Category Archives: Animal Health

In order to prevent and to combat diseases afflicting animals, the European Union has devised measures to limit the risks of outbreaks and the spread of these diseases and to eradicate them once they have been detected. This legislation complements the rules on veterinary checks and food hygiene, and includes general provisions on the surveillance, notification and treatment of infectious diseases and their vectors, and specific provisions for certain diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), foot and mouth disease or bird flu. Rules applicable to animal medicines have also been established.

Bluetongue

Bluetongue

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Bluetongue

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Bluetongue

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2000/75/EC of 20 November 2000 laying down specific provisions for the control and eradication of bluetongue [See amending act(s)].

Summary

This Directive lays down measures to control and eradicate bluetongue.

Suspected or confirmed cases of the bluetongue virus must be notified to the competent authority of the Member State concerned before implementing the required measures.

Measures for suspected cases of the disease

Where the presence of the disease is suspected in a flock, the official veterinarian is to place the holding(s) concerned under surveillance and undertake a certain number of investigative measures (surveillance of the holding, inventory of the animals and the premises, epidemiological survey, etc.) and protective measures (ban on movements of animals, treatment of animals with insecticide, destruction and disposal of animal carcases, etc.).

Measures for confirmed cases of the disease

If the presence of the disease is confirmed, the official veterinarian will extend the measures introduced on suspicion to all holdings within a 20-km radius around the infected holding(s). He will also carry out an epidemiological survey and may launch a vaccination programme around the outbreaks of bluetongue.

Where the presence of the disease is confirmed, the competent authority must establish a protection zone and a surveillance zone around the holdings.

Protection zone and surveillance zone

The protection zone will extend over a radius of at least 100 kilometres around the infected holding(s). Within that zone, all holdings with animals must be identified and the animals may not leave the zone. The competent authority must establish an epidemiological surveillance programme. A vaccination programme may also be set up within the protection zone.

The surveillance zone will extend for at least 50 kilometres beyond the protection zone. Within that zone, the measures for identification, restriction of movement and epidemiological surveillance applicable within the protection zone must be implemented. However, the vaccination of animals against bluetongue is forbidden.

The protection and surveillance zones may be extended or reduced depending on the epidemiological, geographical, ecological or meteorological circumstances.

Derogations and supplementary measures

The Commission, assisted by the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health may adopt supplementary or derogatory measures. In particular provisions may be adopted to allow animals to leave the protection and surveillance zones under certain conditions.

National laboratories

Each Member State designates a national laboratory responsible for carrying out the laboratory tests provided for by this Directive and then informs the other Member States and the public of the laboratory’s contact details. Each national laboratory must cooperate with the Community reference laboratory located at Pirbright (United Kingdom).

Context

The outbreak of bluetongue at the end of the 1990s demonstrated that the Community legislation then in force did not deal with the specific features of the disease. This Directive takes over a number of measures laid down by Directive 92/35/EEC concerning African horse sickness, which were adaptable to cover bluetongue.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2000/75/EC

22.12.2000

1.1.2002

OJ L 327 of 22.12.2000

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2008/73/EC

12.12.2006

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2000/75/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

African swine fever

African swine fever

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about African swine fever

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

African swine fever

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [See amending acts].

Summary

The Directive lays down the minimum control measures where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed.

Any suspected or confirmed case of the disease must be notified to the competent authority. The Member State concerned informs the Commission and the other Member States of cases of swine fever, outbreaks of the disease and the results of epidemiological inquiries.

Suspected cases of African swine fever on a holding

Where a case is suspected, the Member State must immediately open an official investigation to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease. If the presence of African swine fever on a holding cannot be ruled out, the holding must be placed under official surveillance and restrictions must be placed on the movement of pigs, carcasses, and products that might spread the disease, as well as the movement of persons and vehicles to and from the holding.

An epidemiological inquiry must be carried out.

Confirmation of African swine fever on a holding

If the presence of African swine fever is officially confirmed, all the pigs on the holding are to be killed and their carcasses processed. All material (meat, semen, ova) or waste that might be contaminated must be destroyed, processed or treated to ensure destruction of the virus.

In the case of holdings consisting of two or more separate production units, derogations may be granted for healthy production units on specific, strict conditions.

In addition, all premises, vehicles and equipment that might be contaminated must be cleaned and disinfected under official supervision.

The competent authority must also establish around the outbreak site:

  • a protection zone with a radius of at least three kilometres, itself included in a
  • surveillance zone of a radius of at least 10 kilometres.

Special security measures must be implemented in these zones, in particular a census of all the holdings, a ban on the movement and transport of pigs and cleansing and disinfection measures. The competent authority may authorise, on strict conditions, the removal of pigs from a holding in the surveillance or protection zones within no less than 30 and 40 days respectively after the completion of the preliminary cleansing and disinfection, and, if necessary, disinsectisation of the infected holding.

Where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed in a slaughterhouse or means of transport

Where there is a suspicion of the disease, it must be officially confirmed or ruled out.

Where the presence of the disease is confirmed, all susceptible pigs must be killed and all material (carcases, offal and waste) from animals that might be contaminated must be processed to ensure that the virus is destroyed.

Cleansing, disinfection and, if necessary, disinsectisation of buildings and equipment, including vehicles, must take place under official supervision.

An epidemiological inquiry is carried out. The measures provided for in suspected cases are carried out on contact holdings *. The measures provided for in confirmed cases are applied on the holding of origin of the infected pigs.

Pigs may not be introduced into a holding, slaughterhouse or vehicle that has been affected by the disease until after a minimum period.

Where African swine fever is suspected or confirmed in feral pigs

Where the disease is suspected in feral pigs, the Member State must take all appropriate measures to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease.

Where African swine fever is confirmed in feral pigs, the competent authority of the Member State concerned must establish an expert group to provide assistance, which then defines the infected area and establishes the measures to be applied.

The Member State must immediately place pig holdings in the defined area under official surveillance and order that an official census be carried out of all categories of pigs on all holdings, all pigs on holdings be kept isolated from feral pigs and no pigs enter or leave holdings, except where authorised.

Within 90 days of confirmation of a case of African swine fever, Member States must submit to the Commission a plan of the measures to be taken to eradicate the disease in the infected area. When they have been approved by the Commission, these measures replace those laid down previously. 18. Every six months, the Member State concerned must send the Commission and the other Member States a report concerning the results of the eradication plan and the epidemiological situation in the defined area.

Diagnostic procedures

A diagnostic manual sets out all obligations, criteria and procedures to be applied to diagnostic tests and clinical examinations. These operations must take place exclusively in approved national laboratories.

Each Member State shall designate a national laboratory and then communicate the contact details for their laboratory to the other Member States and to the public. This laboratory is responsible for coordinating the standards and methods of diagnosis aiming at detecting the presence of African swine fever. All national laboratories shall work in cooperation with the Community Reference Laboratories located in Valdeolmos (Spain).

Vectors and vaccines

To prevent any risk of propagation, investigations and measures to eradicate the vectors of the disease (ticks) must be carried out on holdings on which it is confirmed.

The use of African swine fever vaccines is prohibited in the territory of the European Union.

Contingency plans

Each Member State must draw up a contingency plan specifying the national measures to be implemented in the event of an outbreak of African swine fever. The plan is to be drawn up in accordance with the criteria and requirements set out in the Directive.

Member States must ensure that a fully functional national disease control centre can be immediately set up in the event of any outbreaks of African swine fever.

Context

This Directive fills a gap in the control of the most dangerous animal diseases. It is based on the rules on classical swine fever adopted in 2001.

Key Terms of the Act
  • Contact holding: a holding where African swine fever may have been introduced, whether as a result of the location, movement of persons, pigs or vehicles or in any other way.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2002/60/EC

9.8.2002

30.6.2003

OJ L 192 of 20.7.2002

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2002/60/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2003/422/CE of 26 May 2003 approving an African swine fever diagnostic manual [notified under number C(2003) 1696] [Official Journal L 143 of 11.6.2003].

This summary is for information only. It is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document, which remains the only binding legal text.

Animal health

Animal health

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Animal health

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Animal health

In order to prevent and to combat diseases afflicting animals, the European Union has devised measures to limit the risks of outbreaks and the spread of these diseases and to eradicate them once they have been detected. This legislation complements the rules on veterinary checks and food hygiene, and includes general provisions on the surveillance, notification and treatment of infectious diseases and their vectors, and specific provisions for certain diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), foot and mouth disease or bird flu. Rules applicable to animal medicines have also been established.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

  • European Union Animal Health Strategy (2007-2013)
  • Monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents
  • Control of salmonella and other zoonotic agents
  • Notification of diseases
  • Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance

TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES (TSEs) AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES (BSEs)

  • Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs)
  • BSE: state of play in March 2003

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE

  • The fight against foot-and-mouth disease

BLUETONGUE

  • Bluetongue

CLASSIC AND AFRICAN SWINE FEVERS

  • Control of classical swine fever
  • African swine fever

OTHER DISEASES

  • African horse sickness
  • Swine vesicular disease and other animal diseases
  • Avian influenza
  • Fight against Newcastle disease
  • Animal health requirements for aquaculture animals and products thereof
  • Control measures: fish diseases

VETERINARY MEDICINE

  • Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products
  • Preparation and marketing of medicated foodstuffs for animals

African horse sickness

African horse sickness

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about African horse sickness

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

African horse sickness

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 92/35/EEC of 29 April 1992 laying down control rules and measures to combat African horse sickness [See amending act(s)].

Summary

This Directive provides for measures to be taken to combat African horse sickness once an outbreak of the disease is suspected.

Where one or more equidae (horses) on a holding are suspected of being infected with African horse sickness, the official veterinarian must notify the competent authority and take a number of measures, including placing the suspect holdings under surveillance, carrying out a census of the equidae and the infected places, carrying out an autopsy on suspect animals and banning the movement of equidae to or from the suspect holdings.

These measures may only be discontinued by the veterinarian when the competent authority has confirmed that the presence of African horse sickness is no longer suspected.

Where an outbreak of African horse sickness is confirmed, the veterinarian must have all infected equidae slaughtered and the carcases of the animals disposed of. He or she must also extend the measures taken on the holdings concerned to all holdings situated within a 20 km radius, have all animals in this area vaccinated and carry out an epizootiological survey

The competent authority must establish a protection zone (of at least 100 kilometres around the infected holding) and a surveillance zone (of at least 50 kilometres beyond the protection zone), in which certain specific measures are applied. These measures include: identifying all holdings containing equidae, visits and examinations carried out by the official veterinarian and a ban on moving the animals.

People living in these zones must be informed of all the restrictions in force. Systematic vaccination of the animals may be carried out in the protection zone.

Each Member State designates a national laboratory responsible for carrying out the tests laid down in the Directive, then informs the other Member States and the public the address of the laboratory’s contact details. Each national laboratory is required to liaise with the Community reference laboratory which is located in Algete (Spain).

In certain cases Commission experts may carry out examinations on a number of the holdings concerned.

Each Member State must draw up a contingency plan meeting the criteria laid down in the Directive. For example, they must set up a crisis centre and provide a list of local disease control centres and detailed information on the staff involved in control measures.

The Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health assists the Commission in the management of the measures taken against African horse sickness. Its remit includes laying down the duration of the measures and taking additional action.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 92/35/EEC

18.5.1992

31.12.1992

OJ L 157 of 10.6.1992

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 806/2003

5.6.2003

OJ L 122 of 16.5.2003

Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 92/35/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purpose only.

AMENDMENTS TO ANNEXES

ANNEXE I – List of national African horse sickness laboratories:
Decision 2006/911/EC [Official Journal L 346 of 9.12.2006];
Directive 2006/104/EC [Official Journal L 363 of 20.12.2006];
Decision 2007/729/EC [Official Journal L 294 of 13.11.2007];
Directive 2008/73/EC [Official Journal L 219 of 14.8.2008].

ANNEXE II – Community reference laboratory:

Decision 2007/729/EC [Official Journal L 294 of 13.11.2007].

Fight against Newcastle disease

Fight against Newcastle disease

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Fight against Newcastle disease

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Fight against Newcastle disease

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 92/66/EEC of 14 July 1992 introducing Community measures for the control of Newcastle disease [See amending acts].

Summary

This Directive lays down measures for tackling Newcastle disease as soon as its presence is detected in poultry. Similar measures are applied to racing pigeons and other birds kept in captivity.

Once a case of Newcastle disease is suspected, the official veterinarian shall inform the competent authority and implement the measures imposed by them. These measures provide for:

  • the placing of all holdings with suspected outbreaks under surveillance;
  • a record of all categories of poultry kept on the holdings to be made;
  • the isolation of all animals in their living quarters;
  • the banning of transporting poultry;
  • the competent authority to limit the movement of people, vehicles, other animals and materials connected with the poultry, which are liable to be contaminated;
  • the requirement that eggs remain within the holding;
  • the installation of appropriate means of disinfection inside the holding;
  • carrying out an epizootiological inquiry.

The preventative measures shall be withdrawn by the veterinarian once the suspicion of Newcastle disease has been officially ruled out.

Once the presence of Newcastle disease has been officially confirmed, the competent authority shall order a series of measures, including:

  • all poultry on the holding shall be killed;
  • all substances and waste liable to be contaminated shall be destroyed or treated appropriately;
  • meat from poultry from the holding, slaughtered during the presumed incubation period of disease shall be destroyed;
  • eggs laid during the presumed incubation period shall be destroyed;
  • buildings used for housing poultry shall be cleaned and disinfected;
  • no poultry shall be reintroduced to the holding until at least 21 days after completion of cleaning and disinfecting operations;
  • carrying out an epizootiological inquiry.

Some flocks of poultry do not have to be destroyed if the official veterinarian confirms that the animals are healthy and have been completely separated from infected flocks.

After the confirmation of Newcastle disease, the competent authority shall establish a protection zone (based on a minimum radius of three kilometres around the infected holding) and a surveillance zone (based on a minimum radius of 10 kilometres around the infected holding), in which specific measures apply. These measures include, amongst others, the identification of all holdings keeping poultry, periodic visits, clinical examinations and isolating animals. The measures applied in the protection zone shall be withdrawn no less than twenty one days after the cleaning and disinfecting of the holding. In the surveillance zone the measures shall be maintained for thirty days after the cleaning and disinfecting operations.

Each Member State shall designate a national laboratory responsible for coordinating the standards and methods of diagnosis, the use of reagents and the testing of vaccines for Newcastle disease. Each Member State shall then communicate the details of their laboratory to the other Member States and the public. The national laboratories shall work in cooperation with the Community reference laboratory, located in Weybridge (United Kingdom).

Vaccination against Newcastle disease can be carried out in accordance with procedures laid down by Member States. Member States may also provide a vaccination programme for racing pigeons. If the presence of the disease is confirmed, emergency vaccination may also be performed in the zones and for periods as defined by the competent authority.

Each Member State shall draw up a contingency plan which shall determine how Newcastle disease will be managed nationally. The plans shall comply with the series of criteria detailed in this Directive. For example, they must include the establishment of a crisis centre, local disease control centres and detailed information on the staff responsible for the emergency measures.

Commission experts may undertake checks on national establishments.

In order to eradicate Newcastle disease, Member States shall benefit from Community financial assistance according to the conditions defined in Decision 90/424/EEC.

The Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health shall assist the Commission in managing Newcastle disease. They will be involved in designing the checks carried out by the Commission’s experts, amongst other tasks.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 92/66/EEC

25.9.1992

1.10.1993

OJ L 260 of 5.9.1992

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 806/2003

5.6.2003

OJ L 122 of 16.5.2003

Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 92/66/EEC have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2007/24/CE of 22 December 2006 approving contingency plans for the control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease [Official Journal L 8 of 13.1.2007].

Control measures: fish diseases

Control measures: fish diseases

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Control measures: fish diseases

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Control measures: fish diseases

Community measures have been adopted to combat certain fish diseases effectively in order to stop them spreading.

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 93/53/EEC of 24 June 1993 introducing minimum Community measures for the control of certain fish diseases [See amending acts].

Summary

This Directive establishes minimum Community measures for combating certain fish diseases in order to stop them spreading within the European Union (EU). It will be repealed on 1 August 2008 in accordance with the Directive on animal health requirements for aquaculture animals and products thereof (See “related acts” below).

The diseases covered by the Directive are divided into two groups in accordance with the classification set out in the Directive on animal health requirements for aquaculture animals and products thereof:

  • infectious salmon anaemia,
  • viral haemorrhagic septicaemia, haematopoietic necrosis, bonamiosis and marteiliosis.

All farms that have fish susceptible to these diseases must keep an up-to-date register listing all fish arriving, leaving or dying at the farm.

If fish are suspected of being infected with one of these diseases, Member States must inform the official service that is to carry out the investigations necessary to confirm or rule out the presence of the disease.

This official service must immediately place the farm under surveillance until the presence of the suspected disease has been ruled out.

If the disease is confirmed to be present, the official service must take a number of additional measures, such as removing all live fish, disinfecting the pools and disposing of the diseased fish.

If there are suspected cases of one of these diseases on an approved farm, Member States must carry out an epizootic investigation. If this confirms the presence of the disease, the farm is considered suspect and the appropriate measures must be applied.

Where fish on a non-approved farm are suspected of being infected with one of these diseases, Member States must take a number of measures, including taking steps to confirm whether or not the disease is present and drawing up a list of infected farms.

Each Member State must designate a reference laboratory to carry out the analyses required by this Directive. These laboratories must cooperate with the Community reference laboratory in Aarhus (Denmark), whose role is coordinate and provide assistance.

Commission experts may carry out on-the-spot checks to verify that this Directive is being properly applied.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 93/53/EEC 19.7.1993 1.7.1994 OJ L 175, 19.7.1993
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2000/27/EC 13.5.2000 1.12.2000 OJ L 114, 13.5.2000
Decision 2001/288/EC 10.4.2001 OJ L 99, 10.4.2001
Act of Accession of the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia 1.5.2004 OJ L 236, 23.9.2003
Decision 2006/911/EC 12.12.2006 OJ L 346, 9.12.2006
Directive 2006/88/EC 13.12.2007 1.5.2008 OJ L 328, 24.11.2006
Directive 2006/104/EC 1.1.2007 OJ L 363, 20.12.2006
Decision 2007/729/CE 13.11.2007 OJ L 294, 13.11.2007

Related Acts

Councilof 24 October 2006 on animal health requirements for aquaculture animals and products thereof, and on the prevention and control of certain diseases in aquatic animals [Official Journal L 328 of 24.11.2006].
This Directive updates, recasts and consolidates the animal health rules for trade in aquaculture products (fish, molluscs and crustaceans), including those on the prevention and control of diseases that affect these animals and products.

Commission Decision 2003/466/EC of 13 June 2003 establishing criteria for zoning and official surveillance following suspicion or confirmation of the presence of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) [Official Journal L 156 of 25 June 2003].

Commission Decision 2001/183/EC of 22 February 2001 laying down the sampling plans and diagnostic methods for the detection and confirmation of certain fish diseases and repealing Decision 92/532/EEC [Official Journal L 67 of 9 March 2001].

 

Swine vesicular disease and other animal diseases

Swine vesicular disease and other animal diseases

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Swine vesicular disease and other animal diseases

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Swine vesicular disease and other animal diseases

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 92/119/EEC of 17 December 1992 introducing general Community measures for the control of certain animal diseases and specific measures relating to swine vesicular disease [See amending act(s)].

Summary

Member States must notify the competent authority responsible for carrying out veterinary checks of all cases of diseases covered by this Directive without delay.

Animal diseases

The Directive stipulates measures applicable in the event of an outbreak of one of the following diseases:

  • rinderpest;
  • peste des petits ruminants;
  • swine vesicular disease;
  • bluetongue;
  • epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer;
  • sheep pox and goat pox;
  • vesicular stomatitis;
  • African swine fever;
  • lumpy skin disease; and
  • Rift valley fever.

Diagnosis

If it is suspected that animals are infected with one of the abovementioned diseases, the official veterinarian is to verify the presence of that disease at the holding. For this purpose, he is to implement investigative measures which include taking samples for laboratories.

The holding concerned, as well as the other holdings which may have caused the disease, are to be placed under official surveillance. The competent authority is to order a number of measures to be taken, including the census and isolation of all the categories of animals of species susceptible to the disease.

The diagnostic process and the use of reagents are to be coordinated by national laboratories, designated by the Member States for each disease. These laboratories are to work in cooperation with the Community reference laboratories.

As soon as the presence of the disease at the holding is confirmed, the competent authority is to apply measures which concern:

  • slaughter of all the animals of species susceptible to the disease;
  • treatment of materials which may be contaminated;
  • cleaning of buildings used for housing animals;
  • wild animals which may be infected.

Derogations may be granted for healthy production units.

Furthermore, the competent authority is to establish, around the infected holding, a protection zone based on a minimum radius of 3 km and a surveillance zone based on a minimum radius of 10 km. Specific measures are to be applied to the animals and holdings situated in these zones within a certain period equal at least to that of the incubation of the disease in question. The residents of these zones are to be informed of the measures taken.

Prevention

The Commission may decide that vaccination is to integrate the preventive measures, though it remains an exception. In this case, the vaccinated animals must be identified by a visible mark and may not leave the vaccination area.

A national contingency plan is to set out, for all the Member States, the measures to be taken in the event of an outbreak of one of the diseases covered by this Directive. These plans are approved by the Commission and may be amended in the light of circumstances.

Committee procedure

The Commission is to be assisted by the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 92/119/EEC

4.4.1993

1.10.1993

OJ L 62, 15.3.1993

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2002/60/EC

9.8.2002

30.6.2003

OJ L 192, 20.7.2002

Act of Accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden

1.1.1995

OJ C 241, 29.8.1994

Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Czech Republic, the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Republic of Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Slovenia and the Slovak Republic

1.5.2004

OJ L 236, 23.9.2003

Regulation (EC) No 806/2003

5.6.2003

OJ L 122, 16.5.2003

Decision 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219, 14.8. 2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 92/119/EEC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference purposes only.

Related Acts

Council Directive 2002/60/EC of 27 June 2002 laying down specific provisions for the control of African swine fever and amending Directive 92/119/EEC as regards Teschen disease and African swine fever [Official Journal L 192 of 20.7.2002].

Council Directive 2000/75/EC of 20 November 2000 laying down specific provisions for the control and eradication of bluetongue [Official Journal L 327 of 22.12.2000].
This Directive describes, for this disease, the implementation of such measures as official means of investigation, vaccination, an epidemiological enquiry and demarcation of protection and surveillance zones.

Commission Decision 2000/428/EC of 4 July 2000 establishing diagnostic procedures, sampling methods and criteria for the evaluation of the results of laboratory tests for the confirmation and differential diagnosis of swine vesicular disease [Official Journal L 167 of 7.7.2000].
This Decision contains, in its Annex, a detailed manual which describes the procedures to be followed for correct diagnosis of swine vesicular disease. They include procedures for sampling and evaluation of virological results.

Notification of diseases

Notification of diseases

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Notification of diseases

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Notification of diseases

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 82/894/EEC of 21 December 1982 on the notification of animal diseases within the Community [See amending acts]

Summary

The Directive makes it obligatory for Member States to notify the Commission of an outbreak * as well as its eradication for certain contagious diseases so as to prevent their spread in Community livestock.

The Member States must notify:

  • the Commission and the other Member States within twenty four hours of both the primary outbreak and the withdrawal of the restrictions imposed after the eradication of the last outbreak and;
  • the Commission of any secondary outbreaks on the first working day of each week.

Close cooperation between the Member States is provided for so that the notification can be adjusted in line with technical requirements.

The Commission is assisted by the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health.

Key terms of the Act
  • Outbreak: the farm or the place, located on Community territory, where animals are kept together and where one or several cases have been officially confirmed.
  • Primary outbreak: any outbreak not epizootiologically linked with a previous outbreak in the same region of a Member State, or the first outbreak in a different region of the same Member State.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 82/894/EEC

23.12.1982

01.01.1984

OJ L 378 of 31.12.1982

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 807/2003

05.06.2003

OJ L 122 of 16.05.2003

Subsequent amendments and corrections to Directive 82/894/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version  has a purely documentary value”.

AMENDMENTS TO THE ANNEXES

ANNEX I – Diseases which are subject to notification:
Decision 2004/216/EC [Official Journal L 67 of 5.3.2004];
Decision 2008/650/EC [Official Journal L 213 of 8.8.2008].

ANNEX II – Information to be given under the notification
Decision 2004/216/EC [Official Journal L 67 of 5.3.2004];
Decision 2008/650/EC [Official Journal L 213 of 8.8.2008].

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2007/142/EC of 28 February 2007 establishing a Community Veterinary Emergency Team to assist the Commission in supporting Member States and third countries in veterinary matters relating to certain animal diseases [Official Journal L 62 of 1.3.2007].

Commission Decision 2005/176/EC of 1 March 2005 laying down the codified form and the codes for the notification of animal diseases pursuant to Council Directive 82/894/EEC [Official Journal L 59 of 5.3.2005].

Amended by:

Decision 2006/924/EC [Official Journal L 354 of 14.12.2006];
Decision 2008/755/EC [Official Journal L 258 of 26.9.2008];
Decision 2009/847/EC [Official Journal L 307 of 21.11.2009];
Decision 2010/160/EU [Official Journal L 68 of 18.3.2010].

Avian influenza

Avian influenza

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Avian influenza

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Avian influenza

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2005/94/EC of 20 December 2005 on Community measures for the control of avian influenza and repealing Directive 92/40/EEC [See Amending act(s)].

Summary

The European Union (EU) lays down measures to control avian influenza as soon as there is any suspicion of the presence of this disease.

The Member States are responsible for:

  • carrying out surveillance programmes intended to detect the virus and increase knowledge in this area;
  • ensuring that the presence of this disease is notified to the competent authority and that epidemiological inquiries take place in accordance with an action plan approved by the Commission.

When an outbreak is suspected, the competent authority opens an epidemiological investigation, places the affected holding under surveillance and implements a series of measures including counting the animals, compiling a list of the animals that are sick, dead or likely to be infected, isolating the holding and carrying out the appropriate disinfection. These measures are withdrawn when the suspicion of the disease is officially ruled out.

Following the epidemiological inquiry, further measures may be taken on the holding.

This Directive provides for specific measures to be taken depending on the type of disease.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

Once the presence of HPAI is confirmed, the competent authority ensures that the following measures are applied:

  • all poultry and other captive birds are to be killed;
  • all carcasses are to be disposed of under official supervision;
  • poultry hatched from eggs before the application of the initial measures is to be placed under official surveillance;
  • meat of poultry slaughtered and eggs collected before the application of the initial measures are to be identified and disposed of;
  • all substances likely to be contaminated are to undergo the appropriate treatment;
  • manure, slurry, bedding and all materials likely to be contaminated are to be cleaned and disinfected;
  • any movements of animals entering and leaving the holding must take place under supervision;
  • the virus is to be isolated using the most appropriate laboratory procedure.

Additionally, specific measures are to be applied in the zones closest to the holding concerned, known as “protection zone” (within a radius of at least three km around the holding) and “surveillance zone” (within a radius of at least 10 km around the holding). The measures applied in these zones concern – among other things – the census of the holdings, visits by the official veterinarian and the transport of birds, eggs, poultry meat and carcasses. These measures remain in place until completion of the preliminary cleaning operations (at least 21 days afterwards in protection zones and at least 30 days afterwards in surveillance zones).

Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)

Once the presence of LPAI is confirmed, the competent authority ensures that a series of measures are applied on the basis of the appropriate risk assessment. The measures to be taken vary depending on the criteria laid down, which include, among other things, the species concerned, the number of holdings in the area in question, the location of the slaughterhouses and the biosecurity measures. The measures to be applied are as follows:

  • all poultry present on the holding and all other captive birds to be depopulated. This kind of operation must take place in accordance with the common minimum standards on the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing;
  • the disposal of carcasses and hatching eggs must take place under official supervision;
  • hatching eggs collected and poultry hatched from eggs before the application of the initial measures to be placed under official surveillance;
  • table eggs produced on the holding before the depopulation are to be disposed of or transported to a packing centre or an establishment for the manufacture of egg products;
  • any material likely to be contaminated is to be disposed of;
  • manure, slurry, bedding, buildings and all material likely to be contaminated are to be cleaned and disinfected;
  • mammals of domestic species are to be prohibited from entering or leaving the holding;
  • the virus is to be isolated.

Additionally, specific measures are to be applied in the zone closest to the holding concerned, known as the “restricted zone” (within a radius of at least one km around the holding). The measures applied in this zone concern – among other things – censuses and tests on commercial holdings and management of the movements of poultry, other captive birds and eggs. These measures remain in place for a length of time that varies at the discretion of the competent authority.

Spread to other species

Following confirmation of an outbreak of avian influenza on a holding, tests are performed on other mammals that may be infected, specifically pigs. If the results of these tests are positive the authority may order the movement of these pigs to other holdings or to slaughterhouses.

Cleansing, disinfection and repopulation

The Member States shall ensure that anything likely to have been contaminated, including holdings, slaughterhouses, vehicles and other equipment, is cleansed and disinfected. The holding may be repopulated in accordance with the provisions of this Directive 21 days following completion of these operations of cleansing and disinfection.

Diagnostic procedures

A diagnostic manual adopted by Directive 2006/437/EC lays down all the requirements, criteria and procedures to be applied to diagnostic tests and post-mortem clinical examinations (see “related acts”). These operations take place exclusively in authorised national laboratories.

Each Member State designates a laboratory at national level, and then communicates the contact details of their laboratory to the other Member States and to the public. The national laboratories work in cooperation with the Community reference laboratory in Surrey (United Kingdom) which is responsible for the coordination of research in the area of avian influenza.

Vaccination

Generally speaking, vaccination against avian influenza is prohibited, except in cases where emergency or preventive vaccination is required. Vaccination plans are subject to approval by the Commission and the farms involved are placed under strict surveillance. The Directive includes guidelines for the application of these measures and provides for the possibility of setting up vaccine banks.

Committee procedure

The Commission shall be assisted by the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health in the management of measures related to avian influenza. Among other things, this Committee may take a role in the definition of preventive biosecurity measures.

Background

Specific measures for the control of avian influenza were introduced in Community legislation by Directive 92/40/EEC, which remained in force until 1 July 2007. Recent scientific findings on avian influenza, which led to the production of new tests and vaccines and contributed to the amendment of the health code for terrestrial animals, have resulted in the need for renewal of the legislation.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2005/94/EC

3.2.2006

1.7.2007

OJ L 10 of 14.01.2006

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2007/598/EC of 28 August 2007 concerning measures to prevent the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza to other captive birds kept in zoos and approved bodies, institutes or centres in the Member States [Official Journal L 230 of 1.9.2007].

Commission Decision 2007/118/EC of 16 February 2007 laying down detailed rules in relation to an alternative identification mark pursuant to Council Directive 2002/99/EC [Official Journal L 51 of 20.2.2007].

Commission Decision 2006/415/EC of 14 June 2006 concerning certain protection measures in relation to highly pathogenic avian influenza of subtype H5N1 in wild birds in the Community and repealing Decision 2006/135/EC [Official Journal L 164 of 16.6.2006].

Control of classical swine fever

Control of classical swine fever

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Control of classical swine fever

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal health

Control of classical swine fever

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 2001/89/EC of 23 October 2001 on Community measures for the control of classical swine fever [See amending act(s)]

Summary

The Directive is designed to ensure an adequate degree of preparation enabling an effective response to be given to emergency situations. The Member States have to draw up contingency plans indicating the vaccine requirements in the event of contamination and the areas with a high density of pigs. They also have to ensure that a national disease control centre and local centres can be established immediately in the event of outbreaks of the disease. Moreover, the feeding of catering waste to pigs is prohibited, as it is likely to constitute a danger of propagation of the disease.

If the presence of swine fever on its territory is suspected or confirmed, the Member State concerned must inform the competent authority immediately. It must also provide information to the Commission and the other Member States on the cases observed.

The competent authority must then immediately initiate official investigations in accordance with the procedures laid down in the diagnostic manual (see Decision 2002/106/EC). This manual guarantees the uniformity of diagnostic procedures. The coordination of diagnostic standards and methods (see Annex III of the Directive) is carried out by a national laboratory designated by Member States who then communicate the name and address of their laboratory to the other Member States and to the public.

The Commission may send experts to carry out on-the-spot checks in the Member States in order to ensure the uniform application of this Directive.

Presence of swine fever on a holding

If the suspicion cannot be invalidated, the holding is placed under official supervision. In particular, movements to and from the holding must be prohibited or made subject to authorisation. Access ways to the holding and means of transport leaving it must be disinfected.

Once the presence of the disease has been officially confirmed, all the pigs on the holding are killed and their carcasses rendered. Any material (meat, sperm, ova) or waste likely to be contaminated is destroyed, rendered or processed to destroy the virus.

Next, the buildings housing the pigs, the vehicles transporting them or their carcasses and the equipment, bedding, manure and slurry likely to be contaminated must be cleaned and disinfected. These operations are carried out under official supervision with products approved by the competent authority.

An epidemiological enquiry is carried out on the basis of the questionnaires drawn up as part of the contingency plans. It must cover the length of time during which the virus may have existed before the disease was notified, the possible origin of the fever and the movements of persons, vehicles, pigs or any other material which could have transported the virus.

In the case of holdings comprising different production units, it is possible, following various checks by an official veterinarian, to derogate from these measures in healthy production units.

The competent authority must also establish, around the outbreak of the disease:

  • a surveillance zone with a radius of at least 10 kilometres;
  • a protection zone with a radius of at least 3 kilometres.

Special safety measures must be applied in each of these zones. They involve in particular a census of all holdings, prohibition of any movement or transport of pigs, and all necessary cleaning and disinfection. The competent authority may in some cases and only under certain conditions authorise the removal of pigs from a holding situated in a surveillance or protection zone.

Pigs may not be reintroduced to a holding affected by the disease until 30 days after the completion of the cleaning and disinfection operations. In open-air holdings, full repopulation may take place only if none of the first pigs returned has developed antibodies against the virus.

In a slaughterhouse or means of transport, once the presence of the disease has been confirmed all susceptible* animals present must be killed. New animals may not be reintroduced until 24 hours after the completion of cleaning and disinfection operations. The carcasses, offal and animal waste of possibly contaminated pigs must be processed under official supervision.

The case of feral pigs

As soon as confirmation of a primary case of classical swine fever in feral pigs* has taken place, the competent authority of the Member State concerned must set up an expert group to assist it. It must determine the infected area and the measures to be applied there.

It must immediately place under official surveillance the pig holdings in the area. In this connection, it must order that an official census be carried out of all categories of pigs on all holdings, that all pigs on the holding be kept isolated from feral pigs and that no pigs enter or leave the holding without its authorisation.

Within 90 days from the confirmation of the disease, the Member States must submit to the Commission a written plan of the measures taken to eradicate the disease in the infected area. Once they have been approved, these measures replace those laid down previously. They include collecting information on:

  • the results of the epidemiological investigations and the geographical distribution of the disease;
  • the infected area determined on the territory of the Member State concerned;
  • the information campaign to be organised to increase hunters’ awareness of the measures to be taken;
  • the approximate number of meta-populations of feral pigs* in and around the infected area;
  • the method of removal of feral pigs found dead or shot and the epidemiological enquiry carried out on each of them.

Every six months, the Member State concerned must forward to the Commission and the other Member States a report on the results of the eradication plan and the epidemiological situation in the affected area.

The use of classical swine fever vaccines is, in principle, prohibited. However, after confirmation of a risk of spread of the disease, the Member State concerned may submit an emergency vaccination plan to the Commission. This measure is possible for both farm pigs and feral pigs.

Key terms of the Act
  • Susceptible animal: an animal who has not developed immunity against classical swine fever virus.
  • Feral pig: pigs that are not kept or raised in farms.
  • Meta-population of feral pigs: any group or sub-population of feral pigs with limited contracts with other groups or sub-populations.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2001/89/EC

1.12.2001

1.11.2002

OJ L 316 of 1.12.2001

Amending Acts Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.1.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2001/89/EC have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purposes only.

MODIFICATION OF THE ANNEXES

Annex III – List and duties of national classical swine fever laboratories
Decision 2006/911/CE [Official Journal L 346 of 9.12.2006];
Directive 2006/104/CE [Official Journal L 363 of 20.12.2006];
Decision 2007/729/CE [Official Journal L 294 of 13.11.2007];
Directive 2008/73/CE [Official Journal L 219 of 14.8.2008].

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2007/19/EC of 22 December 2006 approving contingency plans for the control of classical swine fever pursuant to Council Directive 2001/89/EC [Official Journal L 7 of 12.1.2007].

Commission Decision 2007/682/EC of 18 October 2007 on the renewal of the Community stocks of live attenuated vaccine against classical swine fever [Official Journal L 281 of 25.10.2007].

Commission Decision 2006/553/EC of 4 August 2006 on the purchase by the Community of marker vaccine against classical swine fever to increase the Community stocks of those vaccines [Official Journal L 217 of 8.8.2006].