non-mandatory measures (voluntary agreements) and legislation. The Commission has already set ambitious targets for this key sector, such as reducing the average CO2 emissions of new vehicles by one third by 2005/2010 compared with 1995 with the aid of voluntary agreements. Voluntary agreements have already been negotiated with the automobile industry. It is necessary to monitor and evaluate these agreements and to provide incentives to apply them in full.

Household appliances, commercial and other equipment

This covers equipment such as large domestic electrical appliances and lighting. The proposed measures principally concern labelling systems and minimum standards for energy efficiency.
It is necessary to reinforce and expand the existing Community labelling system which, although useful, has been relatively badly applied in certain cases (e.g. the labelling system for domestic appliances). In December 2006, the Community concluded a new agreement with the United States on energy efficiency on office equipment (the Energy Star label and programme). There must also be close synergy with the EU ” Eco-Label ” system.

As for agreements concerning minimum efficiency standards, voluntary agreements between the Member States and manufacturers on minimum efficiency standards for appliances have become an alternative to legislation. The Commission itself has concluded two agreements of this type (one on energy consumption by televisions and video recorders in standby mode and one on washing machines). The agreements will be extended to other appliances such as water heaters and dishwashers. There is no labelling system for the commercial and industrial sector. The Commission therefore believes that mandatory minimum efficiency standards are necessary if acceptable voluntary agreements are not concluded. The Commission is also going to propose a framework directive on concluding such agreements that will lay down minimum standards in certain areas, where necessary.

Industry (including electricity and gas companies)

There are plans to

  • conclude long-term agreements in industry;
  • increase combined production of heat and power (CHP);
  • increase the role of energy efficiency in the energy services offered by distributing companies and SMEs.

In the first case, it is necessary to remove technical barriers. This can be achieved via agreements or protocols on minimum energy efficiency, which lay down guidelines for energy-efficient processes and production methods. Such agreements have already been concluded in certain sectors and the scheme should now be extended to the chemical industry, steel industry, etc. The Commission will prepare a communication on harmonising these agreements at Community level.
CHP has a double role in contributing to energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact. An existing measure in particular is to be strengthened, namely Directive 88/609/EEC on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants, which implies greater use of CHP.

Concerning the third objective, it will be necessary to conclude voluntary agreements through which utilities and service companies commit themselves to promoting energy efficiency, while also complying with the normal cost efficiency criteria. Use of rational planning techniques is desirable (the Commission has made a proposal on this subject).

Buildings

Buildings represent approximately 40% of energy consumption and the potential energy saving is more than 20%. The Action Plan proposes amending one of the key directives in this area, i.e. Directive 93/76/EEC on the energy certification of buildings, which seeks to limit carbon-dioxide emissions and includes insulation measures and heating requirements (Directive repealed by Directive 2006/32/EC).

In May 2001, the Commission made a proposal for a complementary directive on the energy performance of buildings. The Directives on boilers (92/42/EEC) and on construction products (89/106/EEC) also figure among the main actions in the sector and, in September 2000, a Directive on energy efficiency for lighting was adopted. The dissemination of good practices, the extension of labelling and the training and qualification of fitters are also planned. Moreover, among the many initiatives in this sector, the Community also finances a “Green Light Programme” concerning lighting in commercial buildings.

Horizontal Measures

The Action Plan sets out a number of “horizontal” initiatives designed to improve energy efficiency, i.e. initiatives which affect several or all of the sectors concerned. These are:

  • decentralisation of energy management at local and regional levels;
  • strengthening third-party financing (private undertakings, for example);
  • better dissemination of information and training via a renewed Community information campaign and specialised training;
  • better monitoring and evaluation methods through greater harmonisation of national monitoring programmes and definition of indicators.

Category 3: New Policies and Measures

New policies should be put in place in order to meet the targets. Some of them have already been implemented on a small scale in the Member States.

Promotion of energy efficiency in public procurement

Public procurement (public institutions, authorities, public enterprises, etc.) can promote the improvement of energy efficiency and thus stimulate demand for energy-efficient technologies. It thereby sets a good example in integrating energy-efficiency measures into public-sector policies/activities. The Commission has launched a study of Member States’ public programmes to provide recommendations for launching pilot projects. In this context, the institutions of the European Union have launched initiatives regarding their own energy management.

Cooperative technology procurement

This involves coordinating the needs and requirements of public-sector calls for tender for energy-efficient technologies, in order to be able to benefit fully from all the available technologies. The introduction of competitive tendering in some Member States should facilitate this task.

Energy audits in industry and the tertiary sector

Energy audits already carried out in certain Member States (sometimes in conjunction with incentives) have supplied useful information which is often difficult to obtain and have identified energy-saving opportunities. The Commission is considering presenting a Community initiative on energy audits in the Member States.

Best Practice

Following a feasibility study on this subject, a best-practices scheme has been launched under the auspices of the SAVE programme. This scheme aims to supply decision-makers and end-users with independent information and advice on energy efficiency and to familiarise them with new techniques and technology.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 19 October 2006, entitled: “Action Plan for energy efficiency: realising the potential” [COM(2006) 545 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The Commission has proposed a new Action Plan aimed at achieving energy savings of 20% by 2020. This Action Plan covers the period 2007-12 and is a follow-up to the Action Plan adopted in 2000; the initiatives taken under the latter Plan have either been implemented already or are being implemented at the present time.

Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC [Official Journal L 114 of 27.4.2006].

Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products and amending Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council [Official Journal L 191 of 22.7.2005].


Another Normative about Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Environment > Tackling climate change

Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12)

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 19 October 2006 entitled: Action Plan for Energy Efficiency: Realising the Potential [COM(2006) 545 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The purpose of this Action Plan is to mobilise the general public, policy-makers and market actors, and to transform the internal energy market in a way that provides EU citizens with the most energy-efficient infrastructure (including buildings), products (including appliances and cars), and energy systems in the world.

The objective of the Action Plan is to control and reduce energy demand and to take targeted action on consumption and supply in order to save 20 % of annual consumption of primary energy by 2020 (compared to the energy consumption forecasts for 2020). This objective corresponds to achieving approximately a 1.5 % saving per year up to 2020.

In order to achieve substantial and sustainable energy savings, energy-efficient techniques, products and services must be developed and consumption habits must be changed so that less energy is used to maintain the same quality of life. The Plan sets out a number of short and medium-term measures to achieve this objective.

The Action Plan runs for a six-year period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2012. The Commission considers this timeframe to be sufficient to adopt and transpose most of the measures it proposes. A mid-term review will be carried out in 2009.

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS

The Commission considers the biggest energy savings are to be made in the following sectors: residential and commercial buildings (tertiary), with savings potentials estimated at 27 % and 30 % respectively, the manufacturing industry, with the potential for a 25 % reduction, and transport, with the potential for a 26 % reduction in energy consumption.

These sectoral reductions of energy consumption correspond to overall savings estimated at 390 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) each year or €100 billion per year up to 2020. They would also help reduce CO2 emissions by 780 million tonnes per year.

These potential savings come in addition to an estimated 1.8 % (or 470 Mtoe) reduction in annual consumption which would partly stem from other measures already adopted and normal replacements of material.

Achieving the 20 % reduction objective will help reduce the EU’s impact on climate change and dependence on fossil fuel imports. The Action Plan will also boost industrial competitiveness, increase exports of new technologies and will have positive benefits in terms of employment. The savings made will, moreover, offset the investments put into innovative technologies.

MEASURES PROPOSED BY THE ACTION PLAN

The Commission included in the Action Plan all measures presenting the best cost-efficiency ratio, i.e. those with the lowest environmental cost over the life cycle, which do not overrun the budget given for investments in the energy sector. Some are priority measures, and should therefore be adopted without delay, whilst others are to be implemented throughout the six-year period set for the Action Plan.

Improving energy performance

Effective action on energy-consuming equipment and appliances requires steps on two fronts: standards for the energy yield of appliances and an appropriate, consumer-focused system to label and evaluate energy performance.

To this end, the Action Plan provides for the adoption of Eco-Design minimum standards to improve the energy yield of 14 groups of products (including boilers, televisions and light fittings) and to extend it to other products in the long-term. In addition, the Commission hopes to strengthen the rules on labelling, in particular by regularly updating classifications and extending these rules to other equipment.

On the basis of Directive 2006/32/EC on end-use energy efficiency and energy services, the Commission plans to draft guidelines, a code of conduct and a certification procedure applicable to all sectors.

To substantially reduce heat loss in buildings, the Action Plan plans to extend the scope of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive to cover small buildings, to develop minimum performance standards applicable to new and renovated buildings and to promote so-called “passive” houses.

Improving energy transformation

The energy transformation sector uses around one third of all primary energy, yet the average energy yield for transformation facilities is around 40 %. There is great potential for improving this, which would substantially help to reduce energy loss. Energy distribution and transport are also sources of energy losses where action could potentially be taken.

The Commission will develop minimum binding energy efficiency requirements for electricity generation facilities, heating and cooling for facilities operating with less than 20 megawatts of power, and possibly for more powerful facilities too.

It also plans to develop, in cooperation with industry professionals, guidelines for good practices designed both for existing facilities and for energy suppliers and distributors. The promotion of cogeneration will also be stepped up and connections with decentralised generation centres will be encouraged.

Limiting the costs linked to transport

With almost 20 % of total primary energy consumption and the fastest growth in consumption, the transport sector represents both a major environmental risk (greenhouse gas emissions) and one of the main factors of dependency on fossil fuels. To solve these problems, it is vital to take action on car use and on promoting cleaner alternative transport.

The Commission plans to set a binding target to reduce polluting car emissions to achieve the threshold of 120g of CO2/km by 2012. It also intends to address the issue of car components, such as air conditioning and tyres, in particular by issuing a European standard for rolling resistance and by promoting tyre pressure monitoring. Moreover, strengthening the rules on vehicle labelling will help to promote the most energy-efficient vehicles, as will proper awareness-raising campaigns and public authorities purchasing clean vehicles.

Urban transport will be the subject of a Green Paper, aimed at pooling experience to encourage the use of alternatives to car transport, such as public transport, non-motorised transport and teleworking.

Reducing the energy consumption of other forms of transport – rail, air and water-based – will also be studied. Accordingly, the Action Plan includes an initiative to extend the greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme to the air transport sector, to improve air traffic control (SESAR), to implement the third rail package, and to connect ships to the electricity network when in harbour.

Financing, incentives and fares

The Action Plan includes several types of measures to facilitate investments designed to boost energy efficiency.

The Commission also calls on the banking sector to offer financing opportunities tailored to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and enterprises providing energy efficiency solutions (businesses providing energy services). In addition, the private banking sector, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the European Investment Bank (EIB) and other international financial institutions will facilitate the establishment of public-private partnerships.

The Commission also plans to remove, where possible, the national legal barriers to shared savings, third-party financing, energy performance contracting and recourse to businesses providing energy services.

Using the Structural and Cohesion Funds will also help provide support to regions in need, especially in the new Member States, including support for habitats.

Taxation is also a powerful tool for providing incentives. Here the Commission notes that it would draft a Green Paper on indirect taxation, revise the Energy Tax Directive, and encourage the taxation of private cars according to their pollution levels. It also highlights the potential for using tax credits as incentives for both companies and households.

Changing behaviour

Consumers’ purchasing decisions will determine the success of the results. The Commission plans a number of educational measures to raise public awareness of the importance of energy efficiency, including education and training programmes on energy and climate change issues. It also proposes to organise a competition to reward the most energy-efficient school.

In addition, the Commission considers that public authorities should set an example. The Commission itself plans to obtain EMAS certification for all buildings it owns, and then to extend the initiative to all EU institutions.

It also plans to adopt guidelines on tenders and to set up networks for cities to exchange good practices concerning energy efficiency in urban areas.

Adapting and developing international partnerships

The Commission considers that European development and trade policies, agreements, treaties and other international instruments represent other ways to promote the spread and use of high energy yield technologies and techniques at global level.

It will launch an international conference with a view to adopting an international framework agreement on energy efficiency which will involve the EU’s main trading partners and key international organisations.

Background

In its Green Paper on the European Energy Strategy, the Commission underlines the need to strengthen its energy efficiency policy. In addition, the target for a 20 % reduction in energy consumption set in this Action Plan is part of the measures requested by the European Council in March 2006 to ensure the environmental feasibility of European Energy Policy.

The policies and measures contained in this Action Plan are based on the consultations launched by the 2005 Green Paper on Energy Efficiency.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 13 May 2008 – “Addressing the challenge of energy efficiency through information and communication technologies” [COM (2008) 241 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

This communication places information and communication technologies (ITCs) at the heart of a combined European climate and energy policy. ITCs are effectively a means of improving energy efficiency in different sectors of the economy. To begin with the focus is on the most promising domains, such as the power grid, energy efficient buildings, smart lighting and ITCs, before the consultation and partnership process is launched, which will identify other areas for action. This communication also encourages research and innovation, cooperation, regional and national initiatives, as well as the dissemination of good practice in the field of ITCs.

Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC [Official Journal L 114 of 27 April 2006].

The EU adopted a framework on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. This framework includes an indicative goal for energy savings applicable to Member States, obligations for national public authorities regarding energy savings and energy efficient procurement and measures to promote energy efficiency and energy services.

Energy end-use efficiency and energy services

Energy end-use efficiency and energy services

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy end-use efficiency and energy services

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy end-use efficiency and energy services

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2006/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on energy end-use efficiency and energy services and repealing Council Directive 93/76/EEC [See amending act(s)].

Summary

The purpose of the Directive is to make the end use of energy more economic and efficient by:

  • establishing indicative targets, incentives and the institutional, financial and legal frameworks needed to eliminate market barriers and imperfections which prevent efficient end use of energy;
  • creating the conditions for the development and promotion of a market for energy services and for the delivery of energy-saving programmes and other measures aimed at improving end-use energy efficiency.

The Directive applies to the distribution and retail sale of energy, the delivery of measures to improve end-use energy efficiency, with the exception of activities included in the greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme, and, to a certain extent, the armed forces. It targets the retail sale, supply and distribution of extensive grid-based energy carriers, such as electricity and natural gas as well as other types of energy such as district heating, heating oil, coal and lignite, forestry and agricultural energy products and transport fuels.

General targets for saving energy

Member States must adopt and achieve an indicative energy saving target of 9 % by 2016 in the framework of a national energy efficiency action plan (NEEAP). This target has been set and calculated in accordance with the method set out in Annex I to the Directive.

They must also appoint one or more new or existing independent public sector authorities or agencies to ensure overall monitoring of the process set up to achieve these targets.

Public sector purchasing policy

Member States must ensure that the public sector adopts measures to improve energy efficiency, inform the public and businesses of the measures adopted and promote the exchange of good practice. Annex VI to the Directive contains measures that the public sector can adopt, including:

  • the use of financial instruments for energy savings, such as third-party financing contracts and energy performance contracts;
  • the purchase of energy-efficient equipment and vehicles;
  • the purchase of low-energy products.

Member States must appoint one or more new or existing organisations to carry out administrative, management and implementation duties in order to meet their obligations.

Promotion of energy end-use efficiency and energy services

Member States must ensure that energy distributors, distribution system operators and energy retail businesses that sell electricity, natural gas, heating oil and district heating:

  • refrain from any activity which could hamper the supply of energy services, programmes to improve energy efficiency and other measures aimed at improving general energy efficiency;
  • supply information on their final customers needed to develop and implement programmes to improve energy efficiency;
  • at the discretion of the Member States, possibly using voluntary agreements or other market-based measures, offer and promote energy services to their final customers or offer and promote energy audits and/or measures to improve energy efficiency or contribute to the financial instruments for improving energy efficiency.

Member States must ensure that market operators are provided with transparent information on programmes and measures to improve energy efficiency.

Member States must also repeal or amend national legislative provisions and regulations which unnecessarily or disproportionately impede or restrict the use of financial instruments or other measures for making energy savings on the energy services market. Model contracts for financial instruments must be made available to interested parties.

They must also develop high-quality energy auditing systems for all final customers aimed at determining which measures can be taken to improve energy efficiency and which energy services it must be possible to provide and prepare for their implementation. Certification following such audits is equivalent to that obtained under the Directive on the energy performance of buildings.

Member States must also ensure that end-users are provided with competitively priced individual metering and informative billing that shows their actual energy consumption. As far as possible, bills must be based on actual energy consumption and must include, in addition to other information, the following: current actual prices and consumption, a comparison of current consumption with consumption for the previous year, contact details of bodies from which information on improving energy efficiency can be obtained. Individual meters must be installed at a competitive price wherever economically and technically feasible.

Finally, Member States must draw up reports in 2011 and 2014 on the administration and implementation of this Directive.

Context

The Green Paper on the security of energy supply highlighted that, if no action is taken, the European Union’s dependence on external energy sources will increase from 50 % to 70 % by 2030 according to current estimates. At the same time, the EU is continuing to produce more and more CO2 and other greenhouse gases and the human activities associated with the energy sector are responsible for no less than 78 % of Union greenhouse gas emissions. This is why efforts must now focus on improving end-use energy efficiency and controlling energy demand.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2006/32/EC

17.5.2006

17.5.2008

OJ L 114 of 27.4.2006

Amending acts Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation No 1137/2008

11.12.2008

OJ L 311 of 21.11.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2006/32/EC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purpose only.

Related Acts

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 2011 on energy efficiency and repealing Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC [COM(2011) 370 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The European Commission has set itself the overall objective of reducing energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. In this context, it proposes a new strategy on energy efficiency which continues its Energy Efficiency Plan 2011. This Proposal for a Directive takes elements from this plan and makes them legally binding.
Furthermore, it proposes to repeal Directives 2004/8/EC and 2006/32/EC, which no longer enable the potential for energy savings to be fully exploited. However, Article 4 of Directive 2006/32/EC should continue to apply in order to enable Member States to reach the objective of achieving 9 % of energy savings by 2016.

Commission Communication of 23 January 2008 on a first assessment of national energy efficiency action plans as required by Directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services – Moving forward together on energy efficiency [COM(2008) 11 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC [OJ L 2011 of 14.8.2009].

Directive 2009/73/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/55/EC [OJ L 211 of 14.8.2009].

Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme

Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme (EU – US)

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 2006/1005/EC of 18 December 2006 concerning the conclusion of the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the European Community on the coordination of energy-efficiency labelling programmes for office equipment [Official Journal L 381 of 28.12.2006].

Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the European Community on the coordination of energy-efficiency labelling programmes for office equipment [Official Journal L 381 of 28.12.2006].

Summary

The European Union (EU) and the United States of America (US) signed a new Energy Star * agreement on 28 December 2006, the aim of which is for manufacturers to voluntarily apply agreed specifications to measure the energy performance of office equipment.
The agreement was signed for a period of five years.

The “Energy Star”® label can be used for office equipment meeting these specifications, so that consumers can easily identify low-energy appliances. They are: computers, computer monitors, photocopiers, printers, digital duplicators, faxes, franking machines, multifunction devices and scanners.

The previous Energy Star agreement remains applicable only to computers until 31 December 2007 at the latest.
The new technical specifications for computers contain provisions on the active mode, unlike the previous agreement, which only took account of the standby mode.

Voluntary participation of manufacturers

Manufacturers, retailers and dealers of office equipment may join the Energy Star programme and use the “Energy Star® * ” label. Equipment labelled as such must meet the agreed specifications (Annex C) and may be tested by the manufacturer or by independent test laboratories.

Programme management and monitoring

The US and the EU each have a managing body for the programme: the US has the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the EU has the European Community Energy Star Board (ECESB), set up in 2003 (see below under “Related Acts”).

The agreement sets out guidelines for the correct use of the Energy Star name and label.

The Commission – via the managing body – is responsible within the EU for testing office equipment carrying this label or checking that it meets the requirements.

If the product fails to meet the requirements, the ECESB:

  • notifies the manufacturer in writing that it fails to comply with the requirements;
  • drafts a plan to ensure compliance with the conditions in the programme;
  • if the conditions are not then met, cancels the manufacturer’s participation in the programme.

Amending and ending the agreement

Either the EU or the US may amend the programme of the managing bodies by common agreement. This includes amending technical specifications or including a new type of product if it becomes more energy efficient.

The agreement may also be ended by giving three months’ notice in writing to the other party. If the agreement is ended, the EU may no longer use the label “Energy Star®”.

Community decision-making

The Community decision-making process is used to establish the internal procedures needed to ensure the agreement operates smoothly.

This decision authorises the Commission to regularly adapt and reassess the technical specifications. The Commission is supported by a Community advisory committee made up of national representatives and all stakeholders.

Background

The first Energy Star agreement was signed with the US in 2001 for a 5-year period. This agreement renews the former agreement, with some changes made:

  • the technical specifications applicable to computer monitors, computers and imaging equipment were revised;
  • three obligations for the EU were removed: promotion of the Energy Star logo by the Commission and Member States, production by the ECESB of a report on market penetration of products meeting the criteria and information on the activities of the ECESB for the Commission to draw up and send to the European Parliament and the Council.
Key terms used in the act
  • Energy Star®: the registered service mark owned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
  • Energy Star labelling programme: a programme managed by a managing body using the specifications, marks and common guidelines on energy efficiency applicable to all designated product types.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Decision 2006/1005/EC 18.12.2006
18.12.2011
OJ L 381 of 28.12.2006

Related Acts

Commission Communication to the Council and the European Parliament on the implementation of the Energy Star programme in the Community for the period 2001-2005 [Official Journal L 381 of 28.12. 2007].

The communication states that the technical specifications contained in the previous agreement targeted the low power mode of office equipment on standby, when energy consumption of appliances in active mode is rising. Appliances are now more powerful and are kept in active mode for longer, due to the increasing use of Internet applications. The new agreement takes on board the importance of the active mode.

Commission Decision 2003/168/EC of 11 March 2003 establishing the European Community Energy Star Board [Official Journal L 67 of 12.03.2003].
This decision establishes the European Community Energy Star Board (ECESB) and includes a list of the national representatives in the Annex.
This board manages the Energy Star programme by regularly consulting Member States and manufacturers, national energy agencies and consumer organisations. The ECESB has also been involved in revising technical specifications.

Commission Decision 2003/367/EC of 15 May 2003 establishing the rules of procedure of the European Community Energy Star Board [Official Journal L 125 of 21.05.2003].

For more information on the Energy Star programme, please see the website set up by the Commission, which sets out the benefits of it for consumers, companies and the public sector.

Product energy consumption: Information and labelling

Product energy consumption: Information and labelling

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Product energy consumption: Information and labelling

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Product energy consumption: Information and labelling (from July 2011)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2010/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the indication by labelling and standard product information of the consumption of energy and other resources by energy-related products (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Directive establishes a framework for labelling and consumer information regarding energy consumption for energy-related products *.

Which products are concerned?

The Directive shall apply to products which are likely to have a direct or indirect impact on the consumption of energy and on other potential resources during use. It does not apply to:

  • second-hand products;
  • any means of transport for persons or goods;
  • product rating plates.

What sort of information must be provided?

Suppliers shall place on the market products that have a label containing information on the product’s consumption of electric energy or other forms of energy.

Suppliers must also make available technical documentation including:

  • a general description of the product;
  • the results of design calculations carried out;
  • test reports;
  • the references allowing identification of similar models.

The technical documentation must be available for a period of five years.

Suppliers shall provide dealers with labels and product information free of charge.

Dealers must affix labels in such a way that they are visible and legible.

What are the conditions for distance selling?

In some situations, the final consumer does not see the product – in particular when purchasing by mail order, by catalogue or through the Internet. However, the consumer must have access to product information through delegated acts which specify the way in which the label or the fiche is displayed or provided to the end-user.

What is the function of delegated acts?

A delegated act shall indicate in particular:

  • a description of the product;
  • measurement standards and methods;
  • details of the technical documentation;
  • the design and content of the label. The classification of the product on the label shall be indicated using the letters A to G. The most efficient class shall be represented by A+++. A scale with a maximum of seven colours shall also be used, and dark green shall always represent the maximum level of efficiency;
  • the location where the label shall be fixed to the product;
  • the duration of label classification.

If a product is covered by a delegated act, contracting authorities which conclude public works, supply or service contracts as referred to in Directive 2004/18/EC shall procure products which comply with high performance levels, expressed as ‘energy classes’. These criteria are as follows:

  • products which allow significant energy savings to be made;
  • equivalent products on the market shall have a wide disparity in performance levels;
  • the Commission shall take into account relevant EU legislation and self-regulation.

A delegated act shall take into account environmental parameters.

The European Commission has the power to adopt delegated acts for a period of five years from 19 June 2010. The period shall be renewed automatically unless the European Parliament or the Council revoke this right. These two institutions also have the power to object to a delegated act.

Transitional provisions

Member States shall apply the provisions of the Directive from 20 July 2011. This Directive repeals Directive 92/75/EEC from 21 July 2011.

Key terms of the Act
  • Energy-related product: any good having an impact on energy consumption during use, which is placed on the market and/or put into service in the Union, including parts intended to be incorporated into energy-related products covered by this Directive which are placed on the market and/or put into service as individual parts for end-users and of which the environmental performance can be assessed independently.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2010/30/EU

19.6.2010

20.6.2011

OJ L 153 of 18.6.2010

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy Efficiency Plan 2011

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 8 March 2011 – Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 [COM(2011) 109 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Energy Efficiency Plan 2011 forms part of the European Union’s (EU) 20 % target (aimed at reducing primary energy consumption) and the 2020 Energy strategy. It aims at:

  • promoting an economy that respects the planet’s resources;
  • implementing a low carbon system;
  • improving the EU’s energy independence;
  • strengthening security of energy supply.

In order to meet these objectives, the European Commission proposes to act at different levels.

Fostering low energy consumption in the construction sector

The Plan emphasises the necessity to implement the means for reducing final energy consumption in buildings, as this sector is responsible for almost 40 % of the final energy consumption in Europe. However, it highlights several obstacles such as “split incentives” which hinder improvements in the energy performance of buildings.

In order to effectively promote low energy consumption in the construction sector, the training of architects, engineers and technicians should be adapted, for example under the “Agenda for new skills and jobs”.

The Plan also states that Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) may give financial assistance to public authorities to modernise buildings and thus reduce their energy consumption.

Developing competitive European industry

The Commission wishes to encourage new production capacity and infrastructures to replace old equipment. These new infrastructures must comply with the requirements of the Directive on the emission allowance trading scheme and the Directive on industrial emissions.

It is also crucial to introduce a scheme for the effective recovery of heat losses from electricity and industrial production, and to valorise cogeneration.

The Commission also proposes to create instruments which allow financial value to be attributed to energy savings and link profits of utilities (suppliers and distributors) to energy efficiency and not to the volume of energy delivered.

Lastly, the Plan provides for increased energy efficiency in industry, particularly in European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Regular energy audits should become mandatory.

Adapting national and European financing

In order to promote energy efficiency, the European Commission proposes to intensify energy taxation and carbon taxes by means of the following instruments:

  • the cohesion policy;
  • the Intelligent Energy Europe programme (2007-2013);
  • intermediated funding;
  • the European Energy Programme for Recovery;
  • the Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (2007-2013).

Making savings for the consumer

Initially, the Commission proposes to reinforce the approach of the “Ecodesign” Directive and to define strict standards for heating boilers, water heaters and computers for example.

Furthermore, consumers’ understanding of the Ecolabel should be improved in order to facilitate the choice of energy-efficient products. Consumers should also have information about their own energy consumption in real time by means of “intelligent” individual meters, as recommended in the Directive establishing the internal market in electricity.

Improving transport efficiency

The transport sector represents 32 % of final energy consumption. The Commission intends to define a strategy to improve the efficiency of this sector, for example by introducing traffic management in all modes of transport.

Widening the scope of the national framework

Member States have implemented national plans to meet the target of reducing EU primary energy consumption by 20 %. However, the Commission suggests widening the scope of these plans to cover all stages of the energy chain and better exploit potential energy savings.

Context

In November 2008, the Commission published the Communication “Energy efficiency: delivering the 20 % target” recommending a reduction of 20 %, by 2020, of primary energy consumption. It transpired that this target would be difficult to achieve if the EU did not exploit the considerable potential of energy savings in sectors such as buildings and transport. This Plan therefore proposes new overarching guidelines for energy efficiency taking account of current parameters.

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Energy efficiency

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency

Reducing energy consumption and eliminating energy wastage are among the main goals of the European Union (EU). EU support for improving energy efficiency will prove decisive for competitiveness, security of supply and for meeting the commitments on climate change made under the Kyoto Protocol. There is significant potential for reducing consumption, especially in energy-intensive sectors such as buildings, manufacturing, energy conversion and transport. At the end of 2006, the EU pledged to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20% by 2020. To achieve this goal, it is working to mobilise public opinion, decision-makers and market operators and to set minimum energy efficiency standards and rules on labelling for products, services and infrastructure.

POLICY ORIENTATIONS

  • Energy Efficiency Plan 2011
  • Energy efficiency for the 2020 goal
  • Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007-12)
  • Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) (2007-2013)
  • The Global Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund
  • Green Paper on energy efficiency
  • “Intelligent Energy for Europe” programme (2003-2006)
  • Action Plan for energy efficiency (2000-2006)

DELIVERING ENERGY EFFICIENCY

  • Energy performance of buildings
  • Energy end-use efficiency and energy services
  • Cogeneration

Energy efficiency of products

  • Product energy consumption: Information and labelling (from July 2011)
  • Tyre labelling
  • Ecodesign for energy-using appliances
  • Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts
  • Energy efficiency of office equipment: The Energy Star Programme (EU – US)
  • Hot-water boilers

Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts

Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts

2 emissions. Moreover, the inappropriate outdoor use of these lamps increases both light pollution and the energy consumption of lighting. This Regulation therefore sets ecodesign requirements for these products with a view to reducing their environmental impact.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 of 18 March 2009 implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for ballasts and luminaires able to operate such lamps, and repealing Directive 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation lays down the ecodesign rules applicable to certain types of lamps to be used for general lighting, specifically:

  • fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast *;
  • high intensity discharge lamps *;
  • ballasts * and luminaires * able to operate such lamps.

Ecodesign requirements

This Regulation defines ecodesign requirements in three progressive stages (2009, 2012 and 2017), each representing a gradual increase in the targets and/or extending the scope of the requirements to new sub-categories of products. These requirements concern:

  • lamps: they must meet efficacy, performance and information requirements. The different types of lamps must reach a certain luminous efficacy in each wattage category, and meet lamp life and lamp lumen maintenance requirements. Furthermore, manufacturers of lamps are required to provide information concerning, in particular, the wattage, lamp lumen, efficacy, maintenance factor, mercury content, colour rendering index and colour temperature of the lamps.
  • ballasts: they must meet energy performance and information requirements. When the lamps are switched on, the ballasts must comply with minimum efficacy thresholds. In addition, the power consumption of fluorescent lamp ballasts shall not exceed 1.0 W when the connected lamps are switched off. Manufacturers of ballasts are required to provide information on the energy efficiency index of products.
  • luminaires: they must meet energy performance and information requirements. When the lamps are switched on, the power consumption of the luminaires for fluorescent lamps shall not exceed that of the incorporated ballasts. Manufacturers of luminaires are required to provide information on the efficiency of all ballasts and lamps sold with a luminaire, as well as maintenance and disassembly instructions.

Conformity assessment

Manufacturers or their representatives are required to carry out a conformity assessment before placing an energy-using product on the market.

Verification procedures for market surveillance purposes

Member State authorities shall apply market surveillance procedures regarding:

  • lamps: tests are carried out on a sample batch of a minimum of twenty lamps of the same model from the same manufacturer. The average results must not vary from the limit, threshold or declared values by more than 10 %.
  • ballasts and luminaires: tests are carried on one single unit. The results obtained must not exceed the limit values. Otherwise, three more units shall be tested.

Indicative benchmarks

This Regulation establishes indicative benchmarks applicable to the performance of products covered by this Regulation, and to installations using these same products. These benchmarks are established particularly with a view to limiting the light pollution caused by public lighting installations.

This Regulation repeals Directive 2000/55/EC.

Key terms of the Act
  • Fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast: a discharge lamp of the low pressure mercury type in which most of the light is emitted by one or several layers of phosphors excited by the ultraviolet radiation from the discharge, single and double capped without integrated ballast.
  • High intensity discharge lamps: a lamp in which the light is produced, directly or indirectly, by an electric discharge through a gas, a metal vapour or a mixture of several gases and vapours, and in which the light producing arc is stabilised by wall temperature and the arc has a bulb wall loading in excess of 3 watts per square centimetre.
  • Ballast: a device which serves mainly to limit the current of the lamp(s) to the required value.
  • Luminaire: an apparatus which distributes, filters or transforms the light transmitted from one or more light sources and which includes all the parts necessary for supporting, fixing and protecting the light sources and, where necessary, circuit auxiliaries together with the means for connecting them to the supply, but not the light sources themselves.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 245/2009

13.4.2009

OJ L 76, 24.3.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference only.


Another Normative about Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Internal market > Single Market for Goods > Construction

Ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for their ballasts

2 emissions. Moreover, the inappropriate outdoor use of these lamps increases both light pollution and the energy consumption of lighting. This Regulation therefore sets ecodesign requirements for these products with a view to reducing their environmental impact.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 of 18 March 2009 implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to ecodesign requirements for fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast, for high intensity discharge lamps, and for ballasts and luminaires able to operate such lamps, and repealing Directive 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (Text with EEA relevance).

Summary

This Regulation lays down the ecodesign rules applicable to certain types of lamps to be used for general lighting, specifically:

  • fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast *;
  • high intensity discharge lamps *;
  • ballasts * and luminaires * able to operate such lamps.

Ecodesign requirements

This Regulation defines ecodesign requirements in three progressive stages (2009, 2012 and 2017), each representing a gradual increase in the targets and/or extending the scope of the requirements to new sub-categories of products. These requirements concern:

  • lamps: they must meet efficacy, performance and information requirements. The different types of lamps must reach a certain luminous efficacy in each wattage category, and meet lamp life and lamp lumen maintenance requirements. Furthermore, manufacturers of lamps are required to provide information concerning, in particular, the wattage, lamp lumen, efficacy, maintenance factor, mercury content, colour rendering index and colour temperature of the lamps.
  • ballasts: they must meet energy performance and information requirements. When the lamps are switched on, the ballasts must comply with minimum efficacy thresholds. In addition, the power consumption of fluorescent lamp ballasts shall not exceed 1.0 W when the connected lamps are switched off. Manufacturers of ballasts are required to provide information on the energy efficiency index of products.
  • luminaires: they must meet energy performance and information requirements. When the lamps are switched on, the power consumption of the luminaires for fluorescent lamps shall not exceed that of the incorporated ballasts. Manufacturers of luminaires are required to provide information on the efficiency of all ballasts and lamps sold with a luminaire, as well as maintenance and disassembly instructions.

Conformity assessment

Manufacturers or their representatives are required to carry out a conformity assessment before placing an energy-using product on the market.

Verification procedures for market surveillance purposes

Member State authorities shall apply market surveillance procedures regarding:

  • lamps: tests are carried out on a sample batch of a minimum of twenty lamps of the same model from the same manufacturer. The average results must not vary from the limit, threshold or declared values by more than 10 %.
  • ballasts and luminaires: tests are carried on one single unit. The results obtained must not exceed the limit values. Otherwise, three more units shall be tested.

Indicative benchmarks

This Regulation establishes indicative benchmarks applicable to the performance of products covered by this Regulation, and to installations using these same products. These benchmarks are established particularly with a view to limiting the light pollution caused by public lighting installations.

This Regulation repeals Directive 2000/55/EC.

Key terms of the Act
  • Fluorescent lamps without integrated ballast: a discharge lamp of the low pressure mercury type in which most of the light is emitted by one or several layers of phosphors excited by the ultraviolet radiation from the discharge, single and double capped without integrated ballast.
  • High intensity discharge lamps: a lamp in which the light is produced, directly or indirectly, by an electric discharge through a gas, a metal vapour or a mixture of several gases and vapours, and in which the light producing arc is stabilised by wall temperature and the arc has a bulb wall loading in excess of 3 watts per square centimetre.
  • Ballast: a device which serves mainly to limit the current of the lamp(s) to the required value.
  • Luminaire: an apparatus which distributes, filters or transforms the light transmitted from one or more light sources and which includes all the parts necessary for supporting, fixing and protecting the light sources and, where necessary, circuit auxiliaries together with the means for connecting them to the supply, but not the light sources themselves.

Reference

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 245/2009

13.4.2009

OJ L 76, 24.3.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 245/2009 have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated version is for reference only.

Hot-water boilers

Hot-water boilers

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Hot-water boilers

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Energy > Energy efficiency

Hot-water boilers

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 92/42/EEC of 21 May 1992 on efficiency requirements for new hot-water boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels [See amending acts].

Summary

This Directive comes under the SAVE Programme concerning the promotion of energy efficiency in the Community.

Scope

It determines the objectives or “essential requirements” which must be met, during manufacture and before being placed on the market, by hot-water boilers fired with liquid or gaseous fuels with a rated output of no less than 4 kW and no more than 400 kW:

  • standard boilers;
  • low-temperature boilers;
  • gas condensing boilers.

The Directive does not apply to:

  • hot-water boilers capable of being fired by different fuels, including solid fuels;
  • equipment for the instantaneous preparation of hot water;
  • boilers designed to be fired by fuels other than the liquid and gaseous fuels commonly marketed;
  • cookers and appliances designed mainly to heat the premises in which they are installed and, as a subsidiary function, to supply hot water for central heating and sanitary hot water;
  • appliances with rated outputs of less than 6 kW using gravity circulation and designed solely for the production of stored sanitary hot water;
  • boilers manufactured on a one-off basis;
  • cogeneration units (Directive 2004/8/EC).

European standardisation bodies

Harmonised European standards are drawn up on the basis of the essential requirements by the European standardisation bodies. These standards, which are not mandatory, are published in the Official Journal of the European Union and transposed in the form of national standards with identical contents.

Any boiler manufactured in accordance with the relevant harmonised standards is presumed to conform to the essential requirements.

The procedures for assessing whether new boilers conform to the essential requirements are based on the modular approach set out in Council Decision 768/2008/EEC concerning conformity assessment procedures and the affixing of the ” CE” conformity marking. The assessment of the conformity of the boilers is carried out:

  • either by bodies designated by the Member States in accordance with the minimum assessment criteria and notified to the Commission and the other Member States;
  • or by the manufacturers themselves.

Notified bodies

The NANDO (EN) database can be used to find European notified bodies as well as third country bodies that are responsible for carrying out the conformity assessment procedures referred to in the New Approach directives.

“CE” marking

The “CE” conformity marking must be affixed to boilers before they are placed on the market. This marking:

  • shows that they conform with the provisions of Directive 92/42/EEC;
  • consists solely of the initials “CE”;
  • is affixed by the manufacturer or the manufacturer’s agent established within the Community.

The Member States set penalties if they find that the “CE” marking has been affixed unduly.

ECO-DESIGN

Directive 92/42/EC is one of the measures implementing the Framework Directive 2009/125/EC on eco-design, which removes the option for Member States to apply a specific labelling system to boilers which are more efficient than standard ones.

The Framework Directive applies to all energy-using products placed on the market, with the exception of motor vehicles which are covered by specific legislation. All energy sources are covered and the implementing measures will probably only cover products using electricity and solid, liquid and gaseous fuels.
This Framework Directive will lead to increased long-term energy saving for the benefit of consumers, which will also help strengthen the security of energy supplies in the European Union (EU).
This measure is an example of the implementation of integrated product policy and is one of the objectives of the sixth Community environment action programme.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 92/42/EEC 3.6.1992 31.12.1992 OJ L 167 of 22.6.1992
Amending acts Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Officiel Journal
Directive 93/68/EEC

2.8.1993

1.7.1994

OJ L 220 of 30.8.1993

Directive 2004/8/EC

21.2.2004

OJ L 52 of 21.2.2004 ; corrigendum OJ L 192 of 29.5.2004

Directive 2005/32/EC

6.8.2005

11.8.2007

OJ L 191 of 22.7.2005

Directive 2008/28/EC

21.3.2008

OJ L 81 of 20.3.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 92/42/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purpose only.

Related Acts

Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings [OJ L 153 of 18.6.2010].