Author Archives: Brad Novotny



Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Enterprise


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.



The prosperity of Europe is built on that of its businesses. Businesses are a key element in growth and employment, and the relaunch of the Lisbon strategy in 2005 made enterprise and industry policy one of the priorities in Europe.
Under Article 173 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, the European Union (EU) has set itself the goal of creating the best possible conditions for competitiveness.

Maintaining competitiveness is a constant challenge. This is why the EU aims to encourage an environment favourable to initiative, to the development of businesses, to industrial cooperation and to improving the exploitation of the industrial potential of innovation, research and technological development policies. These policies are of vital importance in the context of global competition.

Enterprise Contents

  • Business environment: Small and medium-sized enterprises, Entrepreneurship, Financing, Multiannual programme for enterprises and entrepreneurship, Competitiveness and innovation framework programme, Corporate social responsibility
  • Industry: Industrial policy, Competitiveness, Automobile industry, Chemical industry, Pharmaceutical industry, Textile industry, Tourism
  • Interaction between enterprise policy and other policies: Research and innovation, The environment, Trade, Company law, Taxation
  • International dimension and enlargement: Enlargement, Candidate countries

See also

Overviews of European Union: Entreprise.
Further information on the website of the Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General of the European Commission and the Your Europe – Business website.

Competition: international dimension and enlargement

Competition: international dimension and enlargement

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Competition: international dimension and enlargement


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Competition > Competition: international dimension and enlargement

Competition: international dimension and enlargement

In the context of increasing globalisation, the activities of European firms are becoming more and more international and the activities of firms in third countries are likely to have an impact on competition within the European Union. As such, international cooperation stands out as a key element of competition policy.
Furthermore, the compliance of candidate States with the Community acquis on competition matters is an essential requirement for their accession to the Union.


Ongoing enlargement

  • Croatia – Competition
  • Turkey – Competition
  • The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – Competition
  • Iceland – Competition

Enlargement of January 2007

  • Bulgaria
  • Romania

Enlargement of May 2004

  • Cyprus
  • Estonia
  • Hungary
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Malta
  • Poland
  • The Czech Republic
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia

Strategy for cooperation with the Philippines

Strategy for cooperation with the Philippines

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Strategy for cooperation with the Philippines


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Asia

Strategy for cooperation with the Philippines (2007-2013)

Document or Iniciative

The European Commission – Philippines Strategy Paper 2007-2013 .


The partnership between the European Union (EU) and the Philippines is focused on reducing poverty and the equitable distribution of wealth. Although the country has reached an intermediate level of development, a large proportion of its population lives below the poverty threshold. This situation is partly explained by a high level of demographic growth and a low level of economic growth.

Areas for cooperation

This Strategy should be implemented according to priority actions in order to:

  • develop a policy to reduce poverty and meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs);
  • promote economic reforms and good public governance;
  • organise basic social services, in particular to improve access to health care and education.

Furthermore, the partnership should stimulate trade and investment, and reinforce the positive impact of commercial growth on the country’s level of development.

Cross-cutting issues

Generally, cooperation actions should improve governance and human rights, gender equality, the rights of children and minorities, as well as the protection of the environment, conflict prevention and the stability of the country.

Thematic regional programmes

The Philippines participate in several regional cooperation schemes, such as the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) for policy dialogue.

These bodies provide a framework for cooperation and dialogue as regards democracy and human rights, migration, the environment, social policy and exchanges between universities.

Animal welfare during transport

Animal welfare during transport

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Animal welfare during transport


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal welfare

Animal welfare during transport

Document or Iniciative

Council Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 of 22 December 2004 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations and amending Directives 64/432/EEC and 93/119/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1255/97.


The text sets out to regulate transport of live vertebrate animals within the European Union (EU) where such transport is carried out as part of an economic activity. The aim is to prevent injury or undue suffering to animals and to ensure that they have appropriate conditions that meet their needs.

This regulation strengthens existing legislation on animal welfare during transport by identifying the parties involved and their respective responsibilities, putting in place enhanced measures on authorisations and inspections and laying down stricter rules on transport.

The parties involved and their responsibilities

The regulation extends responsibility for animal welfare to all parties involved in the process, including operations before and after transport. All parties must ensure that they comply with the legislation when performing those operations in which they are involved.

The regulation applies to transporters (already covered by the old legislation), organisers, drivers and “keepers” (staff at assembly centres, markets and slaughterhouses, and farmers).

All parties involved and their staff must undergo appropriate training. In particular, drivers and attendants must possess a certificate of competence issued after they have completed a comprehensive training course on animal welfare during transport and passed an exam organised by an independent body designated by the competent authorities.

Authorisations and inspections

For all journeys exceeding 65 km, transporters must hold an authorisation issued by a competent authority in the Member State in which they are established or represented. To obtain this authorisation, applicants must demonstrate that they have sufficient and appropriate staff, equipment and operational procedures.

For long journeys (exceeding eight hours), applicants must also provide:

  • specific documents: certificates of competence for drivers and attendants, certificates of approval for the means of transport to be used, details of the procedures for tracing and recording vehicle movements, and contingency plans; and
  • proof that they use a satellite navigation system, from 1 January 2007 for new vehicles and from 2009 for older vehicles.

These authorisations are valid for five years. They are issued in a standard European format and recorded in an electronic database accessible to the authorities of all the Member States.

Transporters carrying out long journeys between Member States must also possess a journey log drawn up by the transport organiser using a standard format and which contains information relating to the journey (identification of the animals and the persons in charge of them, place of departure and of destination, checks carried out at various stages of the journey, etc.).

Checks must be carried out by the competent authorities at key stages of the journey, including at exit points and border inspection posts. In addition, supplementary checks may be carried out at any stage of the journey on a random or targeted basis.

When carrying out checks, the competent authority must verify the validity of the authorisations, the certificates of approval and competence and the information recorded in the journey log. The official veterinarian must also check the state of the animals and their fitness to continue the journey. In the case of transport by sea, the state and conformity of the transport vessel must also be checked.

Technical rules on animal transports

The regulation introduces stricter rules on journeys exceeding eight hours. These rules apply to both vehicles and animals.

The regulation provides that transport vehicles must be fitted with equipment of the highest quality, including a temperature monitoring system (mechanical ventilation, temperature recording, warning system fitted in the driver’s cabin), permanent access to drinking water and better conditions on livestock vessels (ventilation, watering devices, approval system, etc.).

The transport of certain animals is prohibited. This applies to very young animals (calves of less than 10 days, pigs of less than three weeks and lambs of less than a week), except where the journey does not exceed 100 km. The regulation also prohibits transport of females in the last stages of gestation and during the first week after giving birth.

In addition, the transport conditions for horses on long journeys are improved, notably through the obligation to use individual stalls.

The provisions on journey times and space allowances for animals, which were contained in the old legislation, have not been amended. In terms of journey times, the regulation provides for different times depending on the type of animal: unweaned animals, i.e. animals still drinking milk (nine hours of travel, followed by one hour’s rest to enable the animals to drink, followed by a further nine hours of travel), pigs (24 hours of travel, provided there is continuous access to water), horses (24 hours of travel, with access to water every eight hours), cattle, sheep and goats (14 hours of travel, followed by one hour’s rest to enable the animals to drink, followed by a further 14 hours of travel). The above sequences may be repeated provided the animals are unloaded, fed, watered and rested for at least 24 hours at an approved control post.


The revision of the maximum journey times and the space allowances for animals (two areas which are unchanged in the new legislation) must be the subject of a new proposal to be submitted four years after the entry into force of the regulation at the latest and which takes into account the application of the new rules by the Member States.

This regulation repeals and replaces Directive 91/628/EEC with effect from 5 January 2007.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 1/2005

Date of application: 5.1.2007
(except Article 6(5): 5.1.2008)

OJ L 3 of 5.1.2005

Related Acts

Council Decision 2004/544/EC of 21 June 2004 on the signing of the European Convention for the protection of animals during international transport (as amended) [Official Journal L 241 of 13.7.2004].
The European Convention for the protection of animals during international transports first came into force in 1971. In 1995, the contracting parties decided to bring its provisions up to date to take account of scientific developments and experience acquired in this field. The amended Convention lays down detailed rules applicable to all animal species and which reflect successive amendments to EU legislation. At present, the 15 old EU Member States are all parties to the Convention, as are Cyprus, Iceland, Norway, Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Switzerland and Turkey.

Council Regulation (EC) No 1255/97 of 25 June 1997 concerning Community criteria for staging points and amending the route plan referred to in the Annex to Directive 91/628/EEC [Official Journal L 174 of 2.7.1997].
The European Union lays down common criteria applicable to control posts (or “staging points”) at which animals must be unloaded during long journeys. These rules aim to secure the health and welfare of the animals during such stops.

National parliaments

National parliaments

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about National parliaments


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

National parliaments

Since 1989 members of the national parliaments and the European Parliament have been meeting at six-monthly intervals within the Conference of European Affairs Committees (COSAC), essentially for the purpose of exchanging information.

When the Treaty of Maastricht came into force, the powers of the European institutions were extended to areas such as justice and home affairs, which had traditionally been national preserves. It was therefore important that the national parliaments should be kept informed, as fully and as rapidly as possible, so that they (and through them the citizens of the European Union) could be more closely involved in the Community’s decision-making process and exercise better control over their country’s representatives within the Council.

Given the diversity of their national traditions, the Member States recognised the need to lay down common principles on information for and contributions from the national parliaments. For this reason, a Protocol on the role of national parliaments has been annexed to the founding Treaties.

Parliamentary scrutiny of individual national governments depends on the constitutional practice followed by each Member State. It was considered important, however, to encourage greater involvement of national parliaments in the activities of the European Union and to enhance their ability to express their views on matters which might be of particular interest to them.


The following documents must be promptly forwarded to national parliaments:

  • white papers;
  • green papers;
  • communications;
  • proposals for legislation.

The procedure for adopting legislative acts or measures under Title VI of the EU Treaty (police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters) requires there to be at least six weeks between the date when the Commission sends its proposal to the European Parliament and the Council and the date when it is placed on the Council agenda. This gives national parliaments sufficient time to discuss the proposal, if necessary, with their respective governments.


The new Protocol acknowledges the valuable role played by COSAC. The committee can send the EU institutions any contribution it thinks appropriate, especially concerning proposed acts which representatives of the national governments may jointly decide to forward to it in view of the subject matter involved.

Above all, COSAC can examine any legislative proposal concerning the area of freedom, security and justice that might have a direct bearing on the rights and freedoms of individuals. Its observations are forwarded to the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission.

COSAC can also address to the three institutions “any contribution which it deems appropriate on the legislative activities of the Union, notably in relation to the application of the principle of subsidiarity, the area of freedom, security and justice as well as questions regarding fundamental rights”.

The national parliaments will thus be able to play a larger role in the decision-making process and contribute more to the drafting of EU legislation.

An EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development

An EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about An EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > African Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

An EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee of 2 March 2006 entitled “EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development” [COM(2006) 86 final – Official Journal C 104, 3 May 2006].


The overarching objective of the EU’s development strategy is to help all the countries in the Caribbean region achieve their long-term development goals in a self-sustaining manner and join the ranks of the developed states by 2020, when the current Cotonou Agreement expires.

The Caribbean faces a number of challenges, one of which is to build a well-balanced relationship with different partners in the Americas, in particular the United States, Brazil and Venezuela, that respects the interests of the small island states.

The EU supports the creation of a regional unit in the Caribbean, with CARICOM to encourage integration and CARIFORUM* to encourage cooperation. A second objective is to develop links between the Caribbean and the wider region, including Central and Latin America. To encourage the smooth integration of the region into the world economy, the EU will focus on the strategic EU-LAC (Latin American and Caribbean) partnership.

Bold leadership initiatives are also required if the region is to tackle its socio-economic and environmental challenges. The insular nature of most of the Caribbean acts as a brake on integration efforts and has adverse effects on the cost of energy, transport, communications and trade. To varying degrees, all the countries in the region remain vulnerable to both economic and natural shocks and face common socio-economic and environmental challenges, including climate change and management of natural resources. Countries such as Haiti, Guyana and some OECS* countries face significant poverty, unemployment, migration and brain drain, a high rate of HIV/AIDS, high levels of indebtedness and the need for economic reforms and for a restructuring of the public sector.

The communication highlights how the challenges facing the Caribbean can be transformed into opportunities. To achieve this, the EU is proposing action on three main fronts: shaping a political partnership based on shared values; addressing economic and environmental vulnerabilities and promoting social cohesion; and combating poverty.

A political partnership based on common values

The development of a strong political partnership between the EU and the Caribbean is a central plank in the EU’s Caribbean strategy. A political partnership focusing in particular on good and effective governance is the key to the consolidation of democracy, respect for human rights, improvements in gender equality, social cohesion, security, stability, conflict prevention, action on migration, the fight against drugs and regional integration.

Against the background of enhanced dialogue, the EU will prioritise its relations with CARIFORUM and LAC in order to move forward on issues of common concern. It will systematically support parliaments, the judicial system and public financial management systems, which are vital to ensure good governance. It will also promote transparency and information exchange in order to combat corruption, financial irregularities and corporate malpractices.

Addressing economic and environmental vulnerabilities

In an increasingly interdependent and globalised world, one major objective of EU development policy is to help developing countries reap greater benefit from the globalisation process. It is important to develop a viable economic model for the region. With this in mind, the EU will support regional integration efforts in the Caribbean and help boost competitiveness, diversify exports and establish regional markets. The Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) process will play a crucial role in achieving these goals.

The environment and natural resources constitute an important asset for the Caribbean and, particularly, the poorest part of the local population. Caribbean states currently face many environmental problems, all of which impact strongly on the region’s economic and social development. These include land degradation, deforestation, scarce water resources, fish stocks management, biodiversity loss, waste and toxic chemical management and climate change.

The EU will help boost the region’s capacity for natural disaster management at all levels, with emphasis on risk reduction, preparedness, early warning, prevention and mitigation.

Promoting social cohesion and combating poverty

The EU will work together with the Caribbean to combat chronic poverty and improve stable basic livelihoods. Efforts will focus on, among other things, support for national social safety nets and activities that generate income for the poorest sections of the population.

Action against HIV/AIDS and other endemic diseases remains a priority in the region. To pursue this line, the Union aims to strengthen health care systems, with special emphasis on human resources and fair access to care. In the drugs field, the focus will be on education, awareness-raising, training and coordination between institutions so that a prevention-based approach is given priority.

To tackle real local problems such as brain drain, socio-economic alienation and weak social cohesion, the Union will work on developing a key mechanism that provides individuals with the skills base and know-how to take advantage of economic diversification.

Being more effective

The EU and the Caribbean countries must act together to build a more structured cooperation that reduces the risk of insufficient coherence and complementarity and of cumbersome procedures generated by the existence of a large number of small projects.

Regional and national aid strategies should be more coherent and mutually reinforcing. At national level, EU assistance will rest on a single national development strategy encompassing all Community instruments, including the European Development Fund (EDF), special funding for bananas, sugar, rice and rum, and all other Commission budget lines and facilities. At regional level, it will draw on the Regional Development Fund.

Key terms used in the act
  • CARICOM: Caribbean Community. This comprises 15 countries and associated territories: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
  • CARIFORUM: Caribbean Forum of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (ACP). This comprises all members of CARICOM, except Montserrat, plus Dominican Republic and Cuba.
  • OECS: Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.

Related Acts

Economic Partnership Agreement between the CARIFORUM States, of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part [Official Journal L 289 of 30 October 2008].

The European Union and the CARIFORUMStates have concluded a new Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) aimed at supporting the sustainable growth, competitiveness and development of these States. The priorities of the Agreement have been established in line with the Millennium Development Goals and the Cotonou Agreement.

The EPA enhances regional integration and the development of international trade in the Caribbean. In particular it establishes a more stable and more transparent framework for the growth of businesses and the security of investments. It provides for the asymmetrical liberalisation of trade with the EU. Customs duties and quotas applicable to products from CARIFORUM are therefore abolished, with the exception of the sectors of sugar and rice which will be subject to progressive liberalisation. The parties to the Agreement also liberalise cross-border supply of services, with the exception of audiovisual services, national maritime cabotage and air transport. Development cooperation activities and technical assistance are provided for in order to support in priority fiscal reform, the private sector, the diversification of exports of goods, compliance with technical, sanitary, phytosanitary and environmental standards, technological innovation and the development of infrastructures necessary for trade. European funding related to this cooperation will be transferred through the intermediary of a regional development fund.

A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field

A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

A renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-18)

Document or Iniciative

Council Resolution of 27 November 2009 on a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-2018) [Official Journal C 311 of 19.12.2009].


For Europe to attain the objectives regarding growth and jobs set by the Lisbon strategy, it is imperative that its young men and women are socially as well as professionally well integrated. Such integration also promotes young people’s personal fulfilment, social cohesion and active citizenship. However, young people still face challenges in terms of employment, education and training, poverty, health, and participation and democratic representation. Therefore, a renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field has been designed to provide better opportunities for Europe’s young people.

This renewed framework is based on the Commission’s communication of April 2009 on the new European Union (EU) Youth Strategy. It aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of European cooperation by establishing a strategy for the next decade that builds on the progress made and lessons learned under the previous framework.

European cooperation in the youth field during 2010-18

European cooperation in the youth field during 2010-18 is motivated by two interrelated objectives:

  • the creation of more and equal opportunities in education and the labour market;
  • the promotion of active citizenship, social inclusion and solidarity.

To this end, specific initiatives targeting young people and mainstreaming initiatives to incorporate youth issues into other policy areas are developed and promoted. The renewed framework outlines eight fields of action in which cross-sectoral initiatives to support young people should be taken:

  • education and training;
  • employment and entrepreneurship;
  • health and well-being;
  • participation;
  • voluntary activities;
  • social inclusion;
  • youth and the world;
  • creativity and culture.

European cooperation in the youth field must uphold a number of guiding principles, particularly:

  • promote gender equality;
  • combat all forms of discrimination;
  • consider differences between young people, especially in terms of disadvantage;
  • provide for the participation of young people in policy-making.

European cooperation should be evidence-based, relevant and concrete with clear and visible results that are regularly presented, reviewed and disseminated. It should be applied through a renewed framework of open method of coordination. This requires political commitment from EU countries and working methods based on:

  • a series of 3-year work cycles (the first cycle covers the years 2010-12);
  • an overall thematic priority for each trio presidency and specific priorities for each presidency country contributing to the overall thematic priority (the priorities for the period from 2010 to mid-2011 are set out in the annex to the resolution);
  • implementation instruments (knowledge building, mutual learning, progress reporting, dissemination of results, monitoring of the process, dialogue with young people, mobilisation of EU programmes and funds).

Within this renewed framework for European cooperation, the role of youth work must be strengthened. It should be supported and recognised for its social as well as economic contribution. The discussion should focus on the training, recognition of skills and mobility of youth workers and leaders, as well as on the promotion of innovative solutions in youth work.

Role of EU countries and the Commission

EU countries are called upon to work together on the basis of this resolution, with a view to improving European cooperation in the youth field. They should adopt national level measures that contribute to achieving the objectives set for this cooperation.

The Commission is invited to work with EU countries as well as to support their cooperation within the framework. The Commission should monitor the achievement of the objectives, in relation to which it should establish a working group to review data on the situation of young people and evaluate the need to develop new indicators for fields related to youth. The Commission should also propose peer-learning activities and initiate relevant studies.


Established in June 2002, the framework for European cooperation in the youth field provided for the application of the open method of coordination in this context as well as for the mainstreaming of youth issues into other relevant policy areas. The European Youth Pact was adopted in March 2005 to contribute to reaching the objectives of growth and jobs of the Lisbon strategy. The renewed social agenda of July 2008 established children and youth as one of its main priority areas for action.

Transfer of cargo and passenger ships between registers within the EU

Transfer of cargo and passenger ships between registers within the EU

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Transfer of cargo and passenger ships between registers within the EU


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Transport > Waterborne transport

Transfer of cargo and passenger ships between registers within the EU

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 789/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on the transfer of cargo and passenger ships between registers within the Community and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 613/91 [See amending act(s)].


The purpose of the regulation is to eliminate the technical barriers to the transfer of cargo and passenger ships flying the flag of a European Union (EU) country between the registers of EU countries while ensuring a high level of ship safety and environmental protection, in compliance with international conventions.


The regulation applies to passenger ships built on or after 1 July 1998 and cargo ships built on or after 25 May 1980 or ships that were built before those dates but have been certified as complying with the relevant European and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations.

However, the regulation does not apply to:

  • ships delivered after completion of their construction that do not carry valid full-term certificates from the EU country of the losing register;
  • ships that have been refused access to EU countries’ ports in accordance with Directive 95/21/EC during the three years preceding application for registration following inspection in the port of a State signatory of the Paris Memorandum of Understanding of 1982 on Port State Control;
  • ships of war or troopships, or other ships owned or operated by an EU country and used only for government non-commercial purposes;
  • ships not propelled by mechanical means, wooden ships of primitive build, pleasure yachts not engaged in trade or fishing vessels;
  • cargo ships of less than 500 gross tonnage.

Transfer between registers

EU countries will not withhold from registration, for technical reasons arising from the conventions, a ship registered in another EU country which complies with the requirements and carries valid certificates and marine equipment in accordance with Council Directive 96/98/EC.

Upon receiving the request for transfer, the EU country of the losing register will provide the EU country of the receiving register with all relevant information on the ship, in particular on her condition and equipment. This information contains the history file of the vessel, a list of the improvements required by the losing register for registering the ship or renewing her certificates and a list of overdue surveys.

Before registering a ship, the EU country of the receiving register will subject the ship to an inspection to confirm that the actual condition of the ship and her equipment correspond to the certificates.


Upon the transfer, the EU country of the receiving register, or the recognised organisation acting on its behalf, will issue certificates to the ship under the same conditions as those issued under the flag of the EU country of the losing register.

At the time of renewal, extension or revision of the certificates, the EU country of the receiving register, or the recognised organisation acting on its behalf, will not impose requirements other than those initially prescribed for the full-term certificates.

Refusal of transfer and interpretation

The EU country of the receiving register will immediately notify the Commission of any refusal to issue, or to authorise the issuing of, new certificates to a ship.

Where an EU country considers that a ship cannot be registered for reasons relating to serious danger to security, safety or to the environment, registration may be suspended.


EU countries will submit to the Commission a succinct yearly report on the implementation of the regulation. By 20 May 2008 the Commission will submit a report to the European Parliament and the Council on the implementation of this regulation.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 789/2004


OJ L 138, 30.04.2004

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 219/2009


OJ L 87 of 31.3.2009

Successive amendments and corrections to Regulation (EC) No 789/2004 have been incorporated into the basic text. This consolidated versionis for information only.

Comett I

Comett I

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Comett I


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Vocational training

Comett I

1) Objective

To strengthen cooperation between universities and enterprises in training relating to technology.

2) Community Measures

Council Decision 86/365/EEC of 24 July 1986 adopting the programme on cooperation between universities and enterprises regarding training in the field of technology (Comett).

3) Contents

Definitions of the terms “university” and “enterprise”

Objectives of the programme

  • to give a European dimension to cooperation between universities and enterprises in training relating to innovation and the development and application of new technologies;
  • to foster the joint development of training programmes and the exchange of experience, and also the optimum use of training resources at Community level;
  • to improve the supply of training at local, regional and national level with the assistance of the authorities concerned, thus contributing to the balanced economic development of the Community;
  • to develop the level of training in response to technological change and social changes by identifying the resulting priorities in existing training arrangements which call for supplementary action both within Member States and at Community level, and by promoting equal opportunities for men and women.

Areas covered by Comett

Comett I was divided into five interdependent fields of action, each comprising one strand of the programme:

Strand A: the development of a European network of university-enterprise training partnerships (UETPs),

Strand B: programmes for the exchange of students and staff between universities and undertakings,

Strand C: the development and testing of joint university/enterprise projects in the field of ongoing training,

Strand D: multilateral initiatives for developing multi-media training systems,

Strand E: additional measures and assessment measures aimed at the analysis and monitoring of important developments relating to Comett.

Framework for implementation of the programme

The Commission is assisted by a Committee consisting of two representatives of each Member State. Two representatives of the social partners participate in the work as observers. The Committee members are responsible for liaison between Comett and similar initiatives in the Member States. The Committee delivers opinions on the guidelines, the financial assistance granted, the procedure for selecting the various types of projects and any measures which require a Community contribution of more than ECU 100 000.

Information centres have been set up to assist and promote the dissemination of information on Comett. A group of Comett experts has been set up by the Commission, to provide an additional source of advice and specialized technical know-how.

4) Deadline For Implementation Of The Legislation In The Member States

Not applicable.

5) Date Of Entry Into Force (If Different From The Above)

6) References

Official Journal L 222, 08.08.1986

7) Follow-Up Work

8) Commission Implementing Measures

The results

Between 1986 and 1990, more than 1 300 projects were launched throughout the European Community, with Community aid amounting to a total of ECU 52.5 million. The projects financed under Comett I have led to the establishment of 125 university-enterprise training partnerships (UETPs), more than 4 000 traineeships for students in enterprises in other Member States and 232 grants for exchanges of staff between universities and enterprises; 329 joint ongoing training projects and multinational initiatives for developing multi-media training systems have also been financed. In addition, more than 6 000 enterprises, 1 500 universities and 1 000 other types of organization were involved in carrying out the Comett I projects. Of the various technological sectors, production and manufacturing dominated, but other fields were also well represented: computer technology, management, biology, chemicals, occupation of land area. The human and social sciences accounted for 3.6 % of the total, the projects in question having been proposed by the trade unions concerned about the impact of technological change on the organization of labour, collective bargaining and the organization of the trade unions.


Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships

Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships


These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Maritime safety: prohibition of organotin compounds on ships

Document or Iniciative

Regulation (EC) No 782/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 April 2003 on the prohibition of organotin compounds on ships [Official Journal L 115 of 9.5.2003].



Based on the strategic objectives set out in the Commission White Paper on transport policy, the purpose of this Community regulation is to reduce the adverse effects on the environment caused by organotin compounds used on ships.

Organotin compounds are chemicals from anti-fouling paints used on boat hulls and nets. These surface coatings are designed to prevent the attachment of algae, molluscs and other organisms which slow down vessel speeds.

Organotin compounds pose a definite risk to aquatic fauna and flora. During the ’60s the chemical industry developed efficacious anti-fouling paints using metallic compounds, in particular the organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT).

These chemicals are highly toxic for sealife (larvae, mussels, oysters and fish). For this reason, they have been banned in many European countries, while several Community directives (Directive 76/769/EEC and the successive amendments thereto) provide for regular monitoring of organotin compound levels.

The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems (AFS Convention) adopted at an IMO diplomatic conference in October 2001 bans application of TBT coatings on ships with effect from 1 January 2003 followed, as of 1 January 2008, by the elimination of active TBT coatings from ships.

The AFS Convention will enter into force 12 months after at least 25 States representing 25% of the world’s merchant shipping tonnage have ratified it.

Considering that non-polluting substitutes are available today, the AFS Convention prohibits the use of all harmful organotin compounds in anti-fouling paints applied to ships. At the moment, only organotin compounds are banned, but the Convention will also establish a mechanism to prevent potential future uses of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems, in line with the precautionary principle.


The regulation directly imposes on shipowners detailed requirements which must be observed throughout the Community.

The regulation applies to:

  • ships flying the flag of a Member State,
  • ships not flying the flag of a Member State but operating under the authority of a Member State, and
  • ships entering port in a Member State but not covered by the two previous points.

The regulation does not apply to any warship, naval auxiliary or other ship owned by a State and used on government service.

As from 1 July 2003, organotin compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems may no longer be applied on ships flying the flag of a Member State. As from 1 January 2008 ships entering port in a Member State must either bear no coating of organotin compounds which act as biocides or must bear a second topcoat forming a barrier to prevent organotin compounds leaching from the non-compliant anti-fouling undercoat.

The regulation introduces a survey and certification system for ships flying the flag of a Member State. It stipulates that:

  • ships of 400 gross tonnage and above must be surveyed, irrespective of the voyage;
  • ships of 24 metres or more in length, but less than 400 gross tonnage, must simply carry a declaration of compliance with the regulation or with the AFS Convention. No particular survey or certificate is specified in the regulation to avoid overburdening the administrations in the Member States;
  • no survey or certification is envisaged for ships of less than 24 metres in length, i.e. mainly pleasure craft and fishing boats.

As regards recognition of certificates and of statements of compliance:

  • as from 1 July 2003, Member States must recognise any AFS certificate issued by or on behalf of a Member State;
  • as from 1 July 2004, Member States must recognise any AFS statement of compliance issued on behalf of a Member State;
  • as from 1 July 2003, Member States must recognise any AFS declaration.

By 10 May 2004 at the latest, the Commission must report to the European Parliament and to the Council on progress with ratification of the AFS Convention and, if necessary, propose amendments to speed up the process of reducing pollution by harmful anti-fouling compounds.


Act Date
of entry into force
Final date for implementation in the Member States
Regulation (EC) No 782/2003 10.05.2003