Author Archives: Cameron Legendre

Conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture

Conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Agriculture > Environment

Conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 870/2004 of 24 April 2004 establishing a Community programme on the conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture, and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1467/94

Summary

During the period 2004-06, the Commission is implementing a Community programme covering plant, microbial and animal genetic resources * which are or could be of use in agriculture. The amount allocated to the programme is 10 million.

The Commission selects the actions to be part-financed under the programme on the basis of calls for proposals and following evaluation by independent experts. Proposals may be submitted by a public sector body or any natural or legal person who is a national of a Member State and established in the Community, in an EFTA/EEA country, or in an associated country in accordance with the conditions stipulated in a bilateral agreement.

The actions, which may last for a maximum of four years, may be of three types:

  • targeted actions, part-financed up to a maximum of 50% of their total cost and including:
    – transnational actions promoting the ex situ and in situ conservation *, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture;
    – the establishment of a European decentralised, permanent and widely accessible web-based inventory of genetic resources currently conserved in situ including in situ/on-farm genetic resources conservation activities;
    – the establishment of a European decentralised, permanent and widely accessible web-based inventory of the ex situ collections (gene banks) and in situ resources;
    – the promotion of regular exchanges of technical and scientific information among competent organisations in the Member States;
  • concerted actions, part-financed up to a maximum of 80% of their total cost, transnational in character and promoting the exchange of information on thematic issues for the purpose of improving the coordination of actions and programmes in the sphere concerned;
  • accompanying actions, part-financed up to a maximum of 80% of their total cost and comprising information, dissemination and advisory actions, training courses and the preparation of technical reports.

Once an action has been approved, the Commission will conclude a grant agreement with the participants setting out detailed criteria for the reporting, dissemination, protection and exploitation of the results of the action.

The Commission is assisted by a Committee on the conservation, characterisation, collection and utilisation of genetic resources in agriculture. The Commission may also call on the assistance of scientific and technical experts for the implementation of the programme.

At the end of the programme, the Commission will appoint a group of independent experts to report on the implementation of the Regulation, to assess the results and to make appropriate recommendations. The group’s report will be submitted to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee.

Key terms used in the act
  • “Plant genetic resources” means those of agricultural crops, horticultural crops, medicinal plants and aromatics, fruit crops, forest trees and wild flora which are or could be of use in agriculture.
  • “Genetic material” means any material of plant, microbial or animal origin, including reproductive and vegetative propagating material, containing functional units of heredity.
  • In situ conservation” means the conservation of genetic material in ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species or feral breeds in their natural surroundings and, in the case of domesticated animal breeds or cultivated plant species, in the farmed environment where they have developed their distinctive properties.
  • Ex situ conservation” means the conservation of genetic material outside its natural habitat.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 870/2004 7.5.2004 OJ L 162 of 30.4.2004

Strategy for cooperation with Bangladesh

Strategy for cooperation with Bangladesh

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategy for cooperation with Bangladesh

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Asia

Strategy for cooperation with Bangladesh (2007-2013)

Document or Iniciative

The European Commission – Bangladesh Strategy Paper 2007-2013 .

Summary

Following the adoption of a new partnership agreement in 2001, the European Union (EU) and Bangladesh are cooperating in many areas. Primarily, EU intervention should support the country in reducing poverty and meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

All cooperation projects must incorporate the objectives of protecting gender equality, rural development, food safety, environmental protection and good public governance.

Short-term priorities

This strategy aims at establishing a balance between social development and economic development. The partners therefore identify priority areas for action:

  • human and social development, through programmes to promote health, nutrition, access to education, decent work and the fight against poverty;
  • good governance, particularly as regards the management of public finances, the judicial system and the effectiveness of the State;
  • the protection of human rights, mainly to improve respect for the rights of women and children, but also of minority groups such as refugees and the disabled;
  • economic and trade development, to enable the country to be integrated into the global trade system, to increase the competitiveness of enterprises and the diversification of economic production.

Long-term priorities

During the second phase of implementation of the strategy, a series of actions are to be carried out in the areas of:

  • the environment and disaster management, the consequences of which mainly affect the poorest people;
  • food security and nutrition, so as to permanently reduce malnutrition rates, particularly in rural areas.

European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes

European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal welfare

European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes

Document or Iniciative

Council Decision 78/923/EEC of 19 June 1978 concerning the conclusion of the European Convention for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes.

Council Decision 92/583/EEC of 14 December 1992 on the conclusion of the Protocol of amendment to the European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes.

Summary

This Convention applies to animals reared or kept for the production of food, wool, skin or fur or for other farming purposes, including animals resulting from genetic modifications or new genetic combinations. It concerns, in particular, animals kept in intensive stock-farming systems.

The aim of the Convention is to protect farm animals against any unnecessary suffering or injury caused by their housing, the feed they are given or the care they receive. In order to achieve that objective, those countries that have signed the Convention must comply with certain rules concerning, among other thing, farming premises (space and the environment), feed, animal health and the organisation of inspections of the technical installations used in modern intensive stock-farming systems.

The Convention creates a Standing Committee to monitor its application. The Committee may draw up and adopt recommendations to the signatory countries.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal

Decision 78/923/EEC

19.6.1978

OJ L 323, 17.11.1978

Decision 92/583/EEC

14.12.1992

OJ L 395, 31.12.1992

Related Acts

General Directive concerning the protection of animals kept for farming purposes

Council Directive 98/58/EC [Official Journal L 221 of 8.8.1998].
This Directive lays down general rules on the protection of animals, of whatever species, including fish, reptiles and amphibians, reared for the production of food, wool, skin or fur or for other farming purposes.

Directives specific to certain species

Hens
Council Directive 1999/74/EC [Official Journal L 203 of 3.8.1999].

Calves
Council Directive 2008/119/EC [Official Journal L 10 of 15.1.2009].

Pigs
Council Directive 2008/120/EC [Official Journal L 47 of 18.2.2009].

The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

The factsheets here summarise the main changes brought about by the Treaty of Amsterdam. We have tried to present them as straightforwardly as possible.

Please note, however, that the factsheets are intended solely for your information. The European Commission accepts no legal responsibility. The factsheets make no claim to be exhaustive and cannot be regarded as an official interpretation of the Treaty text.

Freedom, security and justice

  • Fundamental rights and non-discrimination.
  • The gradual establishment of an area of freedom, security and justice

The Union and the citizen

  • Citizenship of the European Union
  • Employment
  • Social policy
  • Environment
  • Public health
  • Consumer protection
  • Transparency, simplification of the Treaties and quality of Community legislation

Effective and coherent external policy

  • Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • Common commercial policy

Institutional questions

  • The European Parliament
  • The Council of the European Union
  • European Commission
  • The Court of Justice
  • The Court of Auditors, the Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions
  • National parliaments
  • Subsidiarity
  • Closer cooperation
  • Decision-making procedures

Special partnership with Cape Verde

Special partnership with Cape Verde

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Special partnership with Cape Verde

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > African Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

Special partnership with Cape Verde

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament of 24 October 2007 on the future of relations between the European Union and the Republic of Cape Verde [COM(2007) 641 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Republic of Cape Verde and the EU are united by historical, human, religious, linguistic and cultural ties. They share fundamental socio-political values such as democracy and human rights and the promotion of good governance, peace, security and the fight against terrorism and crime. Specifically, they share a number of priorities as regards the fight against drug trafficking and illegal immigration, as a result of which Cape Verde is expected to intensify police and judicial cooperation with the EU.

The EU-Cape Verde special partnership

In view of the increasing interest of Cape Verde in approaching the EU, its outermost regions (ORs) of the North Atlantic (Azores, Madeira and the Canaries) in particular, and in order to respond to the mutual interests of the EU and Cape Verde as regards security and development, the Commission proposes a special partnership. This partnership is intended to strengthen dialogue and policy convergence between the two parties, in the context of the implementation of the Cotonou agreement.

The partnership considered is characterised by:

  • strengthening of political dialogue between the two parties, on the basis of an action plan covering the priorities for the development process of the special partnership and including the cooperation instruments provided for in the Cotonou agreement;
  • a search for forms of complementary cooperation to add to the traditional measures implemented under the Cotonou agreement;
  • promotion of an evolving process, based on a flexible action plan that can be adapted to the development of the country and of its relations with the EU and third countries;
  • pursuit of further progress in the area of good governance in Cape Verde;
  • support for closer ties with the ORs and the rest of the EU by intensifying relations with the West Africa region and within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
  • promotion of convergence on European norms and standards, in order to strengthen the country’s comparative advantages.

The partnership will offer new perspectives. In particular, it will:

  • strengthen cooperation between the two parties at a political, economic, commercial, administrative and judicial level;
  • ensure convergence between legislation on economic and technical standards;
  • offer Cape Verde, within the framework of closer links with the ORs, access to the EU’s internal market and the possibility to participate gradually in a number of EU policies and programmes;
  • promote activities aimed at bringing Cape Verde closer to the Community acquis in the areas covered by the action plan.

The partnership action plan, which represents the overall strategic framework, is based on the following pillars:

  • The good governance policy pursued by Cape Verde, and especially the consolidation of democracy, the rule of law and the participation of civil society. The partnership will also focus on the rights of children and women, the integration of immigrants, the fight against domestic violence and also the reform of the justice and public finance sectors.
  • Security and stability, through actions implemented on a cross-border and regional basis in particular, in the areas of the fight against transnational organised crime, efficient management of migration flows and maritime security.
  • Regional integration, both at OR level (through the country’s participation in the transnational Madeira, Azores, Canaries (MAC) cooperation programme for the period 2007-2013 and the cooperation mechanisms within the outermost regions) and at West Africa level (by taking into account the specificity of Cape Verde within the Economic Partnership Agreement and the use of the resources of the European Development Fund (EDF) regional indicative programmes).
  • Convergence of technology and standards policies in the sectors covered by the action plan.
  • Progress towards a “knowledge-based society” by encouraging economic, social and cultural development though education, research and information and communication technologies.
  • The fight against poverty, in particular through environmental protection, the protection of natural resources, the preservation of the marine environment and closer cooperation in the area of fisheries.

The implementation of the action plan will be funded mainly by the EDF and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) within the framework of the MAC programme for the period 2007-2013. Moreover, the European Community’s general budget will support specific activities, in particular thematic programmes funded by the development cooperation instrument, and also activities financed by the stability instrument, the instrument for the promotion of democracy and human rights and the humanitarian aid instrument. This funding will be added to the resources of the Cape Verde government.

The action plan will be of indefinite duration and will be reviewed periodically. The EU troika will ensure its follow-up and its implementation at political and technical level.

Related Acts

Council conclusions on the future of relations between the European Union and the Republic of Cape Verde. General Affairs and External Relations Council– 19 November 2007 [Not published in the Official Journal].

Cross-border cooperation programme

Cross-border cooperation programme

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Cross-border cooperation programme

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Enlargement > Enlargement 2004 and 2007

Cross-border cooperation programme

This Regulation implements a cross-border cooperation programme under the Phare programme and is designed to promote cooperation between the border regions of central and eastern Europe and adjacent regions of the Community and other applicant countries of central and eastern Europe.

Document or Iniciative

Commission Regulation (EC) No 2760/98 of 18 December 1998 concerning the implementation of a programme for cross-border cooperation in the framework of the Phare programme [See amending acts].

Summary

This Regulation replaces Commission Regulation (EC) No 1628/94 of 4 July 1994 establishing the first cross-border cooperation programme and pursues similar aims, in particular economic development in the border regions of central and eastern European countries and greater convergence of their level of development with that of the European Union. It extends the programme’s geographical scope and improves the way it works by increasing the number of projects of a typically cross-border nature and stepping up the pace of implementation. The programme must be conducted in coordination with the Community’s structural policies and the Interreg programme. From 1 January 2007 it will be replaced by the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA), which is a single financial framework for candidate countries (and for the potential candidate countries of the Western Balkans) for the period 2007-2013.

The borders eligible for this programme are those:

  • between Romania, on the one hand, and Hungary, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Moldova and Serbia and Montenegro, on the other;
  • between Bulgaria, on the one hand, and Greece, Romania, Turkey, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro, on the other.

The Regulation lays down the criteria for the distribution of funds between the recipient countries (population, GDP per capita and surface area of the regions concerned).

Projects funded by grants under this programme must have the following aims:

  • to promote cooperation between border regions in countries in central and eastern Europe and adjacent regions and thus to help them overcome their specific development problems;
  • to promote the creation and development of cooperation networks between border regions and the establishment of links between these networks and wider Community networks.

Actions eligible for funding under the cross-border cooperation programme include:

  • alleviation of the administrative and institutional obstacles to the free flow of persons, products or services across borders;
  • improvement of infrastructures and the provision of local water, gas and electricity supplies;
  • environmental protection;
  • agricultural and rural development;
  • measures in the fields of energy and transport aimed at the development of trans-European networks;
  • justice and home affairs;
  • promotion of business cooperation, enterprise development, financial cooperation and cooperation between institutions representing the business and industrial sector;
  • aid to investment and provision of supporting services and facilities;
  • training and employment measures;
  • local economic development;
  • measures to promote cooperation in health;
  • the development and establishment of facilities and resources to improve the flow of information and communications between border regions;
  • cultural exchanges;
  • local employment, education and training initiatives.

The last five categories may be financed only under a fund which may be established in each of the regions concerned. This fund will receive a limited percentage of the appropriations for the programme with a view to encouraging joint small-scale actions involving local actors from the border regions.

The Community contribution is provided in principle as a grant. Where the Community grant contributes to the financing of revenue-generating activities, the Commission may, in consultation with the authorities involved, provide for co-financing from project revenues or reimbursement of the initial grants.

As regards management, a Joint Cooperation Committee will be set up in each of the border regions consisting of representatives of the countries concerned and the Commission. It will prepare a joint cross-border programming document in a multiannual perspective, which will identify priorities and development strategies for the region and lay down provisions for their implementation. On the basis of this document, the Committee will draw up a common set of projects once a year. Recommendations for projects will be transmitted to the Commission by the government of the country in central and eastern Europe concerned.

On the basis of the joint cross-border programming document and project recommendations, the Commission will formulate a programme proposal for each border region. The amount of the grant for a given project will be established in accordance with the procedure laid down by Council Regulation (EEC) No 3906/89 of 18 December 1989 (Phare). That Regulation lays down the aid management procedures followed by the Commission. Wherever possible, joint monitoring structures will be set up to facilitate the implementation of the programmes.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 2760/98 22.12.1998 OJ L 345 of 19.12.1998
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 1596/2002 10.09.2002 OJ L 240 of 07.09.2002
Regulation (EC) No 1822/2003 01.01.2004 OJ L 267 of 17.10.2003

Related Acts

Council Regulation (EC) No 1085/2006 of 17 July 2006 establishing an Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA).

This Regulation is intended to enhance coordination between the different aid components through the creation of a single framework for assistance: the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA). This framework integrates the structure of all the pre-accession programmes (and the stabilisation and association process), including the cross-border cooperation programme.

This summary is for information only and is not designed to interpret or replace the reference document.

Inland navigation: reciprocal recognition of national boatmasters' certificates for inland waterway navigation

Inland navigation: reciprocal recognition of national boatmasters’ certificates for inland waterway navigation

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Inland navigation: reciprocal recognition of national boatmasters’ certificates for inland waterway navigation

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Waterborne transport

Inland navigation: reciprocal recognition of national boatmasters’ certificates for inland waterway navigation

Last updated: 06.02.2008

Eurotecnet

Eurotecnet

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Eurotecnet

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Eurotecnet

1) Objective

To make full use of the possibilities offered by new technologies in vocational training systems.

To promote innovation in the vocational training field with a view to taking account of technological changes and their impact on employment, work, and the requisite qualifications and skills.

2) Community Measures

Council Decision 89/657/EEC of 18 December 1989 establishing an action programme to promote innovation in the field of vocational training resulting from technological change in the European Community (Eurotecnet).

3) Contents

The programme runs for a period of five years, commencing on 1 January 1990.

It comprises a network of national or transnational innovatory projects and a series of Community measures.

The common framework of guidelines taken into account by the network of projects has the following objectives:

  • extending cooperation with public and private bodies;
  • analysing the impact of technological change on the qualifications and skills of the groups of persons concerned, with specific account being taken of the situation of small and medium-sized undertakings;
  • implementing demonstration projects making it possible to innovate in the provision of vocational training;
  • facilitating the entry of young people and the unemployed by providing them with training in the new technologies and in mastering technological development;
  • promoting the access of women to types of training with significant technological content, as well as the retraining of women whose professional activities are affected by technological change;
  • developing the training and retraining of trainers in technical, educational and social skills;
  • disseminating relevant information.

Both sides of industry are to be fully associated in the implementation of the common framework of guidelines.

The Community measures supplementing the measures taken by Member States are aimed at:

  • setting up a network of innovatory projects at Community level;
  • strengthening cooperation and the exchange and transfer of methodologies;
  • encouraging both the basic and the continuing vocational training of trainers;
  • launching research work concerning the qualification requirements created by technological change;
  • promoting self-training;
  • disseminating relevant information within the Community.

The Commission is to implement support measures as indicated in the Annex, taking account of the differing needs and situations which exist in the Member States. Both sides of industry are to be fully associated.

The Commission is to ensure that there is consistency and complementarity between this programme and the other Community programmes involving vocational training and/or technological development. It will draw upon the assistance of the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training and be assisted by an advisory committee, which it must keep regularly informed of the development of the programme.

4) Deadline For Implementation Of The Legislation In Member States

Not applicable.

5) Date Of Entry Into Force (If Different From The Above)

01.01.1990

6) References

Official Journal L 393, 30.12.1989

7) Follow-Up Work

Council Decision 92/170/EEC of 16 March 1992 (Official Journal L 75, 21.03.1992) amending Decision 89/657/EEC (Eurotecnet) and Decision 90/267/EEC (Force) with a view to setting up an advisory committee for education and continuing training combining Force and Eurotecnet.

Commission report concerning the first phase of Eurotecnet (198588) (SEC(89) 1658 final).

Commission report on the operation of the Eurotecnet Programme (January 1990 June 1992) COM(93) 317 final.

1991 was a very successful year for the Eurotecnet programme, as the nine working objectives set out in the work programme were achieved:

  • the network of projects was set up;
  • the links with the Euroform initiative were established;
  • the national animation and dissemination units were established and operated effectively in all Member States;
  • the exchange programme of study visits;
  • the policy on links and complementarity with other Community programmes was initiated;
  • ways and means of transferring innovations in vocational education and training were developed;
  • models designed to increase the impact of the new developments on Member States’ systems and policies were drawn up;
  • a trainer development project was designed and implemented.

The objectives for 1992, in line with the overall objectives of the Eurotecnet Decision, were adapted to take account of the new guidelines, and the activities were structured and planned accordingly.

The objectives are as follows:

  • to examine the impact of innovations in training resulting from technological progress on the qualification systems in Member States;
  • to promote the concept of the modern enterprise;
  • to produce new guidelines for the changing role of the trainer;
  • to produce guidelines for new learning strategies;
  • to promote the new qualifications arising from changes in work organisation;
  • to determine the likely effect of advances in technology on:

– technological content of training programmes;

– skill shortages at general vocational training level;

– key/core competency development of technological, cognitive and social skills;

  • to promote the Euroform initiative;
  • to participate in the Task Force initiative in relation to SMEs;
  • to develop the use of key/core competencies;
  • to complete the initial evaluation of the Eurotecnet programme and present the interim report to the European Parliament, ECOSOC and the Council;
  • the Eurotecnet/Cedefop programmes for the exchange of experts;
  • to participate in further measures in the new German Länder.

The following actions are involved:

  • implementation of the Eurotecnet Decision;
  • continuing to promote and organise network projects;
  • running workshops geared to develop and improve vocational training policies and systems for the new technologies in the Member States;
  • follow-up of the evaluation team and the draft interim report on the operation of the interim programme;
  • strengthening Eurotechnet/Euroform operations;
  • organising and running meetings and conferences;
  • setting a communication system between Eurotecnet and each of the other two vocational training programmes (Petra and Force).

Starting in 1993, the network has been redesigned in line with the four key domains approved by the Commission, following a favourable opinion from the Force/Eurotecnet Advisory Committee (Doc. FPC/93/12 final):

  • Innovative training needs analysis with a special focus on core/key qualifications.
  • Transfer of innovative methodologies for planning and management of training in the framework of human resource development.
  • Training providers as innovative service centres for enterprises.
  • Innovative teaching and learning approaches/methodologies.

The active involvement of enterprises, management and labour is guaranteed.

A considerable effort has been made to give activities a transnational dimension by pursuing particular aims and seeking partners in other Member States.

In addition, most of the projects operate in synergy with other Commission programmes and iniatives such as Force, Petra, Delta, Comett and Euroform.

The upgraded network at present comprises 284 projects which have been approved by Vice-President Ruberti.

Results

The main results achieved by the network are as follows:

  • Transferable models (134 projects), e.g. innovative methods involving workers’ representatives in all stages of the planning of training activities.
  • Innovative tools (68 projects), e.g. self-learning materials and multi-media packages.
  • Information materials (19 projects), e.g. databases on available training materials/resources; booklets on new training concepts for disadvantaged groups.
  • Training programme (63 projects), e.g. new modular curricula and special training measures for SMEs.

Final report from the Commission on the Eurotecnet programme (19901994) [COM(97) 386 final, not published in the Official Journal]

The total budget allocated to the Eurotecnet programme for the period 1990-1994 was ECU 9.2 million. The objective of Eurotecnet was to promote innovation in the fields of basic and continuing vocational training with a view to taking account of current and future technological changes and their impact on employment, work and necessary qualifications and skills.

The programme did not provide direct financing for projects. It was concerned on the one hand with the networking of innovative projects in vocational training and on the other hand with carrying out research on specific themes linked to vocational training.

Eurotecnet produced more than 70 scientific publications, including “The Learning Organisation”, which was distributed in the Member States in nine languages. Between 1990 and 1994 70 000 copies of publications were distributed in the Member States, and 64 workshops and seminars took place.

1993 saw a major restructuring of the network. 90 new projects were introduced, and 83 old ones (out of 284) were withdrawn. Projects were grouped around the following four key domains:

  • innovative analysis of training needs, with a special focus on key qualifications (54 projects);
  • transfer of innovative methodologies for the planning and management of training in the framework of human resource development (79 projects);
  • training providers at the service of enterprises (52 projects);
  • innovative pedagogical approaches (101 projects).

The following tangible results were obtained:

  • transferable products (122 projects): e.g. innovative methods which involved workers’ representatives at all levels of the training process;
  • innovative tools (65 projects): e.g. self-learning tools and multimedia packages;
  • information equipment (35 projects): e.g. databases on training resources, brochures on the new training concepts for disadvantaged groups;
  • training programmes (62 projects): e.g. new modular curricula and special training measures for SMEs;
  • a product guide and a compendium of project innovations compiled at the end of the programme and published by the Commission.

Eurotecnet organised dissemination activities in two ways:

  • at Member State level: a series of national strategic conferences concerned with the specific needs identified by the Member States took place in the 12 countries between 1992 and 1993;
  • at Community level: 18 transnational seminars took place on specific themes in all Member States, and a final conference entitled “Vocational training and innovation in Europe” took place in Manchester on 11 and 12 November 1994.

The programme contributed to innovation in vocational training through favouring the creation of transnational partnerships between projects and through synergy with other Community programmes, in particular Force, but also Petra and Comett. In addition, 77 Eurotecnet projects were supported by Euroform, the Community Initiative on human resource development.

Since 1995, the main Eurotecnet activities have been incorporated into the Leonardo da Vinci programme.

8) Commission Implementing Measures

 

Aviation and climate change

Aviation and climate change

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Aviation and climate change

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Air pollution

Aviation and climate change

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 27 September 2005: “Reducing the Climate Change Impact of Aviation” [COM(2005) 459 – not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The European Union (EU) is responsible for about half of the CO2 emissions generated by international air transport in developed countries. Air transport emissions are likely to increase rapidly in the future if there is no policy response in this area. This situation could compromise European objectives for combating climate change.

In this Communication, the Commission looks at new and existing means and instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the air transport sector.

Tapping the potential of existing policies

The Commission proposes continuing and extending research in aeronautics, particularly under the Seventh Framework Programme for Research. Research will focus on analysing the impact the air transport sector has on climate change and reducing the adverse effects of air transport, in particular CO2 and NOx emissions.

The Commission also suggests improving air traffic management, particularly by implementing the ” Single European Sky ” and SESAME initiatives. More efficient air traffic management should, among other things, enable aviation fuel consumption to be reduced.

Furthermore, in the area of fuel taxation, the Commission takes the view that Member States should eventually remove the exemption traditionally applied to the aviation sector. It is common practice for aviation fuel to be exempted from taxes. Directive 2003/96/EC allows for a fuel tax to be levied on domestic flights within Member States, but it is often impossible to tax fuel for international flights (including between Member States), because of the legally binding commitments made in air service agreements concluded between Member States and third countries. A large number of air service agreements will have to be renegotiated before fuel can be taxed irrespective of the air carrier’s country of origin. The process is under way, but will take time to complete. This option can therefore only be seen as a long-term solution.

The Commission also suggests improving the competitiveness of other transport sectors and raising public awareness of the impact air travel has on climate change.

Developing cost-effective economic instruments: emissions trading

In the Commission’s opinion, of the various economic instruments looked at, the most effective option is to include the air transport sector in the greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme which the EU set up in 2003 (see “Related Acts” below).

The system is based on the following principle: the regulatory authority sets a quantity limit on polluting emissions and divides this quantity among the economic operators producing these emissions, in this case the airlines. The limited pollution rights available give the operators an incentive to reduce their emissions or buy emission rights from other participants if they exceed their allotted limit.

The desired result is a significant reduction in polluting emissions. The large number of participants would also minimise the costs for the economic operators. Furthermore, the system is compatible with the international legal framework for aviation, and could therefore feasibly be extended to operate at international level, if adapted appropriately.

Certain aspects of this instrument remain to be clarified:

  • its scope: in order for the system to be effective in environmental terms, the best option would be for all flights departing from Community airports to be included;
  • how to adapt the existing Community system, which is linked to the accounting system set up by the Kyoto Protocol (covering CO2 emissions produced by domestic flights but not those produced by international flights);
  • how to take other environmental factors (particularly NOx emissions) into account if the system applies only to CO2 emissions.

As part of the European Climate Change Programme, the Commission intends to set up a special working group of experts from Member States and key stakeholder organisations (industry, consumer and environmental organisations). Its purpose will be to look at ways of integrating air transport effectively and efficiently into the European greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme.

The Commission also considered other economic options (a tax on airline tickets and other charges linked to emissions), but these were rejected for a number of reasons, as stated in the impact assessment attached to the Communication.

The European Union and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions

In spring 2005, on the basis of the Communication entitled Winning the Battle Against Global Climate Change, the European Parliament and the European Council reaffirmed the EU’s objective of ensuring that global surface temperatures do not rise more than 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and therefore of cutting greenhouse gas emissions as much as possible.

As part of the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme, the EU undertook to take specific action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation if no such action was agreed within the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), the organisation responsible, by 2002. The ICAO has not adopted any such measures, but has endorsed the concept of emissions trading.

The air transport sector currently accounts for 3% of all greenhouse gas emissions. However, the rapid growth of this sector means that aviation could eventually become the main source of greenhouse gas emissions, despite improvements in aircraft energy efficiency. Between 1990 and 2003, greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport increased by 73% in the EU. If the sector continues to grow at the current rate, by 2012 emissions will have increased by 150% since 1990.

Related Acts

Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to include aviation activities in the scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community [COM(2006) 818 final – not published in the Official Journal].
This proposal is designed to include aviation activities in the greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme, and is to apply to all flights arriving at or departing from Community airports from 1 January 2012 (2011 for flights between EU airports). Aircraft operators will be responsible for complying with the obligations imposed by the scheme. It is also suggested that the process for allocating allowances should be harmonised across the EU, and that each aircraft operator, including operators from third countries, should be administered by one Member State only.


Directive 2003/87/EC

of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC [Official Journal L 275 of 25 October 2003].


Council Decision 2002/358/EC

of 25 April 2002 concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfilment of commitments thereunder [Official Journal L 130 of 15 May 2002].

Impact assessment

Commission Staff Working Document of 27 September 2005 – Annex to the Communication from the Commission “Reducing the Climate Change Impact of Aviation” – Impact Assessment [SEC(2005) 1184].

Preventing HIV/AIDS

Preventing HIV/AIDS

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Preventing HIV/AIDS

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > Threats to health

Preventing HIV/AIDS (Council conclusions of 2005)

The HIV/AIDS epidemic and the related underlying phenomena fuelling the spread of the epidemic are common. The Council therefore adopted a series of conclusions encouraging the Member States and the Commission to step up their efforts to tackle the epidemic.

Document or Iniciative

Conclusions of the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council of 3 June 2005 on combating HIV/AIDS [Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

Current situation

The HIV/AIDS * epidemic and the related underlying phenomena fuelling the spread of the epidemic continue to be a major threat to public health. AIDS causes human suffering and disability, increases the risk of social exclusion, and has negative implications for national economies.

As well as continuing to strengthen existing methods to prevent the disease, it is still necessary to further develop research, surveillance, and methods for effective intervention.

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is fuelled to a great extent by social factors, such as inequality between women and men, poverty and social marginalisation of the most vulnerable populations.

Effective prevention of the epidemic requires increased cooperation between the Commission, Member States, accession, candidate and neighbouring countries, and international organisations such as UNAIDS *, with the participation of people living with HIV/AIDS and the civil society concerned.

European framework for AIDS prevention

The Council’s conclusions are based on a series of measures and conferences related directly or indirectly to AIDS prevention, in particular:

  • the Council Recommendation of 18 June 2003 on the prevention and reduction of harm associated with drug dependence;
  • the declaration adopted following the Conference “Breaking the Barriers – Partnership to fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and Central Asia” (Dublin, 23/24 February 2004), which called for the European Union’s capacity to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS to be strengthened;
  • the “Vilnius Declaration” adopted following the Ministerial Conference “Europe and HIV/AIDS – New Challenges, New Opportunities” (Vilnius, Lithuania, 17 September 2004), highlighting the need for joint efforts to strengthen comprehensive prevention activities and build effective partnerships between governments, civil society and the private sector;
  • the Commission working paper of 8 September 2004 “Coordinated and integrated approach to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic within the European Union and in its neighbourhood”;
  • the Communication from the Commission, COM(2004) 0726 final, of 26 October 2004 on a coherent European policy framework for external action to confront HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

Action at national level

In light of the above, the Council encourages Member States to adopt measures to:

  • implement the Dublin Declaration and the Vilnius Declaration;
  • implement national multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS coordination structures, strategies and financing plans;
  • raise public awareness of prevention of HIV infection and provide better information on sexual and reproductive health *;
  • take further action to promote safer and more responsible sexual behaviour and practices, including condom use, and scale up access for injecting drug users to prevention, drug dependence treatment and harm reduction services;
  • counsel and support people with the virus, their families and their friends, and maintain a respectful, non-discriminatory and accepting societal atmosphere and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS;
  • develop a sustainable, affordable, and accessible health care system as a basis for prevention, treatment, and care activities, and ensure that all those in need have access to affordable anti-retroviral * treatment;
  • improve cooperation between clinical trials in the continuing search for HIV-vaccines and microbicides;
  • continue to work closely together with the European Commission and other relevant international organisations and agencies when planning and agreeing specific bilateral actions in the context of neighbourhood and development policy.

Action at Commission level

The Council calls upon the Commission to:

  • support Member States in their efforts to implement the Dublin and Vilnius Declarations;
  • contribute to efforts to improve general knowledge and to raise public awareness of prevention of HIV infection;
  • contribute to activities intended to establish a respectful, non-discriminatory and accepting societal atmosphere and behaviour towards people with HIV/AIDS;
  • facilitate the use of existing EC financing instruments for the implementation of comprehensive national HIV/AIDS strategies within the Member States and in neighbouring countries;
  • promote investment in the appropriate research and development of effective behavioural and risk-reducing as well as prophylactic measures and cure;
  • encourage the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to further reinforce and coordinate activities on the surveillance of communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS;
  • facilitate collaboration between the Member States, accession, candidate and neighbouring countries and relevant international organisations in order to promote the exchange of good practices and joint projects;
  • promote dialogue and cooperation with countries at regional and global levels, as well as with international organisations such as UNAIDS.

Key terms used in the act

  • HIV: the acronym HIV stands for “human immunodeficiency virus”.
  • AIDS: the acronym AIDS stands for “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome”.
  • UNAIDS: UNAIDS is a partnership between various United Nations bodies, the World Health Organisation and the World Bank. As the main advocate for global action against HIV/AIDS infection, UNAIDS leads, strengthens and supports an expanded response to the epidemic in order to: prevent transmission of HIV; provide care and support; reduce the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV/AIDS infection; alleviate the impact of the epidemic. It plays a crucial role in managing and disseminating knowledge and information on the epidemic and on global action.
  • Reproductive health: reproductive health refers to a series of conditions, events and processes which occur during life, from smooth sexual development, intimate sexual relations and motherhood to abuse, illness, disability and death. It is closely linked to a person’s values, culture and vision of the future. Reproductive health thus covers not only family planning but also areas such as sex education, safe pregnancy, control of sexually-transmitted diseases and incorporation of an approach based on gender equality.
  • Antiretroviral treatment: the objective of antiretroviral treatment is to achieve maximum reduction in viral load for as long a period as possible in order to keep the disease in check. The treatment therefore does not rule out HIV. It involves several different drugs and must be continued throughout life.

Related Acts

Regulation (EC) No 851/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 establishing a European Centre for disease prevention and control [Official Journal L 142 of 30.04.2004].

Council Recommendation of 18 June 2003 on the prevention and reduction of health-related harm associated with drug dependence [Official Journal L 165 of 03.07.2003].

 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 July 2003 on aid to fight poverty diseases (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria) in developing countries [Official Journal L 224 of 06.09.2003].

Communication from the Commission of 21 February 2001 to the Council and the European Parliament – Programme for action: accelerated action on HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis in the context of poverty reduction [  final – Not published in the Official Journal].