Author Archives: Cleaver Smither

Own resources mechanism

Own resources mechanism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Own resources mechanism


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.


Own resources mechanism

The 1970 decision on own resources set the Communities apart from other international organisations, which all rely for funding on contributions from their members.

Towards financial autonomy for the EU: the national contributions to own resources

Under the Treaty of Rome of 25 March 1957 the European Economic Community was to be financed by national contributions for a transitional period before changing over to a system of own resources. The principle was set down in Article 201 of the Treaty, which stated: “Without prejudice to other revenue, the budget shall be financed wholly from own resources.” Own resources can be taken to mean a source of finance separate and independent of the Member States, some kind of revenue assigned once and for all to the Community to fund its budget and due to it by right without the need for any subsequent decision by the national authorities. The Member States, then, would be required to make payments available to the Community for its budget.

In 1965 a first attempt to transfer customs duties and agricultural levies – the “natural” own resources deriving from Community policies (the customs union and the common agricultural policy) – foundered in the face of French opposition, which prompted the Luxembourg compromise. But the 1966 target date for the changeover to a system of financing that would guarantee the Community some measure of independence was not kept. It was not until the Hague summit in 1969 that the Heads of State or Government, in an effort to revive the Community after some years of difficulty, finally took the decision to go ahead with the change. On 21 April 1970 the Council adopted a decision assigning to the Communities (with a single budget following the Merger Treaty of 8 April 1965) own resources to cover all their expenditure. The Decision marked the end of national contributions, through which the Member States had enjoyed some scope for controlling the policies undertaken by the Communities, and the beginning of an independent system of financing by “traditional” own resources (agricultural levies and customs duties) and a resource based on value added tax (VAT).

Where do own resources come from?

Traditional own resources are considered as the “natural” own resources, since they are revenue collected by virtue of Community policies rather than revenue obtained from the Member States as national contributions. Own resources currently come from customs duties, agricultural levies, sugar contributions, a fixed-rate portion of value-added tax (VAT) receipts and a fixed-rate levy on gross national income (GNI).

  • Customs duties are levied at external frontiers on imports under the common customs tariff that was introduced in 1968 (two years ahead of schedule). The Treaty of Rome had earmarked customs duties as the principal resource to be assigned to the European Economic Community (EEC) to finance its expenditure. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) customs duties have been included since 1988.
  • Agricultural resources: the most important of these are the agricultural duties earlier known as levies. They were introduced in 1962 and assigned to the Community by the Decision of 21 April 1970. Originally they were charges in amounts varying according to price levels on the world and European markets. Following transposal of the multilateral trade agreements (Uruguay Round, April 1994) into Community law, there is no longer any difference between agricultural duties and customs duties. Agricultural duties are nothing more than import duties charged on agricultural products imported from non-member countries.

Besides agricultural duties, there are also levies on the production of sugar, isoglucose and inulin syrup. But unlike the levies on agricultural imports, they are charged on Community sugar producers. The 2000 own-resources decision that is currently in operation allows Member States to retain 25% of traditional own resources to cover collection costs.

  • Value added tax (VAT). VAT resources were introduced by the 1970 Decision because the traditional own resources were not sufficient to finance the Community budget. But the need to harmonise the VAT base meant more delay, with the result that this complex resource did not come into use until 1980. It is obtained by applying a given rate to a base determined in a uniform manner. From 1988 to 1994 the base could not exceed 55% of the Member States’ gross national product (GNP). After 1995 the limit was lowered to 50% of GNP for Member States with a per capita GNP below 90% of the Community average. Between 1995 and 1999 the new limit was gradually extended and now applies to all the Member States.

The 1970 Decision limited the maximum call-in rate of VAT to 1% of the base. The second own resources Decision of 7 May 1985 raised the ceiling to 1.4% from 1 January 1986 to coincide with the accession of Spain and Portugal. This increase was designed to meet the costs of enlargement. The 2000 own-resources decision finally cut the maximum call-in rate to the current level of 0.5% of the harmonised and capped VAT base.

  • Gross national income (GNI). In 1988 the Council decided to introduce a fourth own resource based at the time on gross national product (GNP), which was meant to replace VAT as the resource for balancing the budget. The decision of 24 June 1988 also set the ceiling for own resources as a percentage of GNP. The figure was 1.14% for 1988 and 1.27% for 1999. The current own-resources decision extends the application of the European System of Accounts 1995 (ESA95) to the EU budget. In ESA95, the concept of gross national product has been replaced by gross national income, and the reference to GNP has accordingly been replaced by GNI in the own-resources decision. But to leave the amount of own resources made available to the Communities unchanged, the ceiling on own resources as a percentage of EU GNI has been adapted, the new ceiling being 1.24%.

The GNI-based resource is obtained by applying a rate fixed each year under the budget procedure to a base representing the sum of the gross national incomes at market prices. It is calculated by reference to the difference between expenditure and the yield of all the other own resources. It is the “key” resource, not only because it finances the bulk of the budget but also determines the cap on the VAT base, how the cost of the UK rebate is shared out, and the ceiling on total resources that the Community can receive.

Own resources are collected by the Member States and made available to the Community every month, being credited to an “own resources” account opened by the Commission at each national treasury or national bank. Traditional own resources are credited each month as they are collected. VAT own resources and the GNI-based resource, on the other hand, are made available to the Commission on the first working day of each month at the rate of one twelfth of the estimate entered in the Community budget. Given the specific needs involved in payment of agricultural expenditure, the Commission sometimes calls on the Member States to pay VAT and GNI resources a month or two in advance in the first quarter of the year.

Other revenue. The budget is not financed entirely from own resources but also by taxes and deductions from staff remuneration, bank interest, third-country contributions to certain Community programmes (research, for instance), reimbursement of Community grants not used, interest on late payments and balances from previous years.

The exceptional measure for the UK

In 1984 the Fontainebleau European Council decided to introduce a correction for the United Kingdom. This mechanism gives the United Kingdom a rebate equivalent to 0.66% of its negative net balance. The cost of financing the UK rebate is shared between the other Member States according to their share of GNI (except in the case of Austria, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, whose share is reduced by three quarters). The cost is spread over the other twenty-two Member States.


EEC-China Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement

EEC-China Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about EEC-China Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Asia

EEC-China Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EEC) No 2616/85 of 16 September 1985 concerning the conclusion of a Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement between the European Economic Community and the People’s Republic of China.

Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement between the European Economic Community and the People’s Republic of China.


This Agreement replaces the trade agreement concluded between the European Economic Community (EEC) and the People’s Republic of China on 3 April 1978. It aims to introduce a new stage, to promote and intensify trade and to encourage the steady expansion of economic cooperation in the mutual interest of both parties.

Trade cooperation

Both parties confirm their determination to encourage trade, improve its structure in order to diversify it, and take the necessary measures to facilitate it.

They grant each other most-favoured nation treatment in all matters regarding:

  • customs duties and charges of all kinds (including the procedures for the collection of such duties or charges) applied to the import, export, re-export, or transit of products;
  • regulations, procedures and formalities concerning customs clearance, transit, warehousing and transhipment of products imported or exported;
  • taxes and other internal charges levied directly or indirectly on products or services imported or exported;
  • administrative formalities for the issue of import or export licences.

There are, however, exceptions. This treatment is not applied to:

  • advantages accorded by the EEC or China to:

– states with which they share membership of a customs union or free trade area;

– neighbouring countries for the purpose of facilitating border trade;

  • measures which the EEC or China may take in order to meet their obligations under international commodity agreements.

The Agreement also aims to achieve a balance in trade; it therefore provides for any obvious imbalance to be examined by the Joint Committee with a view to recommendations.

China must give favourable consideration to EEC imports. The EEC, for its part, will gradually move towards greater liberalisation for imports from China. It will endeavour to expand the list of products that may be freely imported and increase the amount of quotas.

Provision is made for information to be exchanged before either party takes any action. In exceptional cases where rapid action is required, the two parties must hold friendly consultations as soon as possible before acting. Both parties are to ensure that in any event their actions do not prejudice the general objectives of the Agreement.

Trade in goods and the provision of services is to be effected at market-related prices and rates. Payments for the transactions may be made in any convertible currency accepted by the two parties concerned by the transactions.

Economic cooperation

In order to promote the development of their industry and agriculture, diversify their economic links, encourage scientific and technological progress, open up new sources of supply and new markets, help to develop their economies and raise their respective standards of living, the two parties agree to develop economic cooperation in:

  • industry and mining;
  • agriculture, including agro-industry;
  • science and technology;
  • energy;
  • transport and communication;
  • the protection of the environment;
  • cooperation in third countries.

The EEC and China will also encourage industrial and technical cooperation through, for instance, joint production, joint ventures, common exploitation, the transfer of technology, contacts and activities to promote exchanges between the business communities, seminars, cooperation between financial institutions, consultancy services, technical assistance and continuous exchange of information.

The parties also undertake to encourage investment, in particular by creating a favourable climate by providing investment promotion and protection arrangements.

The EEC states that it is prepared to continue its development activities in China in the context of development aid. The Member States are, for their part, entirely free to engage in bilateral activities in the field of economic cooperation and to conclude new economic cooperation agreements with China where appropriate.

Joint Committee

The Agreement establishes a Joint Committee made up of representatives of the contracting parties. It meets once a year, in Brussels and Beijing alternately, and is chaired by each party in turn. Extraordinary meetings may be convened and working parties set up. The Joint Committee’s tasks are:

  • to monitor and examine the functioning of the Agreement;
  • to examine any questions that may arise in the implementation of the Agreement;
  • to examine issues that might hinder cooperation;
  • to examine new means and possibilities of developing trade and economic cooperation;
  • to make recommendations for achieving the objectives of the Agreement.

The Agreement was concluded for an initial period of five years and is renewed automatically every year provided neither of the contracting parties gives written notice of termination six months before its expiry. The Agreement is still in force in 2004.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Council Regulation (EEC) No 2616/85 and Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement between the European Economic Community and the People’s Republic of China. 22.09.1985 OJ L 250 of 19.9.1985

Related Acts

In 1994 and 2002 the Agreement was supplemented by exchanges of letters establishing broader political dialogue between the EU and China.

In 2003 the Commission adopted a policy paper on “A maturing partnership – shared interests and challenges in EU-China relations” [COM(2003) 533 final] which supplements and updates the 2001 Communication on ” EU strategy towards China: Implementation of the 1998 communication and future steps for a more effective EU policy.”

In 2006, the Commission proposed and made recommendations to strengthen the EU – China partnership in its Communication entitled ‘EU – China: Closer partners, growing responsibilities’, of 24 October 2006 [COM(2006) 631 final].

Council Decision of 16 November 2004 on the conclusion of an Agreement between the European Community and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation and mutual administrative assistance in customs matters [Official Journal L 375 of 23 December 2004].

Agreement between the European Community and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on cooperation and mutual administrative assistance in customs matters [Official Journal L 375 of 23 December 2004].

This agreement entered into force on 1 April 2005.

Use of additives in feedingstuffs

Use of additives in feedingstuffs

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Use of additives in feedingstuffs


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal nutrition

Use of additives in feedingstuffs

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2003 on additives for use in animal nutrition [See amending act(s)].


The aim of this Regulation is to establish a standardised procedure for the authorisation and use of feed additives and to lay down rules for the labelling and supervision of these substances.


This Regulation applies to all feed additives * except:

  • processing aids *; and
  • veterinary medicinal products as defined by Directive 2001/82/EC.

Conditions for authorization

The applicant must prove that the additive for which it has submitted an application for authorisation for placing on the market complies with certain conditions, i.e.:

  • the additive must have a favourable influence on the characteristics of the feed into which it is incorporated or on animal production;
  • the additive must not have an adverse effect on animal health, human health or the environment;
  • the additive must not harm the consumer by impairing the distinctive features of animal products;
  • the presentation of the additive must not mislead the user.

Antibiotics, other than coccidiostats or histomonostats, may not be used as feed additives.

Authorisation procedure

Additives intended for use in animal feeds must receive a favourable opinion from the (EFSA) before obtaining an authorisation for their use and placing on the market.

Applications for authorisation are submitted to the Commission. The latter then ensures that the applications are notified to Member States before forwarding the applications to the EFSA. The applicant himself must send the EFSA the copy of the application and certain information (the name and address of the applicant, a description of the method of production, manufacturing and intended uses of the additive, proposed conditions for placing the additive on the market, the safety and efficacy studies, etc.). In addition, he must send samples to the Community Reference Laboratory for analysis. The EFSA may, if necessary, ask for further information.

Within six months of receipt of an application the EFSA gives an opinion based on the information provided by the applicant and on the evaluation report forwarded by the Community Reference Laboratory. If this opinion is favourable, it must include information on the specific conditions or restrictions relating to handling, monitoring requirements following placing on the market and use of the additive, including the animal species and categories of animals for which the additive is to be used, information on specific additional requirements for labelling of the additive, and, where appropriate, a proposal for the establishment of Maximum Residues Limits (MRLs) in the relevant foodstuffs of animal origin.

Based on the EFSA opinion, the Commission decides whether or not to authorise the additive. An authorisation is valid for ten years and may be renewed. An authorisation may be renewed by means of simplified provisions.

This Regulation contains provisions concerning the use of non-authorised additives for research purposes and provisions concerning the use of certain additives (in particular those produced from genetically modified organisms).

Persons using an authorised additive or placing it on the market are responsible for ensuring compliance with any conditions or restrictions imposed by the Commission.

Based on the opinion given by the EFSA, the Commission may decide to amend, suspend or revoke an authorisation.

Information on additives

The additives are entered in a register made available to the public. They are allocated to one or more of the following categories: technological additives; sensory additives; nutritional additives; zootechnical additives; coccidiostats and histomonostats. These categories are themselves divided into functional groups according to the additives’ principal functions.

Additives must be labelled clearly and indelibly and include certain information, including the specific name given to the additives upon authorisation and their identification number, the name and address of the person responsible for these particulars, the net weight or net volume of the additives, directions for use and any safety recommendations regarding use and, where applicable, the specific requirements mentioned in the authorisation.

Following the applicant’s request, certain information provided by the latter may remain confidential if the Commission considers that its disclosure is likely to compromise the rules on competition.


Directives 70/524/EEC and 87/153/EEC are repealed but some of their provisions remain temporarily in force.

Key terms used in the act
  • Additives for animal feed: substances: micro-organisms or preparations, other than feed material and premixtures, which are intentionally added to feed or water in order to perform, in particular, one or more of the following functions: satisfy the nutritional needs of animals, favourably affect the characteristics of feed or animal products, the colour of ornamental fish and birds, the environmental consequences of animal production, animal production, performance or welfare, or have a coccidiostatic or histomonostatic effect.
  • Processing aid: a substance which is not consumed as a feedingstuff by itself, intentionally used in the processing of feedingstuffs or feed materials to fulfil a technological purpose during treatment or processing which may result in the unintentional but technologically unavoidable presence of residues of the substance or its derivatives in the final product.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) 1831/2003


OJ L 268 of 18.10.2003

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 378/2005


OJ L 59 of 5.3.2005

Regulation (EC) No 596/2009


OJ L 188 of 18.7.2009

Regulation (EC) No 767/2009


OJ L 229 of 1.9.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for reference only.

Related Acts

Commission Regulation (EU) No 516/2010 of 15 June 2010 concerning the permanent authorisation of an additive in feedingstuffs [Official Journal L 150 of 16.6.2010].

Commission Regulation (EC) No 429/2008 of 25 April 2008 on detailed rules for the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the preparation and the presentation of applications and the assessment and the authorisation of feed additives [Official Journal L 133 of 22.5.2008].
Applications for authorisation of a feed additive are presented using the form in Appendix I of the Regulation. They are accompanied by a dossier which should enable the efficacy and safety of the feed additive for humans, animals and the environment to be evaluated. For applications submitted before 21June 2008, the Appendix to Directive 87/153/EEC is still valid.



Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Employment


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide


Originally the policies and powers of the European Community were not on the agenda of the 1996 Inter-Governmental Conference. However, the disappointment engendered by the absence of a reference to employment in the Treaty on European Union (1992) and the initiative to combat unemployment mounted by the Essen European Council (9 and 10 December 1994) prompted the Member States to prioritise these issues at the Intergovernmental Conference on the revision of the Treaty of Maastricht, in order to respond to what is one of their citizens’ main concerns.

Following difficult negotiations due to the diversity of situations and national policies in the field of employment, a consensus finally emerged on the precedence of national policies and the rejection of large-scale spending programmes. The addition of a new chapter on employment in the Treaty establishing the European Community is the fruit of these negotiations.

A new objective for the European Union

Promoting employment is henceforth one of the objectives of the European Union and becomes a “matter of common concern” for the Member States (Article 2 of the EC Treaty). The new objective is to achieve “a high level of employment” without weakening the competitiveness of the European Union (Article 2 of the EU Treaty).

To achieve this objective a new power has been vested in the Union, supplementary to that of the Member States, concerning the preparation of a “coordinated strategy” for employment. The core of this strategy consists of common guidelines similar to those adopted at the Essen European Council.

The new Title VIII (Articles 125 to 130) of the EC Treaty spells out these objectives and how to achieve them. It also provides for the creation of an Employment Committee.

The Treaty’s explicit reference to employment institutionalises the initiatives mounted by the Member States at different European Councils as well as those mounted by the Commission over the past two years. Moreover, alongside the provisions on Economic and Monetary Union, it redresses the balance by adding to the macroeconomic provisions a number of measures that meet European citizens’ expectations as regards the struggle against unemployment. Indeed one of the hallmarks of this new Title is that repercussions on employment must be taken into account in adopting and implementing each Community policy and action.

Early implementation

At the Amsterdam Council of 16 and 17 June 1997 the Member States decided to apply the new provisions on employment in the Amsterdam Treaty ahead of schedule, and on 1 October the European Commission proposed guidelines for the Member States’ employment policies in 1998.


During the Intergovernmental Conference on Economic and Monetary Union (1992), a debate took place on the advisability of including employment among the convergence criteria which Member States had to respect if they wanted to participate in the single currency. This idea was rejected by most governments, who were keen to guard their prerogatives in the field of employment policy. During the national debates in the run-up to the ratification of the Treaty on European Union, the absence of any reference to employment in the new Treaty came in for heavy criticism. It looked as if the European Union cared little about unemployment and jobs – at a time when the Member States were finding themselves compelled to make difficult social choices in order to reduce their deficits in preparation for future Economic and Monetary Union.

Preliminary steps – Essen

In 1994 the Essen European Council (9 and 10 December) adopted – for the first time at European level – short- and medium-term lines of action on employment. The summit’s conclusions state that reducing unemployment is one of the priority tasks of the European Union and highlight the structural origins of much of European unemployment and the crucial role of meaningful dialogue between the social partners and policy-makers with a view to resolving this problem.

The European Council also defined five priority strands for Member States’ employment policies:

  • promoting investment in vocational training so that workers can adapt to technological developments throughout their working life
  • increasing employment during periods of growth (notably via more flexible work organisation, a wage policy designed to encourage job-creating investments and the encouragement of initiatives at regional and local level)
  • reducting nonwage labour costs to encourage hiring, in particular of unqualified workers
  • improving the effectiveness of labour market policy by a better definition of measures to raise wages and by regularly evaluating the effectiveness of labour market policy instruments
  • improving measures to help groups which are particularly hard hit by unemployment, notably long-term unemployment (young people leaving school without qualifications, elderly workers and women).

These recommendations have been implemented in the Member States in the form of multi-annual programmes. Each year the Commission prepares a report on employment trends and policies in the Member States and evaluates them in the light of the priorities that have been adopted.

The Confidence Pact

In June 1996 the European Commission mounted an “Action for employment in Europe: a Confidence Pact” with a view to mobilising all the players concerned at Community, national and local level, capitalising on the potential multiplier effect of these actions at European level, and enshrining the struggle against unemployment in the framework of a medium and long term vision of society. The Dublin European Council (13-14 December 1996) welcomed this initiative embracing all the economic and social operators and called for swift implementation of the draft territorial employment pacts (80 of these pacts had been signed by June 1997).

The European Union has also taken numerous job-creation measures under the Structural Funds and the European Social Fund. By including employment in the Community policies and putting it on the agenda of all European Councils, the Treaty of Amsterdam allows the development of Community employment initiatives and the creation of a consistent policy at European level.


The new Title VIII puts in place a coordinated employment strategy designed to encourage a skilled and adaptable labour force and to promote labour markets that are responsive to economic change.

Common guidelines

Firstly the European Council adopts conclusions on the employment situation in the Community on the basis of the annual report prepared by the Council of the European Union and the Commission.

These conclusions enable the Commission to propose employment policy guidelines each year that are compatible with the major economic guidelines laid down under monetary union (Article 99, ex Article 103). The Council adopts the guidelines by qualified majority after consulting the European Parliament, the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and the Employment Committee. The procedure is modelled on the convergence arrangements for national economic policies. However, the common guidelines do not advocate measures to harmonise national provisions, though they do have an indirect impact on Member States’ policy.

Member States must take these common objectives into account in their employment policies. The Council then examines the annual reports submitted by the Member States in this area and, if it deems necessary, addresses a recommendation – acting on a proposal from the Commission – to a Member State. This recommendation is then adopted by the Council by qualified majority.

This provision is similar to the one on economic policy, but no penalties are imposed on Member States that fail to comply with the Council’s recommendations. Nor does the Treaty state that these recommendations have to be published.

Finally, in contrast to the provisions on economic and monetary union, Title VIII does not prescribe any macroeconomic objectives to be achieved, along the lines of the economic convergence criteria. Certain Member States did not want binding objectives enshrined in the Treaty. In their view, putting a coordinated strategy in place already amounted to a major step forward.

Incentive measures

The Council may adopt initiative measures to promote employment, acting by qualified majority and in accordance with the codecision procedure involving the European Parliament. These measures should “encourage cooperation between Member States and to support their action in the field of employment through initiatives aimed at developing exchanges of information and best practices, providing comparative analysis and advice as well as promoting innovative approaches and evaluating experience, in particular by recourse to pilot projects”. They do not “include harmonisation of the laws and regulations of the Member States”. However, the coordinated strategy on employment should have an indirect impact on these rules.

The initiative measures are fleshed out in two declarations:

  • the actions must specify the grounds for their adoption, their duration (maximum five years) and the maximum amount of funding
  • their funding is limited because it must be provided under Rubric 3 of the Financial Perspectives, which represents approximately 6% of the Community budget.


A Committee on Employment and the Labour Market was established in December 1996. It has restricted powers. The new Article 130 of the EC Treaty replaces this Committee and requires the Council to establish an Employment Committee, on the lines of the Monetary Committee established by economic and monetary union.

This advisory committee promotes coordination between Member States on national employment and labour market policies. It monitors the development of these policies in the member states and the Community as a whole, formulates opinions either at the request of the Council or Commission or on its own initiative, and helps prepare the ground for the Council’s proceedings.

Like the former Committee on Employment and the Labour Market, it consists of two representatives of each Member State and the Commission. It consults the social partners.

Cooperation with the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism

Cooperation with the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Cooperation with the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > African Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

Cooperation with the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism

Document or Iniciative

Council Joint Action 2007/501/CFSP of 16 July 2007 on cooperation with the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism in the framework of the implementation of the European Union counter-terrorism strategy.


This Joint Action offers the support of the European Union (EU) to the Member States of the African Union (AU). Its objective is to improve the organisation of the capacities of the Member States of the AU in the fight against terrorism and to strengthen cooperation, in particular through the exchange of information.

The EU undertakes to provide financial support to the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism (ACSRT) with a view to improving the efficiency of the counter-terrorism arrangements of the African countries.

African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism

Since its creation in 2004, the ACSRT has been responsible for evaluating the terrorist threat in Africa and for promoting intra-African cooperation against terrorism. It deals more specifically with carrying out training measures, conducting studies, setting up databases for gathering, exchanging and analysing information, as well as for terrorism-related surveillance and alerts.


The project consists in carrying out audit missions on national counter-terrorism arrangements and providing advice on reorganisation in the AU Member States. To achieve this, an action plan, drawn up by the EU, will be presented at the next seminar in Addis Ababa.

This seminar will bring together two representatives from the 53 countries of the AU, Morocco, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the ACSRT and each EU Member State, as well as the EU Counter-terrorism Coordinator.

At the close of the seminar, the African States will declare whether they wish to receive an audit mission or not. The audit teams will be made up of two specialists from the EU Member States and one member of the ACSRT and will be responsible for drawing up reports containing recommendations. If they are accepted by the audited countries, the latter will implement them, with monitoring by the ACSRT.

In parallel, the evaluations recording the possible improvements are forwarded to the ACSRT, which in turn sends them to the Council for communication to the Member States. On the basis of these evaluations, the ACSRT, with the agreement of the EU, can make recommendations to the audited countries.


The Presidency, assisted by the Secretary-General of the Council/High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is responsible for the implementation of this Joint Action.

The ACSRT is responsible for:

  • the technical implementation of the project;
  • the organisation of the Addis Ababa seminar;
  • contact with the States which have accepted the action plan;
  • proper management of the audit missions in operational and financial terms;
  • coordination of the project;
  • drawing up regular project evaluation reports.

The Council and the Commission ensure consistency between the implementation of this Joint Action and other external activities of the Community.

Terms and conditions

The project implementation budget amounts to EUR 665 000. The Commission is responsible for supervising the proper management of expenditure, supplying the information relating to the financial aspects, concluding a financing agreement with the ACSRT and informing the Council of any difficulties.

The Joint Action enters into force on the day of its adoption and expires 18 months after the conclusion of the financing agreement or on 16 July 2008, if no agreement has been concluded before that date.


This Joint Action is part of the EU counter-terrorism strategy, the EU’s strategy for Africa, the Plan of Action on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism in Africa and the Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, signed in Algiers.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Joint Action 2007/501/CFSP 16.7.2007 OJ L 185 of 17.7.2007

European policies concerning youth participation and information

European policies concerning youth participation and information

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European policies concerning youth participation and information


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

European policies concerning youth participation and information

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council on European policies concerning youth participation and information [COM(2006) 417 final – Not published in the Official Journal].


Youth policies serve to facilitate young people’s transition into working life and develop their active citizenship at European level. The White Paper ” A new impetus for European Youth ” led to the adoption of a framework of European cooperation in the youth field, within which the Member States agreed to focus on four specific priorities to promote young people’s active citizenship:

  • information;
  • participation;
  • voluntary activities;
  • a better knowledge of youth.

National reports on participation and information were submitted to the Commission by the Member States. According to the Member States the two European priorities of “participation” and “information”, to which they apply the open method of coordination (OMC), have encouraged national youth policies and remain important for the development of young people’s active citizenship. But they recognise that they must continue to cooperate with each other and with their regional and local authorities if the process is to bear fruit.

This Communication analyses these reports and assesses the achievement of the common objectives in respect of the two above-mentioned priorities throughout the European Union (EU).


The common objectives on information for young people are based on three points: access for young people to information, quality information, and participation by young people in information production.

Access for young people to information

Information tools are available to young people in all Member States. However, only 12 countries have opted for an information strategy which addresses all questions likely to interest young people and which encompasses all levels, from local to European.

Youth information websites are the most important information means of communication information. The European youth portal, created in 2003, establishes links with the national youth portals in 19 Member States. The Member States recognise that this portal has enhanced inter-ministerial cooperation and exchanges in the field of youth information.

The reports express the Member States’ desire to:

  • further develop personalised information services,
  • help young people with fewer opportunities to access tools such as the internet so that they are not excluded from the society of information.

Action is above all based on issues such as free time, youth organisations and voluntary activities, while information on participation, education, employment and travelling in Europe is sometimes neglected.

England has a national online service (Connexions Direct) which offers young people information by telephone, text message, online or by e-mail. In Slovenia, youth information and counselling centres pay specific attention to the young Romany population. In Cyprus and Spain, young people in rural areas are provided with information by mobile units.

Information quality

Member States aim to ensure that information for young people meets certain quality standards. Accordingly, most of them apply the European youth information charter.

Networks play an important role in improving the skills of youth information workers. The European youth information networks EURODESK, ERYICA and EYCA help in the development of training courses for their members. They have also put together a compendium of initiatives regarding quality.

In France, youth information centres have their own staff training structure to ensure that quality standards are met. National quality standards supplement the European youth information charter.

Participation by young people in information generation

Hardly any action has been taken in this field. Nevertheless, a number of reports indicate that young people can be consulted on informational strategies and on the development of information material. In Slovakia, youth information centres cooperate with volunteers who distribute information for young people mainly in schools and universities.

Obstacles and challenges

Member States encounter certain difficulties in achieving the common objectives on youth information. These obstacles can be divided into three categories:

  • methodology: some Member States have emphasised how difficult it is to identify a starting point and indicators to assess progress;
  • coordination between actors: it is necessary to improve coordination between the different institutions concerned with youth;
  • lack of resources, particularly at local level.

The Member States intend to pursue the implementation of the common objectives. The key challenges awaiting them include improved involvement of national youth councils and focusing more on young people with fewer opportunities.

To improve access for young people to information services, the Commission considers it necessary to:

  • establish global information strategies addressing all issues relevant to young people;
  • promote information society tools and innovative approaches.

In the Commission’s view, quality information requires:

  • further development of individual counselling services;
  • systematic application of the European youth information charter.

It is also necessary to enhance the participation of young people in public information strategies and reinforce the role of youth organisations in promoting youth information.


Action to support young people’s participation in democratic life is better coordinated than in the past. The means used by Member States to achieve the common objectives for participation of young people are, namely, reinforcement of frameworks, support for participative and representative structures, and support for projects.

Reinforcement of frameworks

The legal framework in the field of youth participation has been improved. Some Member States have adopted legislation and others have developed strategic action plans or new obligations to consult young people. The following countries have adopted different measures:

  • Ireland: a youth law;
  • Czech Republic: a youth concept;
  • Portugal: a national youth reform programme;
  • Sweden: a government bill entitled “The power to decide”;
  • Estonia and Slovenia: a strategic plan;
  • Latvia: a political programme for youth;
  • Slovakia: a youth participation plan.

Italy provides special funds to support youth policies.

Support for participative and representative structures

A number of actions have been implemented with the aim of supporting participative structures and promoting dialogue with partners in the youth field. However, better interaction between the local, regional, national and European levels is needed. National reports also show the need for greater efforts at local level, and it is necessary to remove obstacles affecting the participation of certain groups of young people.

Forums for dialogue between young people and decision-makers have been organised more frequently, including regular consultations, meetings and hearings.

Some countries have nominated individuals to take responsibility for youth affairs. Finland has appointed a mediator, the United Kingdom a national youth correspondent, while Lithuania has opted for municipal youth coordinators.

Other countries have developed horizontal practices (e.g. inter-ministerial meetings) or have set up consultative structures such as:

  • national councils (most Member States);
  • youth commissions and local youth councils (Luxembourg, Belgium);
  • youth parliaments (Cyprus and Malta);
  • participative structures for youth (Greece and Spain);
  • structures more specifically for disadvantaged young people (Germany);
  • structures for young people in rural areas (Poland);
  • support structures for youth projects (Austria).

Young people’s interest in representative democracy is declining, but few Member States seem to be working on remedial action. However, some are introducing arrangements to increase young people’s participation in elections:

  • The Netherlands has introduced parallel elections for young people;
  • Finland allows voting in local elections from the age of 16;
  • France has introduced automatic registration in electoral lists;
  • Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have opted for use of the internet.

Support for projects

Participation by young people must be encouraged in fields where projects are undertaken, and young people must be the main actors in their participative projects. It is also essential to support relevant bodies such as youth organisations.

In some Member States efforts have been made to open up projects to young people with fewer opportunities. In France, the “Desire to do something” programme supports and rewards first projects by or for young people and finances innovative and creative projects as well as voluntary activities and entrepreneurial projects. In Denmark, the “Youth policy in Danish municipalities” project stresses the importance of involving young people more in policy-making.

Obstacles encountered

The difficulties encountered by Member States can be divided into four groups:

  • methodology: some Member States have emphasised how difficult it is to identify a starting point and indicators to assess progress;
  • lack of direct or indirect support: it is necessary to allocate resources to structures and projects, and also to provide stable support through legislative action, partnerships with young people or common tools;
  • lack of involvement of young people: although young people have the right not to participate, more can be done to encourage their involvement. Their peers could act as “ambassadors” willing to share their experience. Better recognition and promotion of the individual and social benefits of involvement would also encourage youth participation;
  • inertia of institutional actors: interaction between the local, regional and national levels needs to be improved, the development of youth participation structures should be given more support, and dialogue should be organised with young people on a broader range of issues. The mobilisation of local authorities is crucial for fostering local participation by young people.

As in the case of youth information, the EU Member States aim to pursue the common objectives. They confirm the importance of using information society tools for interactive policy participation (e.g. “policy blogging”) and of developing youth participation in elections.

The Commission feels that participation by young people in civic life necessitates:

  • structured consultation of young people on issues that concern them. This should entail reinforcing the role of national youth councils in the consultation process;
  • local participative structures and systematic involvement of young people in local decision-making bodies;
  • analysis of obstacles to participation affecting certain groups of young people in order to increase representativeness;
  • tools to promote participation (e.g. guidelines for participatory mechanisms).

It is also necessary to develop actions to increase participation by young people in the institutions of representative democracy (e.g. by promoting their involvement in political parties), so that young people take more part in representative democracy.

Finally, it is essential to support the various forms of learning to participate. In this connection synergies must be developed with actions undertaken in the education field. For example, at European level, closer links could be established with the open method of coordination for education and vocational training. Support for the different forms of learning to participate also necessitates better recognition of the different forms of participation by young people.


Structured dialogue with young people on the European agenda must be improved. The Commission and Member States have agreed on the need to involve young people actively in debate and dialogue for policy-making. The European institutions and Member States have made efforts to implement these principles in practice and foster the involvement of young people in EU development, for example by preparing:

  • a consultation process on the 2001 White Paper “A new impetus for European youth”;
  • regular encounters with youth organisations;
  • a European youth week;
  • consultations on the European youth portal;
  • youth events organised by the Presidency;
  • conferences, campaigns, forums and consultations in Member States.

However, the Commission considers that forums for dialogue with young people on European issues could be developed more and that their structures could be improved at European, national, regional and local levels.

Commission’s ideas for improving structured dialogue

In order to maximise their legitimacy, debates involving young people must be as inclusive and diverse as possible. It is therefore essential to involve disadvantaged young people and those who do not belong to any structures. In order to enable a more coherent and cross-sectoral approach, these debates should also bring together actors who deal directly or indirectly with youth issues.

The Commission plans to support a permanent dialogue for a period of three years in a spirit of constructive partnership. In particular, it proposes to:

  • facilitate dialogue at local level to ensure timely and effective input from young people into EU debates;
  • identify priority themes to be discussed at European level until 2009: social inclusion and diversity in 2007, intercultural dialogue in 2008 and perspectives for continued cooperation in the youth field in 2009;
  • create an informal forum attended by representatives of young people, presidencies, the European Parliament and the Commission;
  • regularly organise a European youth week with the participation of Commissioners and representatives of other European institutions;
  • arrange encounters with young people who do not usually have contacts with the European institutions;
  • organise a youth-specific Eurobarometer (end of 2006);
  • mobilise European information networks to support structured dialogue.


The Commission is of the opinion that the OMC should be reinforced. In this connection it proposes that:

  • Member States should single out by the end of 2006 those lines of action for participation and information on which they wish to concentrate and define action plans;
  • Member States should set up a follow-up mechanism involving young people and their organisations and prepare an evaluation report by the end of 2008;
  • Member States should take part, on a voluntary basis, in pilot peer reviews of information and participation;
  • Member States should promote the common objectives among regional and local authorities, youth organisations and young people in general;
  • the Commission itself should consult the European Youth Forum on any proposal relating to the OMC;
  • a working group should define indicators for the implementation of the common objectives on participation and information.

The Council is asked to endorse the proposals set out in the Communication.

Related Acts

Communication from the Commission to the European Council of 10 May 2006: “A citizens’ agenda – Delivering results for Europe” [COM(2006) 211 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

White Paper of 1 February 2006 on a European communication policy [COM(2006) 35 final — Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 30 May 2005 on European policies concerning youth – Addressing the concerns of young people in Europe – Implementing the European youth pact and promoting active citizenship [COM(2005) 206 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Communication from the Commission of 13 October 2005 on the Commission’s contribution to the period of reflection and beyond – Plan D for Democracy, Dialogue and Debate [COM(2005) 494 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

European Commission White Paper of 21 November 2001: “A new impetus for European youth” [COM(2001) 681 final — Not published in the Official Journal].

Quality of drinking water

Quality of drinking water

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Quality of drinking water


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Quality of drinking water

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption [See amending act(s)].


The Directive is intended to protect human health by laying down healthiness and purity requirements which must be met by drinking water within the European Union (EU).

Drinking water

The Directive applies to all water intended for human consumption apart from natural mineral waters and waters which are medicinal products.

General obligations

Member States shall ensure that such drinking water:

  • does not contain any concentration of micro-organisms, parasites or any other substance which constitutes a potential human health risk;
  • meets the minimum requirements (microbiological and chemical parameters and those relating to radioactivity) laid down by the Directive.

They will take any other action needed in order to guarantee the healthiness and purity of water intended for human consumption.

Quality standards

Member States shall lay down the parametric values corresponding at least to the values set out in the Directive. Where parameters are not set out in the Directive limit values must be laid down by the Member States if necessary to protect health.


The Directive requires Member States to regularly monitor the quality of water intended for human consumption by using the methods of analysis specified in the Directive, or equivalent methods. For this purpose they shall determine the sampling points and draw up monitoring programmes.

Corrective action and restrictions on use

Where the parametric values are not attained the Member States concerned shall ensure that the corrective action needed is taken as quickly as possible in order to restore water quality.

Regardless of compliance, or otherwise, with the parametric values, Member States shall prohibit the distribution of drinking water or shall restrict its use and shall take any action needed where that water constitutes a potential human health hazard. Consumers shall be informed of any such action.


The Directive shall provide the Member States with scope to provide for exemptions from the parametric values up to a maximum value, provided that:

  • the exemption does not constitute a human health hazard;
  • there is no other reasonable means of maintaining the distribution of drinking water in the area concerned;
  • the exemption must be as restricted in time as possible and not exceed three years (it being possible to renew the exemption for two further three-year periods).

Any exemption granted must be accompanied by a detailed justification except if the Member State concerned feels that failure to meet the limit value is not serious and may be quickly remedied. Water sold in bottles or containers may not be exempted.

Any Member State granting an exemption must inform the following thereof:

  • the population affected;
  • the Commission within a two-month period if the exemption covers the distribution of more than 1000 m³ per day on average, or supplies for more than 5000 persons.

Quality guarantees on the processes, equipment and materials

Neither the materials or substances used in new installations for preparing and distributing drinking water may not continue to be present in drinking water beyond a strictly necessary level.


At least every five years the Commission shall re-examine the parameters laid down by the Directive in the light of scientific and technical progress. It will be assisted in that process by a Committee comprising representatives of the Member States.

Information and reports

Every three years Member States shall publish a report on the quality of drinking water for its consumers. On the basis of those reports the Commission will, every three years, draw up a summary report on the quality of the water intended for human consumption within the Community.

Deadline for compliance

Within five years at the latest Member States shall take any action needed in order to guarantee that water quality complies with the Directive. In exceptional cases that period may be extended provided that it does not exceed three years.


Directive 98/83/EC replaces Directive 80/778/EEC from 25 December 2003.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 98/83/EC



OJ L 330 of 05.12.1998

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Regulation (EC) No 596/2009


OJ L 188 of 18.7.2009

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 98/83/EC have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated versionis for reference only.

Intra-Community trade in ovine and caprine animals

Intra-Community trade in ovine and caprine animals

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Intra-Community trade in ovine and caprine animals


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Veterinary checks animal health rules food hygiene

Intra-Community trade in ovine and caprine animals

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 91/68/EEC of 28 January 1991 on animal health conditions governing intra-Community trade in ovine and caprine animals [See amending act(s)].


The animal health conditions governing intra-Community trade in ovine and caprine animals are laid down by Directive 91/68/EEC. This Directive, which has been amended several times, establishes the guarantees regarding animal health required for trade between the Member States. However, the circulation of animals within a Member State is not covered by these rules.

Minimum health conditions

Ovine and caprine animals may only be traded with another Member State if they meet the following conditions:

  • the animals are identified and registered;
  • the animals present no clinical sign of disease during the veterinary inspection (the inspection is held in the 24-hour period prior to the day of loading);
  • the animals are not intended for slaughter under a scheme for eradication of disease;
  • the animals do not originate from a holding subject to prohibition on grounds of health (brucellosis, rabies, anthrax);
  • the animals are not subject to animal health measures under European legislation for the control of foot-and-mouth disease. They have not been vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease either;
  • the animals are born and reared on EU territory or come from an authorised third country in accordance with European legislation;
  • the animals are kept for a minimum pre-determined period;
  • prior to their dispatch, the animals have not been in contact with other ovine or caprine animals (during the 21 days before dispatch), nor with other ungulates (during the 30 days before dispatch);
  • the animals are dispatched as quickly as possible in order to reduce any risk of contamination.

Additional health conditions

Additional conditions apply to ovine and caprine animals being sent for fattening, reproduction and animal husbandry. In the last two cases the Directive lays down additional controls for certain diseases including Maedi Visna, caprine viral arthritis/encephalitis, contagious agalactia or paratuberculosis.

Financing national programmes

Community financing may be used to help implement national programmes for the control of foot-and-mouth disease, brucellosis, contagious epididymitis in rams, anthrax and rabies. Financing is granted where the programmes in question are approved by the Commission.

Assembly centres

Assembly centres where the ovine and caprine animals are separated into consignments must respect certain animal health conditions and be inspected regularly by the competent authorities. Furthermore, a registration and approval system for animal dealers ensures adequate sanitary conditions during trading and, where applicable, during the time spent by animals on their own premises.

All the assembly centres are registered. Each one receives a veterinary registration number. The list of assembly centres and their veterinary registration numbers is regularly updated by the Member States. The latter then transmit these details to the other Member States and the public.

Transport of animals

The transport of animals, in particular vehicle hygiene, the isolation of transported animals and animal health certificates must also comply with certain criteria laid down in the Directive.


The competent authority in each Member State carries out regular inspections whilst ensuring compliance with this Directive.


Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 91/68/EEC


Articles 7 and 8: 4.4.1991
Other: 31.12.1992

OJ L 46, 19.2.1991

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Directive 2001/10/EC



OJ L 147, 31.5.2001

Directive 2003/50/EC



OJ L 169, 8.7.2003

Regulation (EC) No 806/2003


OJ L 122, 16.5.2003

Directive 2006/104/EC


OJ L 363, 20.12.2006

Directive 2008/73/EC


OJ L 219, 14.8.2008

The successive amendments and corrections to Directive 91/68/EC have been incorporated into the original text. This consolidated versionis of documentary value only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 93/52/EEC of 21 December 1992 recording the compliance by certain Member States or regions with the requirements relating to brucellosis (B. melitensis) and according them the status of a Member State or region officially free of the disease [Official Journal L 13 of 21.1.1993].

Seasonal influenza vaccination

Seasonal influenza vaccination

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Seasonal influenza vaccination


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > Threats to health

Seasonal influenza vaccination

Document or Iniciative

Council Recommendation 2009/1019/EU of 22 December 2009 on seasonal influenza vaccination.


This Recommendation encourages Member States to take health measures to combat seasonal influenza.


Influenza is contagious respiratory infection of viral origin, which occurs as epidemic in winter months. It can cause serious complications, even death.

For slight seasonal influenza, the number of deaths is estimated on average 8 in 100 000 population. This figure can rise to 44 during more severe years.

In the event of influenza epidemics, hospitals and medical services may become overburdened which leads to an increase in direct costs (resulting from the use of medical and non-medical resources) and indirect costs (due to productivity loss and absenteeism from work).

Vaccine Efficacy and Effectiveness

Seasonal influenza can be reduced through vaccinations. It is necessary that ‘risk’ groups in the population be vaccinated against influenza. Moreover, logistic aspects such as delivery and administration of vaccines represent major elements not to be underestimated in order to provide effective vaccine coverage.

It is important to act at Community level in order to avoid a new strain of the influenza virus becoming a pandemic, as took place throughout the 20th century in 1918, 1957 and 1968.

National plans and strategies

The aim of this Recommendation is that Member States adopt a national plan or strategy with regard to vaccine coverage. This plan should offset the current shortcomings that have been observed at this level.

The plan aims at covering 75% of the ‘risk’ population between now and the winter of 2014-2015. This group is defined in the guidelines published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).

Member States are encouraged to submit reports to the Commission, on a voluntary basis, on the implementation of this Recommendation and specifically on the vaccination cover achieved within risk groups.

Information campaigns directed at healthcare professionals and persons belonging to the risk groups and their families should be carried out.

The Commission is invited to report to the Council regularly on the implementation of this Recommendation, based on the information received from Member States.


In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed vaccine coverage targets for the elderly of at least 50% in 2006 and 75 % in 2010. This Proposal suggests meeting the targets recommended by the WHO through a national plan or strategy.

Maximum authorised settings for speed limitation devices in commercial vehicles

Maximum authorised settings for speed limitation devices in commercial vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Maximum authorised settings for speed limitation devices in commercial vehicles


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Maximum authorised settings for speed limitation devices in commercial vehicles

Document or Iniciative

Directive 2002/85/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 November 2002 amending Council Directive 92/6/EEC on the installation and use of speed limitation devices for certain categories of motor vehicles in the Community.


Pursuant to Directive 92/6/EEC, heavy vehicles (motor vehicles of category M3 having a maximum mass of more than 10 tonnes and motor vehicles of category N3) may be used on the roads only if they are equipped with a speed limitation device set in such a way that the vehicle cannot exceed speeds of 100 or 90 kilometres per hour according to its category.

Directive 2002/85/EC extends the scope of Directive 92/6/EEC to light commercial vehicles. The motor vehicles now covered are those in categories M2 and M3 (passenger vehicles) and categories N2 and N3 (goods vehicles), as defined in Annex II to Directive 70/156/EEC.

Motor vehicles of categories M2 and M3 registered after 1 January 2005 must be equipped with a speed limitation device set in such a way that their speed cannot exceed 100 kilometres per hour. Vehicles of categories N2 and N3 registered as from that date must be equipped with a speed limitation device set in such a way that their speed cannot exceed 90 kilometres per hour.

Member States are authorised to require that the speed limitation device in vehicles registered in their territory and used exclusively for the transport of dangerous goods is set in such a way that those vehicles cannot exceed a maximum speed of less than 90 kilometres per hour.

These rules for speed limitation devices contribute to Community action to improve road safety.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2002/85/EC 04.12.2002 01.01.2005 OJ L 327 of 04.12.2002

Related Acts

Council Directive 92/24/EEC of 31 March 1992 relating to speed limitation devicesor similar speed limitation on-board systems of certain categories of motor vehicles.