Author Archives: Rhianne Stone

Water Protection and Management

Water protection and management

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Water protection and management


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Water protection and management

Some 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by seas and oceans, and these produce almost three quarters of the oxygen we breathe. We can use directly only 1% of this water, however, and many forms of human activity put water resources under considerable pressure. Polluted water, whatever the source of the pollution, flows one way or another back into our natural surroundings – into the sea or water tables – from where it can have a harmful effect on human health and the environment. One of the most important pieces of legislation in this area is the Water Framework Directive.


  • Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive)
  • Pricing and long-term management of water
  • Flood management and evaluation
  • Droughts and water scarcity
  • Urban waste water treatment


  • Quality of drinking water
  • Bathing water quality (until 2014)
  • Bathing water quality
  • Water suitable for fish-breeding
  • Quality of shellfish waters


  • Strategy for the marine environment
  • Maritime safety: compensation fund for oil pollution damage
  • Maritime safety: prevention of pollution from ships
  • Ship-source pollution and criminal penalties
  • Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships
  • Maritime safety: Bunkers Convention


  • European Union Strategy for Danube Region
  • Baltic Sea Strategy
  • Environment strategy for the Mediterranean
  • Strategy to improve maritime governance in the Mediterranean
  • Black Sea Synergy
  • Danube – Black Sea region

Regional convention

  • Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean
  • Helsinki Convention on the protection of the Baltic Sea
  • Helsinki Convention: trans-boundary watercourses and international lakes
  • Convention for the Protection of the Rhine
  • OSPAR Convention


  • Industrial emissions
  • Integrated pollution prevention and control (until 2013)
  • Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water
  • Protection of groundwater against pollution
  • Detergents
  • Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
  • Agricultural nitrates
  • Community strategy concerning mercury
  • Protection of the aquatic environment against discharges of dangerous substances (until 2013)
  • Other substances: protection of groundwater



Another Normative about Water protection and management


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic

Agriculture > Environment

Water protection and management (Water Framework Directive)

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy [See amending acts].


The European Union (EC) has established a framework for the protection of:

  • inland surface waters *;
  • groundwater *;
  • transitional waters *; and
  • and coastal waters *.

This Framework-Directive has a number of objectives, such as preventing and reducing pollution, promoting sustainable water usage, environmental protection, improving aquatic ecosystems and mitigating the effects of floods and droughts.

Its ultimate objective is to achieve “good ecological and chemical status” for all Community waters by 2015.

Administrative arrangements

Member States have to identify all the river basins * lying within their national territory and to assign them to individual river basin districts *. River basins covering the territory of more than one Member State will be assigned to an international river basin district.

Member States are to designate a competent authority for the application of the rules provided for in this Framework-Directive within each river basin district.

Identification and analysis of waters

By 2004 at the latest, each Member State shall produce:

  • an analysis of the characteristics of each river basin district;
  • a review of the impact of human activity on water;
  • an economic analysis of water use;
  • a register of areas requiring special protection;
  • a survey of all bodies of water used for abstracting water for human consumption and producing more than 10 m³ per day or serving more than 50 persons.

This analysis must be revised in 2013 and every six years thereafter.

Management plans and programmes of measures

In 2009, nine years after the Framework-Directive entered into force, management plans were produced for each river basin district, taking account of the results of the analyses and studies carried out. These plans cover the period 2009-2015. They shall be revised in 2015 and then every six years thereafter.

The management plans must be implemented in 2012. They aim to:

  • prevent deterioration, enhance and restore bodies of surface water, achieve good chemical and ecological status of such water by 2015 at the latest and to reduce pollution from discharges and emissions of hazardous substances;
  • protect, enhance and restore the status of all bodies of groundwater, prevent the pollution and deterioration of groundwater, and ensure a balance between groundwater abstraction and replenishment;
  • preserve protected areas.

The management plans for river basin districts can be complemented by more detailed management programmes and plans for a sub-basin, a sector or a particular type of water.

Temporary deterioration of bodies of water is not in breach of the requirements of this Framework-Directive if it is the result of circumstances which are exceptional or could not reasonably have been foreseen and which are due to an accident, natural causes or force majeure.

Member States shall encourage participation by all stakeholders in the implementation of this Framework-Directive, specifically with regard to the management plans for river basin districts. Projects from the management plans must be submitted to public consultation for at least 6 months.

From 2010, Member States must ensure that water pricing policies provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently and that the various economic sectors contribute to the recovery of the costs of water services, including those relating to the environment and resources.

Member States must introduce arrangements to ensure that effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties are imposed in the event of breaches of the provisions of this Framework Directive.

A list of priority substances selected from among the ones which present a significant risk to the aquatic environment has been drawn up at European level. This list is set out in Annex X to this Framework-Directive.

Key terms used in the act
  • Inland waters: all standing or flowing water on the surface of the land, and all groundwater on the landward side of the baseline from which the breadth of territorial waters is measured.
  • Surface water: inland waters, except groundwater, transitional waters and coastal waters, except in respect of chemical status, for which territorial waters are also included.
  • Groundwater: all water which is below the surface of the ground in the saturation zone and in direct contact with the ground or subsoil.
  • Transitional waters: bodies of surface water in the vicinity of river mouths which are partly saline in character as a result of their proximity to coastal waters but which are substantially influenced by freshwater flows.
  • Coastal water: surface water on the landward side of a line every point of which is at a distance of one nautical mile on the seaward side from the nearest point of the baseline from which the breadth of territorial waters is measured, extending where appropriate up to the outer limit of transitional waters.
  • River basin: the area of land from which all surface run-off flows through a sequence of streams, rivers and, possibly, lakes into the sea at a single river mouth, estuary or delta.
  • River basin district: the area of land and sea, made up of one or more neighbouring river basins together with their associated groundwaters and coastal waters, which is identified under Article 3(1) as the main unit for management of river basins.


Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2000/60/EC



OJ L 327 of 22.12.2000

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 2455/2001/EC


OJ L 331 of 15.12.2001

Directive 2008/32/EC


OJ L 81 of 20.3.2008

Directive 2009/31/EC


OJ L 140 of 5.6.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2000/60/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.


Annex X – List of priority substances in the field of water policy

Directive 2008/105/EC [Official Journal L 348 of 24.12.2008].

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission of 22 March 2007 – Towards sustainable water management in the European Union – First stage in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC [COM(2007) 128 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

In this report the Commission sets out the results provided by the Member States concerning the application of the Water Framework Directive. Among other things, it mentions that there is a considerable risk that several Member States will fail to meet the targets set in the Framework Directive, in particular because of the physical deterioration of aquatic ecosystems, especially as a result of overexploitation of water resources and disturbing levels of pollution from diffuse sources. The Commission also indicates that there have been problems with meeting the deadline for incorporating the Framework Directive into national law and shortcomings in the actual transposition process in some cases. However, the establishment of river basin districts and the designation of the competent national authorities seem to be well under way, although progress does still need to be made with regard to international cooperation in some instances. The Commission also indicates that there are considerable differences in the quality of the environmental and economic assessments made in respect of river basins as well as shortcomings in the economic analyses carried out. The Commission finishes by making a number of recommendations to the Member States with a view to making good the shortcomings reported, integrating sustainable management of water into other national policies and making the most of public participation, and gives advance notice of what it plans to do in future in the context of European water management policy.

Report from the Commission of 1 April 2009 published in accordance with article 18.3 of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC on programmes for monitoring of water status [COM(2009) 156 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Water Protection and Management in other Legal Encyclopedias

Klamath Basin Water Supply Enhancement Act of 2000 – American Legal Encyclopedia

Coastal Zone Management Act Of 1972 in the American Legal Encyclopedia

Community approach to State aid for transport by sea

Community approach to State aid for transport by sea

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Community approach to State aid for transport by sea


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Competition > Rules applicable to specific sectors > Competition in transport

Community approach to State aid for transport by sea

This instrument aims to improve transparency and determine which State aid programmes may be launched in order to support Community maritime interests. >

Community approach to State aid for transport by sea [Official Journal C 205, 05.07.1997].


Historical background

The aim of the Community’s maritime policy has been to ensure freedom of access to maritime transport markets throughout the world for safe, non-polluting ships, if possible flying the flags of Community Member States and crewed by nationals of Member States. This approach has enabled markets to be opened up and a broad spectrum of maritime transport operations to be offered to the consumer. However, for many reasons the number of ships flying Member State flags and the number of Community seafarers employed have shrunk considerably.

The lack of competitiveness of Community flags was recognised in the late 1980s and, in the absence of Community harmonising measures, the Member States unilaterally took action in order to safeguard their seafaring interests. In 1989 the Commission mapped out the initial approaches in order to ensure a certain consistency among the Member States’ activities. Those approaches have been re-examined, particular account being taken of, their fiscal aspects.

Scope and general aims of the revised approaches to State aid

The current approaches cover all of the aid given to maritime transport by the Member States of the Community or via public monies. That includes all financial benefits, in whatever form, funded by the public authorities, that concept extending to public companies and State controlled banks.
The existing approaches do not cover aid granted to shipyards under Directive 90/684/EEC, nor do they draw any distinction between recipient types in terms of their legal status (companies, partnerships, private individuals), nor between the public and private sectors.

Without exception State aid may only be granted for ships registered in Member States. The reasons for this are as follows:

  • to safeguard Community jobs throughout the seafaring sector;
  • to maintain Community seafaring know-how and to develop seafaring skills;
  • to improve safety.

Taxation of shipping companies

Several non-member countries offer tax incentives that attract shipowners. They see in this good reasons for switching flags and contemplating relocation. In order to combat this fiscal competition several Member States have taken action that is intended to make their tax environment more attractive to shipping companies. Such tax abatements are considered to be State aid.

Since the aim of State aid within the common transport policy is to boost the competitiveness of Community fleets on the world market for sea transport services, tax concession systems require, without exception, a link with a Community flag.

Moreover, since the aim is also to help to expand the maritime transport sector and the number of jobs within that sector in the Community’s interest, the tax incentives must be restricted to maritime transport activities. The Member States’ normal taxation practice is maintained for all other activities, shareholder dividends and directors’ pay.

Salary costs

In terms of State aid and the cutting of labour costs maritime transport is a particular case since such aid may be considered to be compatible with the common market (Commission Notice on monitoring of State aid and reduction of labour costs – Official Journal C 1, 03.01.1997).

However, the aim of support for the maritime sector must be to reduce the costs and tax burdens borne by Community shipowners and seafarers (i.e. those subject to the tax system and/or social security contributions in a Member State) to levels comparable with those in the rest of the world.

As part of its approach the Commission advocates authorisation of the following:

  • reducing the social contributions made by Community seafarers working on board ships flying a Member State flag;
  • reducing the income tax paid by Community seafarers working on board ships flying a Member State flag.

Crewing relief

The aid for crewing relief is intended to lower the cost of employing seafarers on board ships sailing in distant waters. That aid may be granted in the form of payments or of reimbursing the cost of repatriating Community seafarers working on ships flying Member State flags.

Investment aid

Investment in new vessels must obey the rules applying to shipbuilding. Other forms of investment aid may be authorised in accordance with Community policy on safety at sea where it is a matter of:

  • improving on-board equipment;
  • promoting the use of reliable, non-polluting ships.


Where training includes State aid components this must be notified. State aid for training is authorised when this meets the Commission’s general criteria such as proportionality, non-discrimination and transparency.

Public service obligations (PSO) and contracts

In its assessment of the contracts concerning PSO the Commission feels that making good the operating losses directly incurred by meeting certain public-service obligations does not constitute aid within the meaning of Article 92(1) of the Treaty. Notification under Article 93 (1) is therefore not necessary if:

  • there has been a public invitation to tender;
  • the call for tenders was accompanied by adequate publicity;
  • there has been no over-compensation or cross subsidy.

Restrictions on aid

The current approach lays down a maximum aid level corresponding to:

  • the calculation of the tax and social charges applying to seafarers;
  • the cancellation of the tax on shipping company turnover.

In order to avoid any distortion of competition it should not be possible for greater benefits to be conferred by means of other aid systems.

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document which remains the only binding legal basis.


New interinstitutional agreement and financial perspective

New interinstitutional agreement and financial perspective

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about New interinstitutional agreement and financial perspective


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.


New interinstitutional agreement and financial perspective (2000-2006)

The purpose of the agreement is to implement, on a multiannual basis, budgetary discipline at Community level. It seeks to improve the functioning of the annual budgetary procedure and cooperation between the institutions on budgetary matters.

Document or Iniciative

Interinstitutional Agreement of 6 May 1999 between the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission on budgetary discipline and improvement of the budgetary procedure.

This Agreement repeals and replaces the following measures:

Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission of 30 June 1982 [Official Journal C 194 of 28.07.1982];
Interinstitutional Agreement of 29 October 1993 [Official Journal C 331 of 07.12.1993];
Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission of 6 March 1995 [Official Journal C 102 of 04.04.1996];
Joint Declaration of 12 December 1996 [Official Journal C 20 of 20.01.1997];
Interinstitutional Agreement of 16 July 1997 [Official Journal C 286 of 22.09.1997];
Interinstitutional Agreement of 13 October 1998 [Official Journal C 344 of 12.11.1998].

Decision 2003/429/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 May on the adjustment of the financial perspective for enlargement.


Since 1988 Community expenditure and the annual budgetary procedure have been based on interinstitutional agreements on budgetary discipline and the improvement of the budgetary procedure.

These agreements, which cover several years and have been adopted jointly by Parliament, the Council and the Commission, have been traditionally divided into two types of provision:

  • the financial perspective, which sets the budgetary ceilings for the major categories of Union expenditure in order to keep expenditure within the limits of the own resources available (“budgetary discipline”);
  • arrangements between the institutions to improve the annual budgetary procedure (“functioning of the budgetary procedure”).

Under Agenda 2000, and with a view to the expiry of the financial perspective (1993-99), a new interinstitutional agreement has been adopted for the period 2000-2006. This agreement, which is the core of the Agenda 2000 financial package, should enable the Union to expand and strengthen its policies while remaining within a rigorous financial framework.

Financial perspective

The first part of the agreement consists of the financial perspective and its implementing details.

The 2000 to 2006 financial perspective establishes, for each of the years covered and for each heading and subheading, the amounts of expenditure in terms of appropriations for commitments. Overall annual totals of expenditure are also shown in terms of both appropriations for commitments and appropriations for payments.
The institutions undertake to comply with the various annual expenditure ceilings during each budgetary procedure and when implementing the budget for the year concerned.

The ceilings in the financial perspective were set initially in 1999. They were adapted for enlargement of the Union to include ten new Member States (Europe 25) in 2003.

The new perspective contains eight main headings (agriculture, structural operations, internal policies, external action, administration, reserves, pre-accession strategy, compensations), divided in some cases into subheadings. Ceilings are expressed in 1999 prices.

Agriculture and structural operations (headings 1 and 2) account for the bulk of expenditure under the financial perspective.
The reform of the common agricultural policy under Agenda 2000 will require an initial increase in agricultural expenditure (from EUR 40.92 billion in 2000 to EUR 45.8 billion in 2006), following the adaptation of the financial perspective for Europe 25, which has raised the amounts for this heading provided for in 1999. Approximately one tenth of the agricultural expenditure will be used for rural development.
Enlargement also has a highly visible impact on expenditure for structural operations, which the 2003 decision raises from the initial 1999 amounts to EUR 37.94 billion in 2006.
Given the importance of some of the Union’s internal policies (trans-European networks, research and innovation, education and training, measures in support of small and medium-sized enterprises) heading 3 of the financial perspective will have its financial allocation increased from EUR 5.93 billion in 2000 to EUR 8.21 billion in 2006.
The same applies to external action (from EUR 4.55 billion to EUR 4.61 billion) and administrative expenditure (from EUR 4.56 billion to EUR 5.71 billion).
With regard to the reserves, the monetary reserve was abolished in 2003, as provided in 2006. The emergency aid reserve and the loan guarantee reserve will remain at a steady level (EUR 200 billion in both cases) throughout the period 2000-2006.
The seventh heading, “Pre-accession strategy“, is allocated EUR 3.12 billion per year.

Heading 8, “Compensations”, covers transitional budgetary compensations for the ten new Member States decided on at the Copenhagen European Council on 12 and 13 December 2002.

The table below traces the development of the headings of the financial perspective for 2004-2006 following adaptation to Europe 25, in million euros at 1999 prices.

2004 2005 2006
1) Agriculture 42760 – 44657 41930 – 45677 41660 – 45807
2) Structural operations 29595 – 35665 29595 – 36502 29170 – 37940
3) Internal policies 6370 – 7877 6480 – 8098 6600 – 8212
4) External action 4590 4600 4610
5 Administration 4900 – 5403 5000 – 5558 5100 – 5712
6) Reserves 400 400 400
7) Pre-accession strategy 3120 3120 3120
8) Compensations 0 – 1273 0 – 1173 0 – 940

This adaptation of the financial perspective also includes the figures emerging from the technical adjustment for 2004 to trends in gross national income (GNI) and prices. The following are the figures at 2004 prices:

2004 2005 2006
1) Agriculture 49305 50431 50575
2) Structural operations 41035 41685 42932
3) Internal policies 8722 8967 9093
4) External action 5082 5093 5104
5 Administration 5983 6154 6325
6) Reserves 442 442 442
7) Pre-accession strategy 3455 3455 3455
8) Compensations 1410 1299 1041

In accordance with the recommendations made in the Commission report, the interinstitutional agreement also provides for various mechanisms enabling the financial perspective to be adjusted along the way, thereby increasing its flexibility.

As before, the agreement, in addition to the annual technical adjustment to movements in prices and GNI, makes provisions for a revision of the ceilings in the event of unforeseen circumstances.
These revisions will be adopted by joint decision of the Council (acting on a qualified majority in the case of revisions of less than 0.03% of Community GNP and unanimously in other cases) and Parliament (acting by a majority of its members and 3/5 of the votes) on a proposal from the Commission.

Revision may take the form of a reallocation of appropriations between different headings or subheadings of the financial perspective. Amounts available under headings 1 to 6 cannot at any time be used for heading 7 (pre-accession strategy) of the financial perspective. Expenditure provided for the Union of Fifteen and that for enlargement are thus kept rigorously separate.
The interinstitutional agreement specifies that any revision of the compulsory expenditure may not lead to a reduction of the amount available for non-compulsory expenditure.

The three reserves appearing in heading 6 of the financial perspective make for flexibility in the management of the Union’s finances. They are the monetary reserve (to cover the impact of unforeseen movements in the euro/dollar parity on agricultural expenditure, abolished in 2003), the loan guarantee reserve for non-member countries (to provision the Guarantee Fund) and the emergency aid reserve (to meet specific and unforeseen aid requirements of non-member countries).

In addition, a general flexibility instrument with an annual ceiling of EUR 200 million is intended to cover specific expenditure which cannot be financed within the limits of the ceilings set. The unused part of the instrument may be carried over to the following two years’ budgets. A decision to use this instrument is taken during the budgetary procedure by joint agreement between Parliament and the Council, on a proposal from the Commission. It must as a rule avoid being used to cover the same needs two years running. This instrument was drawn on fully in December 1999 in respect of the 2000 budget in order to finance the reconstruction of Kosovo following an examination of all the possibilities for reallocating appropriations (Parliament and Council Decision of 16 December 1999, to reallocate appropriations in order to finance the reconstruction of Kosovo, Official Journal C 41 of 14.02.2000).

The Interinstitutional Agreement provides for two types of procedure to meet requirements which exceed the ceiling of a heading in the financial perspective: the flexibility instrument and revision of the financial perspective. The order in which the various financing sources are to be mobilised is as follows:

(1) reallocate appropriations within the heading in question;

(2) if that is not enough, mobilise all or part of the flexibility instrument subject to the conditions governing its use;

(3) if that is not enough or if the criteria for using the flexibility instrument are not met, revise the financial perspective, raising the ceiling of the heading in question and offsetting this by lowering the ceiling of another heading;

(4) if that cannot be done, increase the ceiling of the heading in question with no offsetting compensation, provided the overall own resources ceiling is not exceeded.

Improvement of the budgetary procedure

The second part of the agreement lays down the rules designed to improve the functioning of the annual budgetary procedure.
These rules relate to interinstitutional cooperation in general and to more specific problems (classification of expenditure, the matter of legal bases, incorporation of financial provisions in legislative acts, etc.) which had not been resolved by the 1993 agreement or which were dealt with under other arrangements (agreements or joint declarations) agreed between the institutions.

The agreement strengthens interinstitutional collaboration.
Trialogue meetings (between the President of the Council (Budget), the Chairman of Parliament’s Committee on Budgets and the Member of the Commission with responsibility for the budget), generally followed by conciliation between the Council and a delegation from Parliament with the Commission as a participant, are planned in accordance with the following schedule:

  • before the establishment of the preliminary draft budget by the Commission;
  • before the establishment of the draft budget by the Council;
  • before the first reading by Parliament;
  • after the first reading by Parliament;
  • the day preceding the second reading in the Council.

The conciliation procedure, which has to date been limited to non-compulsory expenditure, is extended to include all expenditure and the classification of expenditure as compulsory or non-compulsory expenditure.
This is facilitated by the inclusion in the Agreement of a definition of “compulsory expenditure” and a list classifying each heading or subheading of the financial perspective.

With regard to the incorporation of financial provisions in legislative acts, the agreement makes a distinction between acts concerning multiannual programmes adopted under the co-decision procedure and other legislative acts.
Only the first category of acts can contain financial provisions (financial allocation to the programme for its entire duration) which are binding on the institutions during the budgetary procedure.
If financial provisions are incorporated in other kinds of acts, they serve only as an illustration.

The agreement also clarifies to what extent the utilisation of appropriations entered in the budget require the prior adoption of a basic act. Only four categories of appropriations are exempt from the general requirement of a legal basis:

  • appropriations for pilot schemes of an experimental nature: these appropriations may be entered in the budget for no more than two financial years and may not exceed EUR 32 million.
  • appropriations relating to preparatory acts intended to prepare legislative proposals: these proposals may not be entered for more than three years and may not exceed EUR 30 million per year and EUR 75 million in all;
  • appropriations concerning actions carried out by the Commission by virtue of tasks resulting from its prerogatives at institutional level or specific powers conferred upon it by the EC Treaty (studies and opinions relating to social policy, initiatives to boost coordination with regard to trans-European networks, etc.);
  • appropriations intended for the operation of each institution under its administrative autonomy.

The Interinstitutional Agreement also contains provisions making it possible to distribute expenditure relating to fisheries agreements between the budget headings concerned and the reserve on the basis of the date of entry into force of the agreements during the budgetary procedure. All expenditure relating to new or renewable agreements which enter into force after 1 January of the year in question is placed in the reserve until the time comes to transfer it to the corresponding budget heading.

With regard to the operational expenditure of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP), the institutions will endeavour to secure each year, by means of the conciliation procedure, agreement on the amount to be charged to the Community budget and on the distribution of this amount between the articles of the CFSP budget chapter (observation and organisation of elections, prevention of conflicts, financial aid to the enlargement process, urgent actions, etc.). The amount allocated to urgent actions may not exceed 20% of the overall amount of the CFSP budget chapter.
Whenever it adopts a decision in the field of CFSP entailing expenditure, the Council will immediately send the European Parliament an estimate of the costs envisaged.
The Commission will inform the budgetary authority about the implementation of CFSP actions and the financial forecasts for the remaining period of the year.

Several declarations are attached to the agreement.
The following should be mentioned, among others, the Declaration on the agricultural guideline (which confirms the principles and mechanisms) and the Declaration on the Balkan situation (which points to a possible revision of the financial perspective in order to cover additional expenditure).


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Interinstitutional Agreement of 6 May 1999 01.01.2000 OJ C 172 of 18.06.1999
Decision 2003/429/EC 19.05.2003 OJ L 147 of 14.06.2003

Related Acts

of 10 February 2004, Building our common Future – Policy challenges and Budgetary means of the Enlarged Union, 2007-2013 [COM(2004) 101 final – Not published in the Official Journal].




Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Asia


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Asia



  • Enhancing the Asia strategy

ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations)

SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation)

  • Partnerships with countries in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)



  • Agreement with Bangladesh on partnership and development
  • Strategy for cooperation with Bangladesh (2007-2013)


  • Strategy for cooperation with China (2007-2013)
  • EU-China: closer partners, growing responsibilities
  • EEC-China Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
  • Possibilities for cooperation with Hong Kong and Macao (2007-2013)

South Korea

  • India


    • Strategy for cooperation with Indonesia (2007-2013)


    • Agreement with Japan on mutual legal assistance
    • Customs Agreement with Japan


    • Strategy for cooperation with the Philippines (2007-2013)


    • Strategy for cooperation with Thailand (2007-2013)


    • Strategy for cooperation with Vietnam (2007-2013)

    • Governance in the consensus on development
    • Cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries on nuclear safety
    • Europe-Asia cooperation strategy


    • Common framework for joint multiannual programming
    • Financing instrument for development cooperation – DCI (2007-2013)
    • Instrument for Stability (2007 – 2013)
    • Financing instrument for cooperation with industrialised and other high-income countries and territories (2007-2013)
    • Financial and technical assistance and economic cooperation (1992 – 2006)

    European Union Animal Health Strategy

    European Union Animal Health Strategy

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European Union Animal Health Strategy


    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Food safety > Animal health

    European Union Animal Health Strategy (2007-2013)

    Document or Iniciative

    Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on a new Animal Health Strategy for the European Union (2007-2013) where ‘Prevention is better than cure’ [COM(2007) 539 final – not published in the Official Journal].


    The European animal health strategy is based on an evaluation started by the Commission in 2004 and covers the health of all animals in the European Union (EU).

    It has the following objectives:

    • to protect public health and food safety;
    • to promote farming and the rural economy;
    • to ensure the necessary animal movements;
    • to contribute to the sustainable development of the EU.

    The first pillar: prioritisation of EU intervention

    The foundations of Community action must be based on an evaluation of the main threats to animal health. This analysis must determine the relevance of these threats to the objectives of the EU strategy, the ‘acceptable level of risk’ for the Community and the relative priority of the action to be taken to reduce the risk. In this respect, Community action will be aimed at reducing this risk to a negligible level, since zero risk cannot be achieved. Furthermore, the Community applies the precautionary principle, which provides for the use of temporary measures if there is a potentially serious threat to health but no scientific certainty of this.

    The representatives of all interested parties in the risk management process are called on to provide their input to Community decision-making. Risks will be analysed and managed by defining quantifiable objectives, studying resources and assessing the progress achieved.

    The second pillar: a modern animal health framework

    The EU and international organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Bank, recognise the importance of protecting animal health.

    The major Community instrument for protecting animal health consists of adapted and constantly updated legislation that applies the principles of the Community policy and its international obligations. With a view to improving this legislation and making it more effective, the EU hopes to put in place a clear, single regulatory framework consistent with OIE guidelines and the Codex Alimentarius.

    Appropriate sharing of costs, benefits and responsibilities could contribute to the strategy’s success and help limit the financial risks for Member States and the Community by providing incentives for preventing animal-related threats.

    The Member States are responsible for securing the EU’s external borders against disease incursions and leading the response to outbreaks of exotic diseases. Moreover, compensation for private property destroyed for the public good must be provided by governments. Responsibility for the health of animals lies primarily with animal owners and collectively with the industry. In order for the strategy to be successful, all parties, including the insurance sector, need to be fully committed participants.

    The Codex Alimentarius and the OIE are essential references for legislation on animal diseases. The EU follows their guidelines and encourages other international members to base their legislation on the same values. In addition, the EU is considering the possibility of Community membership of the OIE.

    Improved animal health will increase the competitiveness of European companies. Moreover, by harmonising these rules, it will be possible to ensure fair competition in the Community market and extend this common basis to imports. With regard to exports, better prioritisation of actions against health barriers should help ensure better access to export markets.

    The third pillar: animal-related threat prevention, surveillance and crisis preparedness

    The promotion and financing of on-farm biosecurity * measures should constitute important reference criteria for zoning and compartmentalisation procedures.

    Movements of food of animal origin and animal feed are identified and traced using an exchange control system and a paper-based system identifying each animal. With the aim of integrating the system at EU level, an electronic system will gradually be introduced.

    Measures have been envisaged to improve border biosecurity without disrupting the cross-border movement of people and agricultural goods, which include not only improving current legislation and cooperation between the parties involved in customs checks, but also providing technical assistance to developing countries, so that they can meet Community standards.

    The EU proposes supporting veterinary surveillance through improved cooperation between the parties concerned and appropriate financial resources and by encouraging training in the sector. The scientific information gathered from this surveillance activity can aid decision-making for the EU institutions, governments and other stakeholders in the animal health protection sector.

    The EU must be better prepared to deal with emergencies and it can do so by adopting an integrated approach and through the more widespread use of vaccines.

    The fourth pillar: science, innovation and research

    The EU is encouraging scientific and technological development in the field of public and animal health. To this end, Community and national reference laboratories and European agencies (particularly the European Food Safety Authority and the European Medicines Agency) have been called upon to cooperate and play a key role in scientific work.

    Innovation and research in the food safety sector depend on a whole series of instruments, such as the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and the Community Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals.

    Key terms used in the act
    Biosecurity: the measures taken to combat diseases or to prevent them from spreading. These measures relate to the treatment of new and sick animals, the transport of people, animals and equipment, the feeding of animals and the cleaning of their holdings.

    National emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants

    National emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about National emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants


    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Environment > Air pollution

    National emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants

    Document or Iniciative

    Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants [See amending act(s)].


    This Directive has been adopted in line with the 1997 communication concerning the strategy to combat acidification, which sought to establish, for the first time, national emission ceilings for certain pollutants.


    This Directive covers emissions in the territory of the Member States and their exclusive economic zones from four pollutants which arise as a result of human activities:

    • emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2),
    • emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx),
    • emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and
    • emissions of ammonia (NH3).

    These pollutants are responsible for the phenomena of acidification, eutrophication and tropospheric ozone formation (also called “bad ozone”, present at low altitude, as opposed to stratospheric ozone), irrespective of the sources of pollution.

    National emission ceilings

    This Directive provides for the introduction of national emission ceilings by the end of 2010 at the latest. These ceilings are laid down in Annex I to the Directive.

    Interim environmental objectives

    The purpose of the emission ceilings is broadly to meet the following interim environmental objectives:

    • the areas with critical loads of acid depositions will be reduced by at least 50% compared with 1990;
    • ground-level ozone loads above the critical level for human health will be reduced by two-thirds compared with the 1990 situation. An absolute limit is also set. The guide value set by the World Health Organisation may not be exceeded on more than 20 days a year;
    • ground-level ozone loads above the critical level for crops and semi-natural vegetation will be reduced by one-third compared with 1990. An absolute limit is also set.

    National programmes

    Member States are required to draw up programmes, by 1 October 2002, for the progressive reduction of their annual national emissions. The programmes must be updated and revised as necessary in 2006. They must be made available to the public and to appropriate organisations and submitted to the Commission.

    Emission inventories

    Moreover, Member States must prepare and annually update national emission inventories and emission projections for SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3. These inventories and projections must be reported to the Commission and the European Environment Agency each year by 31 December at the latest.


    The Commission must report (in 2004, 2008 and 2012) to the European Parliament and the Council on progress on the implementation of the ceilings and towards attaining the interim environmental objectives and the long-term objectives set by the Directive. These reports must contain an economic assessment of the implementation of the national emission ceilings, including cost-effectiveness, costs and benefits, impact on competitiveness and socio-economic impact in each Member State.

    The Commission will report to the Council and the European Parliament on the extent to which emissions from international maritime traffic and aircraft contribute to acidification, eutrophication and the formation of ground-level ozone within the Community. It will also specify the action which could be taken to reduce emissions from these sectors.

    Cooperation with third countries

    Member States and the Commission shall cooperate with third countries and the international organisations concerned with the aim of exchanging information and making progress in research aiming to reduce emissions of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3.


    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

    Directive 2001/81/EC



    Official Journal 309 of 27.11.2001

    Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

    Regulation (EC) No 219/2009


    OJ L 87 of 31.3.2009

    Related Acts

    Council Decision 2003/507/EC of 13 June 2003 on the accession of the European Community to the Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-Level Ozone.

    This Protocol seeks to cut emissions of sulphur, NOx, NH3 and VOC caused by human activity and capable of damaging human health and the environment through processes of acidification, eutrophication and tropospheric ozone formation resulting from long-range transboundary transport.

    Coordination instrument

    Coordination instrument

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Coordination instrument


    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007

    Coordination instrument

    The European Union wishes to ensure coordination and coherence between the forms of aid granted in the framework of the pre-accession strategy under the Phare programme, the agricultural instrument (SAPARD) and the structural instrument (ISPA).

    Document or Iniciative

    Council Regulation (EC) No 1266/1999 of 21 June 1999 on coordinating aid to the applicant countries in the framework of the pre-accession strategy and amending Regulation (EEC) No 3906/89.


    A key element of the pre-accession strategy, as defined by the Luxembourg European Council, are the Accession Partnerships established by Regulation No 622/98 on assistance to the applicant countries. The Luxembourg European Council also advocated a substantial increase in pre-accession aid so as to include, in addition to the PHARE programme, an instrument for aid to agriculture (SAPARD) and a structural instrument (ISPA) for financing schemes similar to the Cohesion Fund.

    In order to prevent duplication, to foster complementarity and to enhance the economic impact of the three different Community measures, the Regulation is aimed at improving coordination between the three instruments.

    The three preaccession instruments and eligible measures

    The agricultural pre-accession instrument (SAPARD) is intended to finance measures to support agriculture and rural development, as provided for in Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 1268/1999, with a view to improving farm structures, the processing and marketing of agricultural and fishery products, plant-health and veterinary controls and food quality controls. Integrated rural development measures, including rural infrastructures and agri-environmental measures, are also financed under the instrument.

    The structural pre-accession instrument (ISPA), which was established by Regulation (EC) No 1267/1999, is designed to finance investment projects, i.e.:

    • environmental measures enabling the beneficiary countries to comply with the requirements of Community environmental law and with the objectives of the Accession Partnerships;
    • transport infrastructure measures, in particular those that constitute projects of common interest according to the criteria laid down in Council Decision No 1692/96 and those which enable the beneficiary countries to comply with the objectives of the Accession Partnerships. These include measures to ensure the interconnection and interoperability of national networks both with each other and with the trans-European networks, and to provide access to such networks.

    ThePHAREprogramme was set up under Regulation (EEC) No 3906/89, as last amended by the present Regulation, which provides that funding under the PHARE programme must focus on the main priorities for the adoption of the Community acquis, i.e. building up the administrative and institutional capacities of the applicant States and financing investment, excluding the types of investment financed under the two instruments mentioned above. The PHARE programme can also be used to finance environmental, transport, agricultural and rural development measures which form an indispensable part of industrial reconstruction or regional development programmes.

    Implementing procedures

    Only one of the abovementioned instruments may be used to fund a given measure. The financing of schemes or measures is subject not only to compliance with the provisions of this Regulation but also to compliance with the undertakings contained in the Europe Agreements as set out in Regulation (EC) No 622/98 and with the conditions laid down in the Accession Partnerships.

    The Regulation also provides that beneficiary States are to contribute to the financing of investments. Schemes or measures financed under the three instruments must comply with the regulations relating to those instruments.

    The Commission is responsible for coordinating operations under the three instruments. In particular, it establishes the pre-accession aid guidelines for each country. It is assisted in this task by the PHARE Management Committee set up by Regulation (EEC) No 3906/89 (PHARE).

    The Commission informs the Committee of any decisions concerning the indicative financial allocations for each country and per pre-accession instrument and of any measures taken to ensure coordination and coherence between operations undertaken under the three instruments and between the latter and operations funded via the European Investment Bank, other Community financial instruments or international financial institutions. Such decisions are communicated to the Court of Auditors. The Commission and the Court of Auditors may, if necessary, carry out on-the-spot inspections.

    Procedure and derogations

    Project selection, tendering and contracting by applicant countries is subject to an ex ante assessment procedure by the Commission.

    A derogation is, however, possible: the Commission may allow implementing agencies in applicant countries to manage the aid on a decentralised basis. Its decision is based on a case-by-case analysis of national and sectoral programme/project management capacity, financial control procedures and structures regarding public finance.

    The decision is subject to the minimum criteria and conditions for decentralised management of aid as set out in the Annex to the Regulation. The derogation must also take account of specific provisions concerning invitations to tender, scrutiny and evaluation of tenders, the award of contracts and the implementation of Community public procurement directives.

    The rules governing inspection and evaluation are adopted by the Commission.


    The Commission is required to present to the European Parliament and to the Council an annual report on all the pre-accession aid granted to each country.


    Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
    Regulation (EC) No 1266/1999 [adoption : consultation CNS/1998/150] 29.06.1999 OJ L 161 of 26.06.1999

    Related Acts

    Council Regulation (EC) No 1085/2006 of 17 July 2006 establishing an Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) [OJ L 210 of 31.7.2006].
    This Regulation establishes an instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA) for 2007 – 2013 and replaces the gamut of financial instruments in use between 2000 and 2006 for pre-accession needs and the Stabilisation and Association Process. It is intended to provide a simpler and more effective, rationalised framework. The IPA replaces Phare, ISPA, SAPARD, CARDS and some other Regulations.

    This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

    Common objectives for participation by and information for young people

    Common objectives for participation by and information for young people

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Common objectives for participation by and information for young people


    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Education training youth sport > Youth

    Common objectives for participation by and information for young people

    Document or Iniciative

    Council Resolution of 25 November 2003 on common objectives for participation by and information for young people [Official Journal C 295 of 05.12.2003]


    In this Resolution the Council approves the common objectives with a view to encouraging active citizenship among young people, promoting their access to information and their involvement in the implementation of strategies in this field.

    The new framework for cooperation in the field of youth has identified participation by and information for young people as priority issues. This Resolution sets out a non-exhaustive list of possible areas for action to achieve the common objectives in both fields. It focuses on the inclusion of disadvantaged young people in order to avoid all forms of discrimination or exclusion (cultural or ethnic background, disabilities, socio-economic factors, gender, etc.).

    Increasing participation

    With regard to participation, the Council proposes to promote the introduction of, and support for, measures to encourage young people to exercise their citizenship actively and to participate effectively in democratic life, and in particular to:

    • increase participation by young people in the civic life of their community;
    • increase participation by young people in the system of representative democracy;
    • provide greater support for various forms of learning to participate.

    Encouraging information

    The Council proposes to promote access for young people to information in order to increase their participation in public life and help them realise their potential as active, responsible citizens, in particular by:

    • improving access for young people to information services;
    • increasing the provision of quality information;
    • increasing participation by young people in youth information, for example in the preparation and dissemination of information.

    The Council calls on the Member States to specify their priorities with regard to these common objectives and to submit their national contributions to the implementation of the objectives by the end of 2005. On the basis of these national contributions, the Commission will prepare a progress report and will convene, when appropriate, representatives of the national administrations dealing with the field of youth, in order to promote the exchange of information and best practice.

    Related Acts

    Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of 24 May 2005 meeting within the Council on implementing the common objective “to increase participation by young people in the system of representative democracy” [Official Journal C 141/02 of 10 June 2005]
    The Council notes that young people are not automatically interested in participating in the institutions of democracy and that their participation is tending to decline in some Member States. Against this background it calls on the Member States to:

    • encourage political parties’ awareness of the importance of increasing their youth membership and the number of young people on their lists of candidates;
    • mobilise the support of regional and local authorities for young people’s participation;
    • make young people aware of the importance of voting in elections;
    • The Council invites the Commission and Member States to
    • draw up an inventory of existing knowledge of obstacles to young people’s active participation in representative democracy;
    • exchange information on measures already taken and examples of good practice;
    • strengthen dialogue between young people and political leaders;
    • meet in 2006 to review progress on this objective.

    Resolution of the Council and of the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of 24 May 2005 meeting within the Council on implementing the common objectives for youth information [Official Journal C 141/03 of 10 June 2005]
    The Council agreed that special attention should be focused on:

    • stepping up networking among youth-oriented information structures in various sectors at local, national and European level;
    • continuing training for those involved in youth information.

    The authors of the resolution call on the Commission and Member States to:

    • propose guiding principles in order to enable youth information structures to develop quality assessment;
    • raise the profile of quality youth information in Europe;
    • promote and develop cooperation, networking and the exchange of good practice between national youth information sites and portals across Europe, together with analyses of the use of such sites and portals.

    In connection with youth information, the Member States are invited to use European programmes to develop:

    • a greater insight into young people’s information needs;
    • the exchange of experience among youth information experts at various levels, through European seminars and training sessions;
    • a regularly updated database, with particular reference to networking among youth information structures in various sectors.

    Communication from the Commission to the Council – Follow-up to the White Paper “A New Impetus for European Youth” – Proposed common objectives for the participation and information of young people, in response to the Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 regarding the framework of European cooperation in the youth field [COM(2003) 184 final – not published in the Official Journal].
    Analysis of Member States’ replies to the Commission questionnaires on youth participation and information [SEC(2003) 465 – not published in the Official Journal].
    In accordance with the mandate given to it by the Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 and in application of the open method of coordination (OMC), the Commission drew up two detailed questionnaires in consultation with the Member States for each of the priorities identified in the White Paper on youth, namely participation of young people in public life and information for young people. These questionnaires were forwarded to the Member States and the candidate countries in order to gather basic information on the legislation in force in each country and then to present an outline of current policy with examples of best practice and, finally, details of expectations at European level.
    In an enlarged Europe of 27 Member States there are 75 million 15-25 year-olds, i.e. between 11% and 19% of the national population of each country. Depending on the country, young people represent between 10.5% and 17.5% of the electorate. Participation systems are many and diverse. The most common are:

    • at national level: youth councils, youth parliaments and youth associations;
    • at municipal level: councils or committees open to participation by young people;
    • at school level: pupil or student councils.

    Wishing to establish the opinions and needs of young people, many countries use forms of consultation such as surveys, forums, round table conferences, debates, etc.
    However, there are no statistics enabling an overall picture to be gained. The best way to make young people’s involvement in the decision-making process more effective is to take more account of their specific needs and personal development and by developing co-responsibility and co-decision structures. The Member States and the candidate countries agree on the main priorities to be implemented, namely increasing participation by young people in Community life, the mechanisms of representative democracy and the educational environment.
    As regards information, only a few Member States have a clearly identifiable youth information strategy which is implemented by national youth information networks, ensuring coordination between the national, regional and local levels. The majority of Member States and candidate countries do not, however, have a genuine, funded, systematic, coherent and integrated youth information policy or any all-embracing youth information strategy. In order to offer all young people equal and non-discriminatory access to information and advisory services, the report proposes extending the use of the Internet as a major channel for informing young people. The Member States and candidate countries agree on the common priorities to be implemented, namely access of young people to information, improvement of the quality of information and participation of young people in the production and dissemination of information.
    The OMC provides for common objectives to be defined and monitored. This monitoring is carried out by the Commission at European level.

    TRACES system

    TRACES system

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about TRACES system


    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Food safety > Veterinary checks animal health rules food hygiene

    TRACES system

    Document or Iniciative

    Commission Decision 2003/623/EC of 19 August 2003 concerning the development of an integrated computerised veterinary system known as TRACES.


    The trade control and expert system (TRAde Control and Expert System – TRACES) created a single central database for monitoring the movements of animals and products of animal origin both within the European Union (EU) and those coming from outside of the EU.


    The main features of TRACES are:

    • electronic transmission of information;
    • centralised management of the statutory reference data;
    • interoperability with other information systems;
    • multilingualism.


    The aims of the TRACES system are as follows to:

    • improve the quantity and quality of information on animal movements;
    • improve the exchange of information between the national and European authorities;
    • provide a system of electronic veterinary certificates which enables commercial operations to obtain information on-line;
    • produce lists of establishments from countries outside of the EU which are authorised to export products of animal origin to the EU;
    • manage consignments rejected at EU borders;
    • target controls on public and animal health and animal welfare (particularly during their transport, etc.);
    • centralise the evaluation of potential risks of an epidemic;
    • overcome linguistic difficulties by making information from other countries more accessible;
    • integrate all the operators concerned by putting in place a system for implementing operations related to exchanging documents between economic operators and competent authorities.


    Economic operators may be integrated into TRACES, subject to being registered by the competent authority to which they are linked. When they wish to transport animals, they must fill in an electronic form in a standardised format which contains all the appropriate information concerning the animal or product of animal origin, the destination and any stages.

    In the case of intra-European trade in animals or products of animal origin, the information will be forwarded to the competent authority of the Member State of origin. After having checked the content of the form, the authority may reject or validate the transport. Where appropriate, it will issue the health certificate and the route plan relating to the animals’ welfare in the official languages of the Member State of origin and of destination. The private operator may only carry out the transport if they have received authorisation.

    In the case of import or transit of animals or products of animal origin from outside of the EU, it is the official at the border inspection post who checks the animals or products and the veterinary import documents is responsible for entering the relevant information in the TRACES database, including the decision on whether to grant entry or refuse access to EU territory, and for issuing a Common Veterinary Entry Document (CVED).

    All this information is sent to the veterinary authority of the Member State of destination, to the central veterinary authority of the country or countries of transit and to all appropriate control points. It can then be consulted during checks carried out en route and/or at the destination. This information may also be consulted by the economic operators registered in the database. The system is available to users free of charge.


    The TRACES system replaces several previously separate systems, notably ANIMO and SHIFT. ANIMO was established to monitor the movements of live animals and to exchange information between the national and Community authorities. In order to improve the health security of imported animals and products of animal origin from outside of the EU, an information system called SHIFT was established. SHIFT was composed of two other systems: the SML system for generating list of establishments authorised to export to the EU and the RCS system for managing the consignments refused entry at the EU border. Replacing these different systems with the single TRACES system will avoid duplication, whilst also simplifying the monitoring of animal movements and making it more efficient.

    The European Commission is responsible for controlling the TRACES system, for developing and maintaining it, whereas the ANIMO system was based on a contract between the Member States and a private company. The Court of Auditors asked the Commission to take on this responsibility in the wake of problems encountered during the classical swine fever crisis in 1997.


    Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

    Decision 2003/623/EC


    OJ L 216, 28.08.2003

    Threats to health

    Threats to health

    Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Threats to health


    These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

    Public health > Threats to health

    Threats to health

    European Union action aims to prevent and combat the risks affecting the health of European citizens. It includes protective measures for the different fields of health security and monitoring. Similar to HIV, infectious diseases are on the increase. The control, prevention and monitoring of communicable diseases and pandemics are therefore among the priority objectives. Taking account of the extent to which blood, blood components, as well as human cells, tissues and organs are used medicinally; another aim is to increase their quality and security levels.
    The Union also ensures the protection of citizens against the dangers related to certain medical treatments.


    General measures

    • Seasonal influenza vaccination
    • Preparing for an influenza pandemic and other health threats
    • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
    • Network for the surveillance and control of communicable diseases
    • Early warning and response system for the prevention and control of communicable diseases
    • The fight against bioterrorism (communication)


    • Combating HIV/AIDS in the European Union and neighbouring countries (2009-2013)
    • Action on HIV/AIDS in the European Union and neighbouring countries 2006 – 2009
    • Preventing HIV/AIDS (Council conclusions of 2005)



    • Quality and safety standards for human blood and blood components
    • Suitability of blood donors


    • Quality standards for human tissues and cells


    • Standards of quality and safety of organs intended for transplantation
    • Action plan on Organ Donation and Transplantation
    • Organ donation and transplantation in the European Union


    • Résistance aux antimicrobiens : plan d’action
    • Antibiotic resistance
    • Community strategy against antimicrobial resistance
    • Prudent use of antimicrobial agents in human medicine


    • Rare diseases
    • Patient safety and the prevention of healthcare associated infections
    • Rare diseases: Europe’s challenges
    • Informing the general public in the event of a radiological emergency
    • Early exchange of information in the event of a radiological emergency
    • Radiological protection for persons undergoing medical examination or treatment
    • BSE: state of play in March 2003