Category Archives: Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

The European Union (EU) encourages cooperation with educational institutions in non-EU countries and stresses the need to promote the Union as a global centre of excellence in the field of education and vocational training. The mobility of students from non-EU countries is essential in meeting these objectives. The Erasmus Mundus cooperation programme supports cooperation and mobility between EU schools and higher education institutions and their counterparts in non-EU countries.

GENERAL FRAMEWORK
Conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service
Education and training in the context of poverty reduction
Strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in higher education

Education, training, youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Education, training, youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Education, training, youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Education, training, youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

The European Union (EU) encourages cooperation with educational institutions in non-EU countries and stresses the need to promote the Union as a global centre of excellence in the field of education and vocational training. The mobility of students from non-EU countries is essential in meeting these objectives. The Erasmus Mundus cooperation programme supports cooperation and mobility between EU schools and higher education institutions and their counterparts in non-EU countries.

GENERAL FRAMEWORK

  • Conditions of admission of third-country nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service
  • Education and training in the context of poverty reduction
  • Strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in higher education

COOPERATION PROGRAMMES

  • Framework of cooperation in higher education, training and youth with Canada
  • Programme for cooperation in higher education and vocational education and training with the United States
  • Erasmus Mundus 2009-2013
  • Erasmus Mundus (2004-08)
  • Tempus III (2000-06)

ENLARGEMENT

Ongoing enlargement

  • Turkey – Education and culture
  • Croatia – Education and culture
  • The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – Education and culture
  • Iceland – Education and culture

Enlargement of January 2007

  • Bulgaria
  • Romania

Enlargement of May 2004

  • Cyprus
  • Estonia
  • Hungary
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Malta
  • Poland
  • The Czech Republic
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia

Education and training in the context of poverty reduction

Education and training in the context of poverty reduction

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Education and training in the context of poverty reduction

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Education and training in the context of poverty reduction

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission of 6 March 2002 to the Council and the European Parliament on education and training in the context of poverty reduction in developing countries [COM(2002) 116 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Education and training play an essential role in reducing poverty and in development.

Priorities

The Commission sets out three priorities for the Community, namely:

  • basic education, in particular primary education, and teacher training;
  • work-related training;
  • higher education, in particular at regional level.

In spite of the vital role of basic education, it is also important to ensure balanced development of education, in other words improved education systems at all levels.

Priority 1: basic education

As regards the development of basic education, nine main actions are set out:

  • increasing substantially the total resources channelled into education, in particular primary education;
  • improving the efficiency of education systems by drawing up strategies that take account of the specific situation of each country;
  • improving school access opportunities and moving towards free and compulsory access to primary education;
  • gearing budgets towards the most urgent needs for poor and vulnerable population groups which have only limited access to schools.
    These groups include women, people living in rural areas, indigenous peoples, children and disabled adults, etc;
  • reducing existing gender-based inequalities in relation to access to education by promoting the participation of women;
  • placing emphasis as much on the quality as the quantity of education.
    In this context, teacher training and the availability of teaching materials are priorities;
  • paying greater attention to the impact of AIDS on education systems and improving the prevention of the disease through education;
  • protecting and restoring education in conflict and post-conflict periods;
  • increasing knowledge of education programmes relevant to development.

First of all better statistics on education are needed so that a relevant strategy can be drawn up.

Priority 2: workrelated training

Priority should be given to work-related training, in other words consideration should be given to education demand. To this end, four priority actions are identified:

  • establishing an education system which provides an opportunity to learn more technical skills through vocational training. Specialist centres and apprenticeships are some examples of services that could be created for this purpose;
  • supporting educational strategies, systems and processes that promote the demand for education and the acquisition of qualifications needed to pave the way for the country’s economic growth;
  • introducing innovative approaches that go beyond the formal education sector, focusing on women in particular. These could include promoting self-employment and access to other forms of capital (land, loans, for example);
  • introducing active policies to ensure a closer link between training and employment.

These policies could integrate job-seeking aid and direct assistance for job creation.

Priority 3: higher education

Support for higher education is particularly necessary in order to ensure successful teacher training and general institutional development. In this respect, four specific actions are identified:

  • developing information and communication technologies (Internet, telephone, etc.);
  • encouraging cooperation between European and third-country institutions, especially at regional level;
  • ensuring greater vigilance in regard to the impact on these countries of a brain drain to developed countries;
  • enhancing the institutional capacities of developing countries.

Implementation

Implementation of the above actions requires substantial investment on the part of the developing countries and the European Union. European Community funding in the field of education and training will come via two main instruments: macroeconomic and budgetary support and the implementation of a sectoral approach. It is important to ensure effective cooperation and coordination among all donors. The Commission also considers that ownership of the activities and strategies in this field by the people of the developing country, and in particular the poorest and most vulnerable groups, is vital.

The Commission sets out strategic options for the implementation of the actions, in particular:

  • political and strategic dialogue with the countries and integration of the policies in this field into the development strategies drawn up for each country and the poverty reduction strategies;
  • a sectoral approach to provide a framework for the activities in this field;
  • macroeconomic and budgetary support;
  • consideration of the needs of the poor and their participation;
  • participation by education actors and civil society in the broad sense, including the private sector;
  • support for institutional development and capacity-building;
  • monitoring of activities via indicators.

In the Annexe, the Commission sets out a common framework for cooperation on higher education, a code of conduct for funding agencies and some monitoring indicators.

Background

This is borne out by a series of initiatives undertaken at international level. The Dakar Forum (‘ Education for All ‘) in April 2000 reaffirmed and broadened the international community’s commitment in this field and the Millennium development objectives highlighted the importance of education, particularly education for girls and basic education.

As far as the European Union is concerned, the November 2000 statement on development policy identified the promotion of access to social services such as education as a priority field.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 7 October 2005 to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee – Speeding up progress towards the Millennium Development Goals – The European Union’s contribution [COM(2005) 132 final/2 – Not published in the Official Journal]

Commission Staff working document – EU Report on Millennium Development Goals 2000-2004 – EU contribution to the review of the MDGs at the UN 2005 High Level Event [SEC(2005) 456 – Not published in the Official Journal]

Council Resolution 8958/02 of 30 May 2002 on education and poverty

Declaration from the Council and the Commission of 20 November 2000 concerning the development policy of the European Community, on the basis of the Commission’s Communication of 26 April 2000 to the Council and the European Parliament on the same subject.

Strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in higher education

Strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in higher education

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in higher education

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in higher education

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council of 18 July 2001 on strengthening cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in the field of higher education [COM(2001) 385 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

In view of the development of higher education, and given the ever-increasing demand for international education and student mobility, the Commission calls for further efforts at European level to strengthen cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries.

According to this new approach, the European Union (EU) should:

  • ensure that the international dimension is taken into account more systematically in teaching activities;
  • increase its visibility in this field in order to attract students from Non-EU Member Countries.

This Commission Communication proposes an overall strategy and identifies specific rules for intervention.

Proposed methods of intervention

The Commission hopes to make the most of the experience gained from programmes set up in the EU, in particular the Erasmus programme. It also insists that the agreements concluded on educational matters with non-EU member countries are differentiated according to country and even region.

The Communication envisages cooperation based on multilateral networks and partnerships involving countries which have a system of higher education comparable to that of European educational institutions, so that the universities concerned can agree on:

  • exchange arrangements for students and teachers. The development of distance learning and the growth in the use of information technology are also required to play a part in strengthening international partnerships;
  • the academic content of courses to be taught to exchange students;
  • arrangements for recognition of work done by the home and host universities, based on the model of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS), which is the European standard in higher education;
  • arrangements for care of the student while he or she is abroad. The Commission proposes increasing the number of long-term grants for students from Non-EU Member Countries.

The following are to be avoided:

  • exchanges which are not linked to partnerships between academic institutions which have limited advantages for the institutions, and which also limit the sharing of the experience gained;
  • exchanges which do not involve a return to the country of origin, and which are therefore likely to encourage a ‘brain drain’.

In order for cooperation with third countries to be really effective, the exchange of students only is not enough. In particular, they must be accompanied by staff exchanges, along with the development of joint programmes and recognition arrangements for education undertaken abroad.

In cooperation with the Member States, the Commission proposes launching a joint operation to promote the EU as a centre of excellence in learning around the world. To this end, the Commission also suggests increasing capacity for European studies in other countries by extending the network of European Union Studies centres and Jean Monnet Chairs (specialist education positions in the study of European integration) around the world.

A further Commission proposal is to encourage European academic institutions to develop truly European educational “packages” by, for example, introducing joint courses which allow foreign and European students to spend more than one academic year in different Member States. This could lead in some cases to joint diplomas.

The Commission announces the short-term proposal of setting up a pilot programme of scholarships, under the ALFA programme, for teachers and post-graduate students from Latin American countries.

Context

Over the years the Member States have developed a well-established tradition of bilateral cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries in the field of education. The EU has also set up a number of initiatives with Non-EU Member Countries, for example the cooperation programmes with the United States and Canada, or indeed the Tempus, ALFA and Erasmus Mundus programmes.

Turkey – Education and culture

Turkey – Education and culture

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Turkey – Education and culture

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Turkey – Education and culture

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report notes progress concerning education and training. However, it does not note any advancement in the field of culture.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

The fields of education, training, youth and culture are primarily the competence of the Member States. A framework for cooperation on policies relating to education and training has been adopted with a view to converging national policies and achieving joint objectives through an open method of coordination. It came out of the work programme ‘Education and Training 2010’, which brings together all the actions in the field of education and training at European level. Furthermore, Member States must take into account the principles stated in the Treaty and ensure that their international commitments contribute towards preserving and promoting cultural diversity. It requires Member States to equip themselves with a legal, administrative and financial framework and the implementation capacities necessary for ensuring sound financial management of European Union programmes related to education, training and youth.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

In education and culture there has been progress, in particular in the area of education and

training. Interest in the Community Programmes continued to grow. There has been some progress in the area of culture, but no progress on legislative alignment.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report highlighted the progress made in terms of education, particularly with regard to the level of primary education. However, legislative alignment had not been completed in the field of culture.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2008 Report emphasised the progress made, in particular concerning children’s access to education. The measures introduced have made it possible to combat school drop-out rates and to develop access to general and technical education as well as to science education.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC (2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2007 Report noted that considerable progress had been made with regard to Turkey’s participation in the Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action programmes. An important development in the introduction of a national qualifications system should improve participation by adults in lifelong learning measures in the coming years.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC (2006) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2006 Report indicated that significant progress had been made and that alignment with the acquis had almost been completed. However, Turkey needed to make more improvements in the funding available for the bodies responsible for managing Community programmes. At the same time, it also needed to pursue the objectives of the Lisbon strategy, especially in terms of lifelong learning.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC (2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2005 Report noted that Turkey’s participation in three Community programmes (Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci and Youth) had been highly satisfactory. The reforms under way in education and training were broadly in line with the common European objectives and priorities. The Turkish authorities still needed to establish a coherent and comprehensive lifelong learning strategy. On the whole, the education system needed to be further decentralised.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2004 Report noted some progress in the running of Community programmes and the reform of the education and training system. However, further efforts were needed to bring about the integration of disadvantaged groups and improve coordination between education and the jobs market. Strengthening regional services and encouraging education and lifelong learning needed to remain priority areas for Turkey.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2003 Report considered that some progress had been made, but that much remained to be done: completing preparations for participation in the Community programmes, ensuring the implementation of the directive on the education of the children of migrant workers, reviewing the role of the Higher Council for Education, encouraging the participation of disabled children in education and reforming the secondary education system so as to make it more labour-market-oriented.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2002 Report noted that limited progress had been made and that Turkey needed to continue to concentrate on transposing the acquis in this area. With regard to administrative capacity, the reform process, including decentralisation, needed to be accelerated.

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2001 Report stated that Turkey had made only limited progress, but recognised that the new education act adopted in June was a positive step that would also benefit the vocational training sector. This act extended until 2010 the funding provided by the World Bank for secondary education. This development plan aimed to introduce compulsory schooling until the age of 12 by 2005.

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2000 Report noted that preparations had continued for Turkey’s participation in the Community programmes in this field and that some progress had been made. However, improving education remained a priority in Turkey.

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In the October 1999 Report the Commission noted that insufficient information was available to allow an assessment of progress in this area. It was still expected that Turkey would participate in the Community programmes Leonardo da Vinci II, Socrates II and Youth. The Commission was examining the necessary preparatory measures together with Turkey. It was planned that EU funding would be made available for these measures.

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 1998 Report underlined that, despite considerable efforts, the general level of education in Turkey was below that of the EU. The Commission envisaged possible Turkish participation in the three Community programmes in this field (Socrates, Leonardo and Youth for Europe), provided that there was appropriate funding and that the free movement of participants was ensured.

Iceland – Education and culture

Iceland – Education and culture

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Iceland – Education and culture

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Iceland – Education and culture

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1202 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The 2011 Report highlights that Iceland has already put in place most of the European Union (EU) acquis on education and culture. The country applies these provisions due to its membership of the European Economic Area (EEA).

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

The fields of education, training, youth and culture are primarily the competence of the Member States. A framework for cooperation on policies relating to education and training has been adopted with a view to converging national policies and achieving joint objectives through an open method of coordination. It came out of the work programme ‘Education and Training 2010’, which brings together all the actions in the field of education and training at European level.

Furthermore, Member States must take into account the principles stated in the Treaty and ensure that their international commitments contribute towards preserving and promoting cultural diversity. It requires Member States to equip themselves with a legal, administrative and financial framework and the implementation capacities necessary for ensuring sound financial management of European Union programmes related to education, training and youth.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Iceland has achieved a high level of political and legislative alignment in the fields of education and culture.

Croatia – Education and culture

Croatia – Education and culture

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Croatia – Education and culture

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Education training youth: cooperation with non-EU countries

Croatia – Education and culture

acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1326 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

In its 2010 Report, the Commission regrets that Croatia has not made additional progress in the areas of education, training, youth and culture. However, the country has achieved an adequate level of alignment and future effort should essentially focus on preparing the country to participate in European Union programmes.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

Education, training and youth is primarily the competence of the Member States. The EC Treaty provides that the Community will contribute to the development of quality education and implement a vocational training policy that supports and supplements the action of Member States. The acquis consists of a directive on education of the children of migrant workers, and of action programmes and recommendations. Member States need to have the necessary implementing capacity in place to effectively participate in the Community programmes related to this chapter.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

Further progress has been made regarding the acquis in the area of education and culture. There is a good level of alignment.

Croatia needs to continue its efforts to prepare for the management of the Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action Programmes.

Related Acts

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1333 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

The October 2009 report noted that Croatia had made good progress, in particular in aligning with the Community acquis as well as in partially meeting its Accession Partnership priorities. Nevertheless, additional efforts were needed with regard to the management of Community programmes and adult education.

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2694 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

The November 2008 report noted encouraging progress with regard to respect for the Accession Partnership priorities in the field of education, training and youth. Preparations for the management of the programmes were to be continued.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC(2007) 1431 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2007 report noted the continuation of the education reform process and Croatia’s good level of alignment with the acquis. Efforts remained to be made regarding non-discrimination between EU and Croatian nationals in secondary education and the application of the directive on education of children of migrant workers.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC(2006) 1385 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2006 report noted that Croatia had made reasonable progress, particularly in continuing with its reforms, and had achieved a good level of preparation for implementing the acquis. However, it had to put in place the management capacity and infrastructure needed to manage the Community programmes in which it participates. It also had to continue its efforts to guarantee non-discrimination between EU and Croatian nationals.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC(2005) 1424 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2005 report noted that several measures had been taken in connection with the reform of the education and training system, particularly in the area of higher education with the introduction of the Bologna process in study programmes. Croatia’s system of vocational education and training needed substantial improvement. It needed to be based on a coherent national policy approach and pay greater heed to youth policy.

Commission Opinion [COM(2004) 257 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In its opinion of April 2004, the European Commission concluded that Croatia should not encounter any major problems in the field of education and training in the medium term. It would, however, have to make a considerable effort to create a modern vocational education and training system in line with the European Union’s (EU) employment and social policies.