Author Archives: Ainsworth Donovan

Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Budget

Harmonisation of the compilation of GNP

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 89/130/EEC on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices [See amending acts]

Summary

Firstly, the Directive defines GNPmp in accordance with the current European System of Integrated Economic Accounts (ESA). GNPmp is calculated by adding to gross domestic product at market prices (GDPmp, ESA code: N 1) the compensation of employees (R 10) and the property and entrepreneurial income (R 40) received from the rest of the world less the corresponding flows paid to the rest of the world. GDPmp represents the final result of productive activity by resident production units. Referring to the ESA, GDPmp may be presented in three ways:

  • from the output angle: GDPmp (N 1) is the difference between output of goods and services (P 10) and intermediate consumption (P 20) plus VAT on products (R 21) and net taxes linked to imports (excluding value added tax (VAT)) (R 29);
  • from the expenditure angle: GDPmp (N 1) is the sum of final consumption (P 30) on the economic territory by households and private non-profit institutions and general government, gross fixed capital formation (P 41), change in stocks (P 42), and the difference between exports (P 50) and imports (P 60);
  • from the income angle: GDPmp (N 1) is the sum of compensation of employees (R 10), gross operating surplus of the economy (N 2), and taxes linked to production and imports (R 20) less subsidies (R 30).

Member States establish GNPmp in accordance with the definition given in the Directive. Before 1 October each year, they provide the Commission, in the context of national accounting procedures, with figures for the GNPmp aggregate and its components according to the ESA definitions referred to above. Member States also supply the information necessary to show how the aggregate was found. The figures cover the preceding year and any changes made to the figures for previous financial years. The Commission is assisted by a committee.

The Agreement on the European Economic Area amends the Directive. It states that Liechtenstein is exempt from providing the data required by the Directive and that Austria, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland will provide the data as from 1995 at the latest.

Background

In practice, the Directive has been replaced de facto but not de jure since 2002 by Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1287/2003 of 15 July 2003 on the harmonisation of gross national income at market prices (GNI Regulation).

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 89/130/EEC 13 March 1989 16 February 1990 OJ L 49 of 21.2.1989
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003 20.11.2003 OJ L 284 of 31.10.2003

Related Acts

Implementing measures:

Decision 93/475/EEC, Euratom [Official Journal L 224 of 3.9.1993]

Commission Decision of 22 July 1993 defining production and import subsidies for the purpose of the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 93/570/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 276 of 9.11.1993]

Commission Decision of 4 October 1993 defining the distinction between ‘other taxes linked to production’ and ‘intermediate consumption’ for the purpose of the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 94/168/EC [Official Journal L 77 of 19.3.1994]

Commission Decision of 22 February 1994 on measures to be taken for the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices. The purpose of this Decision is to improve the exhaustiveness of GDPmp as a major component of the GNPmp of the Member States as regards economic activity within the production boundary of the European system of integrated economic accounts (“ESA”). This includes economic activity which is lawful in itself but which is not carried on in conformity with tax and social security regulations. Economic activity which is unlawful as such according to national legislation is outside the scope of the measures provided for by this Decision.

Decision 95/309/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 186 of 5.8.1995]

Commission Decision of 18 July 1995 specifying the principles for estimating dwelling services for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 97/157/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 60 of 1.3.1997]

Commission Decision of 12 February 1997 defining the treatment of the income of undertakings for collective investment for the purpose of the implementation of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 97/619/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 252 of 16.9.1997]

Commission Decision of 3 September 1997 on changes to the Member States’ GNP estimates for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonization of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 98/501/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 225 of 12.8.1998]

Commission Decision of 24 July 1998 concerning certain specific transactions identified within the work on the protocol of the Excessive Deficit Procedure, for the application of Article 1 of Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonisation of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Decision 1999/622/EC, Euratom [Official Journal L 245 of 17.9.1999]

Commission Decision of 8 September 1999 on the treatment of repayments of VAT to non-taxable units and to taxable units for their exempt activities, for the purpose of implementing Council Directive 89/130/EEC, Euratom on the harmonisation of the compilation of gross national product at market prices.

Commission Regulation (EC) No 109/2005 of 24 January 2005 on the definition of the economic territory of Member States for the purposes of Council Regulation (EC, Euratom) No 1287/2003 on the harmonisation of gross national income at market prices [Official Journal L 021 of 25.01.2005].

 

The ASEM process

The ASEM process

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about The ASEM process

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

External relations > Relations with third countries > Asia

The ASEM process (Asia-Europe meeting)

Document or Iniciative

Commission working document, of 18 April 2000: Perspectives and Priorities for the ASEM Process (Asia-Europe Meeting) into the new decade [COM(2000) 241 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

ASEM is an informal process of dialogue bringing together the Member States, the European Commission and ten Asian countries: Brunei, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam.

The dialogue takes place at several levels: there are Summit-level meetings, which are attended by the Asian and European Heads of State or Government and the President of the Commission, and Ministerial-level meetings on foreign affairs, finance, the economy, the environment, or science and technology. Discussions take place under three pillars: the political pillar, the economic and financial pillar, and the cultural and intellectual pillar. The larger meetings are prepared by the group of Coordinators, made up of four representatives: the Presidency, the European Commission and two Asian countries in rotation. To date, there have been four summits: in Bangkok in 1996, in London in 1998, in Seoul in 2000 and in Copenhagen in 2002. There have been many Ministerial-level meetings in the various fields.

In this document, the Commission emphasises the informal character of the process, which it regards as one of its greatest assets, and its pluralistic dimension. The Commission considers that the main comparative advantage of the process is its ability to stimulate and facilitate work in bilateral and multilateral fora, and to promote dialogue and mutual understanding in areas where a consensus can be reached.

In 2000, the Commission was concerned that the process could run out of steam if it failed to show the public and the world of business that it was still relevant to their concerns and interests. At the same time, it stressed the importance of ASEM’s potential, and called on public opinion to support the process and encourage the participation of civil society.

Priorities

In its working document, the Commission sets out general priorities for the three pillars of ASEM. Their aim is to build on the achievements of the process and deepen relations between the two regions. In the political field, and with a view to focusing on issues of common interest, the Commission proposes:

  • to intensify the high-level dialogue;
  • to strengthen networking and informal dialogue;
  • to provide for an exchange of views in the context of appropriate international institutions;
  • to support human rights, democracy and the rule of law;
  • to make joint efforts in addressing global issues that the partnership could further.

In the economic field: The aim is to strengthen the economic partnership, giving priority to dialogue at different levels: between companies, between the public and private sectors, between Finance and Economic Ministers, as well as maintaining a dialogue on more general socio-economic issues.

The intensification of the dialogue between the Economic Ministers and their Senior Officials should:

  • promote the strengthening of the WTO multilateral trade system;
  • strengthen two-way trade and investment flows;
  • establish an enhanced climate for business cooperation;
  • enhance dialogue and cooperation in key sectors for the future, such as infrastructure, transport, high-technology, services, telecommunications.

In the cultural and intellectual fields, ASEM should focus on promoting enhanced contacts and strengthened mutual awareness between the peoples of the two regions. The Commission calls for enhanced dialogue and cooperation in the fields of science and technology, the environment, social sciences, the arts and humanities, and the promotion of networking and increased contact and exchanges in the field of education. It proposes to continue to lend support to the Asia-Europe Foundation as a catalyst for cultural and intellectual dialogue between the two regions.

The Commission sets five specific priorities for the Seoul Summit:

  • an enhanced exchange of views on regional and global security issues;
  • enhanced dialogue and cooperation on trade, social policy and economic issues;
  • intensified educational exchanges;
  • cooperation in the field of consumer protection;
  • a possible broadening of participation in the ASEM process.

Related Acts

(September 2002)

The Copenhagen Summit approved the Copenhagen Declaration on Cooperation against International Terrorism and the Copenhagen Cooperation Programme on Fighting International Terrorism. The Summit also agreed that ASEM’s priorities would be closer economic cooperation, cooperation in the social, educational and environmental fields and a dialogue on cultures and civilisations. The next summit will take place in Vietnam in 2004.

Seoul Summit (October 2000)

This Summit, which is recognised as a historic milestone in the evolution of the ASEM process, approved the Asia-Europe Cooperation Framework 2000, building on the decisions taken in London. It sets a common vision for the future, as well as the aims, priorities and mechanisms to take the process into the 21st century. The partners agreed to strive for a common goal of maintaining peace and stability, and of promoting conditions conducive to sustainable economic and social development. Other ASEM initiatives were endorsed, relating to globalisation and information technology, the development of human resources, the environment, health, and transnational law enforcement matters.

In addition to coordination mechanisms, the Framework proposes that the Economy, Finance and Foreign Affairs Ministers meet regularly, at least once a year. A group of ASEM contact officials will facilitate exchanges of information.

London Summit (April 1998)

The London Summit adopted an Asia-Europe Cooperation Framework and established an Asia-Europe Vision Group to examine medium and long term perspectives for relations between the two regions. The Heads of State or Government also endorsed an action plan on trade facilitation and another on promoting investment. In response to the economic and financial crisis in Asia, they also agreed to create an ASEM Trust Fund and a European financial expertise network to overcome the effects of the crisis and avert new crises.

The process must be conducted on a basis of equal partnership, mutual respect and mutual benefits. It need not be institutionalised and should be an open and evolutionary process, managing the three pillars in parallel. The priorities set form the basis of those taken up by the Commission in 2000. The summit also refers to the need for increased cooperation in the fields of science and technology, culture, human resources, development, the fight against drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism and international organised crime.

The Cooperation Framework provides that the Foreign Affairs Ministers and their Senior Officials are responsible for the overall coordination of ASEM activities. Any proposals for new activities must be beneficial to both parties, contribute to the general objectives, propose well-defined goals and actors, avoid duplicating activities and involve a sufficient number of partners.

Bangkok Summit (March 1996)

At the inaugural ASEM in Bangkok, the Heads of State or Government decided to establish an Asia-Europe Environmental Technology Centre in Bangkok. They also decided to set up an Asia-Europe Foundation with headquarters in Singapore, an Asia-Europe university programme and youth exchange programmes to strengthen cultural ties. They also agreed to conduct a study on the integration of the trans-Asian rail network and its possible integration into the trans-European network.

Animal nutrition: specifications on certain proteins

Animal nutrition: specifications on certain proteins

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Animal nutrition: specifications on certain proteins

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Animal nutrition

Animal nutrition: specifications on certain proteins

The European Union regulates the use of products manufactured by certain technical processes which act as direct or indirect protein sources and are put into circulation within the Community as feedingstuffs or in feedingstuffs.

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 82/471/EEC of 30 June 1982 concerning certain products used in animal nutrition [See amending acts].

Summary

The basic Directive concerns products manufactured by certain technical processes which act as direct or indirect protein sources and are put into circulation within the European Union (EU) as feedingstuffs or in feedingstuffs. Specifically, these are substitution products developed by the feedingstuffs industry.

Since these products are obtained using new manufacturing techniques, it is necessary to regulate their marketing in the EU as feedingstuffs or constituents of feedingstuffs by prescribing, for each group concerned, which individual products are authorised and under what conditions of use.

Before including a new product in one of the groups concerned, it must be ascertained that it has the required nutritional value. It must also be established that these products, when used sensibly, have no detrimental effect on human or animal health or on the environment and do not harm the consumer by impairing the distinctive features of animal products.

In certain cases it is essential to provide for labelling to protect the user against fraud and to facilitate the optimal use of the products available to him.

The products in question are listed in the annex. Provision has been made for a Community procedure to adapt the provisions of the annex and the guidelines laid down for the submission of dossiers relating to certain products and, where necessary, to fix criteria of composition and purity as well as the physico-chemical and biological properties of these products in the light of the development of scientific and technical knowledge. In the event of amendment of the annex, the European Food Safety Authority must be consulted.

Member States must prescribe that the products listed in the annex may not be marketed as feedingstuffs or incorporated in feedingstuffs unless any particulars laid down in the annex appear on the package or container or on a label attached thereto.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 82/471/EEC 15.07.1982 15.07.1984 OJ L 213 of 21.07.1982
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 84/443/EEC 27.07.1984 30.06.1985 OJ L 245 of 14.09.1984
Directive 85/509/EEC 13.11.1985 30.06.1986 OJ L 314 of 07.11.1985
Directive 86/530/EEC 29.10.1986 30.06.1988 OJ L 312 of 07.11.1986
Directive 88/485/EEC 29.07.1988 30.06.1989 OJ L 239 of 30.08.1988
Directive 89/520/EEC 14.09.1989 31.12.1990 OJ L 270 of 19.09.1989
Directive 90/439/EEC 25.07.1990 30.06.1991 OJ L 227 of 21.08.1990
Directive 93/26/EEC 22.07.1993 31.03.1994 OJ L 179 of 22.07.1993
Directive 93/56/EEC 07.07.1993 30.06.1994 OJ L 206 of 18.08.1993
Directive 93/74/EEC 23.09.1993 30.06.1995 OJ L 237 of 22.09.1993
Directive 95/33/EC 07.08.1995 30.06.1996 OJ L 167 of 18.07.1995
Directive 96/25/EC 12.06.1996 30.06.1998 OJ L 125 of 23.05.1996
Directive 1999/20/EC 25.03.1999 30.09.1999 OJ L 80 of 25.03.1999
Directive 2003/104/EC 20.11.2003 20.05.2004 OJ L 295 of 13.11.2003
Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 11.07.2003 OJ L 268 of 18.10.2003
Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003 20.11.2003 OJ L 284 of 31.10.2003
Directive 2004/116/EC 31.12.2004 30.06.2005 OJ L 379 of 24.12.2004

Related Acts

Directive 83/228/EEC [Official Journal L 126 of 13.05.1983]
Council Directive of 18 April 1983 on the fixing of guidelines for the assessment of certain products used in animal nutrition.

Decision 85/382/EEC [Official Journal L 217 of 14.08.1985]

Commission Decision of 10 July 1985 prohibiting the use in feedingstuffs of protein products obtained from Candida yeasts cultivated on n-alkanes.

 

Citizenship of the European Union

Citizenship of the European Union

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Citizenship of the European Union

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Institutional affairs > Building europe through the treaties > The Amsterdam treaty: a comprehensive guide

Citizenship of the European Union

As set out in the Maastricht Treaty, any national of a Member State is a citizen of the Union. The aim of European citizenship is to strengthen and consolidate European identity by greater involvement of the citizens in the Community integration process. Thanks to the single market, citizens enjoy a series of general rights in various areas such as the free movement of goods and services, consumer protection and public health, equal opportunities and treatment, access to jobs and social protection. There are four categories of specific provisions and rights attached to citizenship of the European Union:

  • freedom of movement and residence throughout the Union;
  • the right to vote and stand as a candidate in municipal elections and in elections to the European Parliament in the state where he/she resides;
  • protection by the diplomatic and consular authorities of any Member State where the State of which the person is a national is not represented in a non-member country,
  • the right to petition the European Parliament and apply to the Ombudsman.

Although the exercise of these rights is dependent on European citizenship and is subject to certain limitations laid down by the Treaties or secondary legislation, the right to apply to the Ombudsman or to petition the European Parliament is open to all natural or legal persons residing in the Member States of the Union. Likewise, any person residing in the European Union has fundamental rights.

The Amsterdam Treaty completes the list of civic rights of Union citizens and clarifies the link between national citizenship and European citizenship.

BACKGROUND

Union citizenship and the rights accompanying it must be seen in perspective in order to understand the dynamics of the process launched by the Treaty setting up the European Economic Community (signed in Rome in 1957). This Treaty gave people the right to move freely within the European Community. Free movement of people was closely linked to economic status as employee, self-employed or service provider. The right of residence throughout the Community was first given to employees and the self-employed and members of their families in conjunction with the right to work there.

The Single European Act (1986) wrote provisions into the Treaty of Rome to establish an area without frontiers and to abolish checks on persons at internal frontiers, irrespective of nationality. Unfortunately, this area was not established before the scheduled date of 31 December 1992. But in 1990 the Council, acting under the Single Act, extended the right of residence to persons who are not engaged in an occupation, provided they have sufficient resources and social insurance cover. The final stage in attaining the general right to movement and residence was its incorporation in the concept of Union citizenship in the Treaty on European Union (1992). In 1997 the Amsterdam Treaty produced a political solution for further progress on free movement, incorporating the Schengen Agreement into the Union Treaty (although some member states wanted to have special status and will retain controls at their border with other Member States).

As early as the Paris Summit in 1974, attempts had been made to define the “special rights” to be conferred on nationals of the European Economic Community as it then was. In 1992 the EU Treaty wrote Union citizenship into the Treaty establishing the European Community (Article 17, ex Article 8). After the signing of the Treaty, the Declaration by the Birmingham European Council in October 1992 made clear that “… citizenship of the Union brings our citizens additional rights and protection without in any way taking the place of their national citizenship”. A Declaration attached to the Treaty setting up the European Community notes that “the question whether an individual possesses the nationality of a Member State shall be settled solely by reference to the national law of the Member State concerned”.

The Treaty on European Union, by establishing Union citizenship, confers on every Union citizen a fundamental and personal right to move and reside freely without reference to an economic activity. The right to vote and to stand as a candidate in elections to the European Parliament and in municipal elections in the Member State in which he/she resides and the right to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any Member State in a non-member country are a concrete expression of the feeling of common citizenship. Directives adopted in 1993 and 1994 laid down the rules for giving effect to these rights. The same Treaty makes it possible to strengthen and amplify these rights.

However, European citizens still encounter real obstacles, both practical and legal, when they wish to exercise their rights to free movement and residence in the Union.

ADDITIONS BY THE AMSTERDAN TREATY

Amendments have been made to Articles 17 and 21 (ex Articles 8 and 8(d)) of the EC Treaty, which define European citizenship.

Firstly, the Amsterdam clarifies the link between European and national citizenship. It states unequivocally that “citizenship of the Union shall complement and not replace national citizenship”. Two practical conclusions follow from this:

  • it is first necessary to be a national of a Member State in order to enjoy citizenship of the Union;
  • European citizenship will supplement and complement the rights conferred by national citizenship.

Moreover, the Amsterdam Treaty has established a new right for European citizens. Every citizen of the Union can now write to the European Parliament, the Council, the Commission, the Court of Justice, the Court of Auditors, the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions or the Ombudsman in one of the twelve languages of the Treaties and receive an answer in the same language.

As a reminder the twelve languages are: Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Irish (Gaelic), Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish.

Lastly, a new paragraph has been inserted in the preamble of the EC Treaty. It confirms the commitment by the member states to the education of their peoples. Each member state undertakes “to promote the development of the highest possible level of knowledge … through a wide access to education and through its continuous updating”.

African, Caribbean and Pacific states

African, Caribbean and Pacific states

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about African, Caribbean and Pacific states

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Development > African Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP)

The European Union and the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP countries) enjoy special relations that can be traced back to the Union’s beginnings. These political, economic and social relations are to be found mainly in the field of development cooperation.

The Cotonou Agreement signed in 2000, follows on from the previous conventions (Yaoundé, Lomé) and currently provides the general framework for relations between the Union and the 79 ACP countries. This framework is reinforced by regional and national components and supplemented by a financial component represented mainly by the European Development Fund (EDF).

GENERAL FRAMEWORK

  • Cotonou Agreement
  • Regional integration for development in ACP countries

Africa

  • Towards a renewed Africa-EU partnership
  • The Africa-EU partnership at work
  • From a strategy for Africa to an EU-Africa strategic partnership
  • EU-Africa partnership
  • EU Strategy for Africa
  • Taking EU-Africa dialogue forward
  • Economic partnership between Eastern and Southern Africa States
  • A regional policy partnership for the Horn of Africa
  • Special partnership with Cape Verde
  • Cooperation and dialogue between the EU, Africa and China
  • Africa and Europe: strengthening transport cooperation

Caribbean

  • An EU-Caribbean partnership for growth, stability and development

Pacific

  • EU-Pacific strategy

INSTRUMENTS AND FINANCIAL PROVISIONS

Basic Instrument

  • European Development Fund (EDF)
  • Budgetisation of the European Development Fund

Specific Instruments

  • European Water Facility for the ACP countries
  • ACP-EU Energy Facility
  • Creation of a Peace Facility for Africa
  • Exceptional aid for highly-indebted ACP States

SECTORAL COOPERATION

  • Assistance for traditional ACP suppliers of bananas
  • Partnership with Africa for the development of the cotton industry
  • Partnership agreements with Non-EU Member Countries
  • Cooperation with Non-EU Member Countries on nuclear safety
  • Cooperation with the African Centre for Study and Research on Terrorism
  • Cooperation with ACP States involved in armed conflicts

Common objectives for a better understanding and knowledge of youth

Common objectives for a better understanding and knowledge of youth

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Common objectives for a better understanding and knowledge of youth

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Education training youth sport > Youth

Common objectives for a better understanding and knowledge of youth

Document or Iniciative

Communication from the Commission to the Council of 30 April 2004 — Follow-up to the White Paper “A new impetus for European youth”. Proposed common objectives for a greater understanding and knowledge of youth, in response to the Council Resolution of 27 June 2002 regarding the framework of European cooperation in the youth field [COM(2004) 336 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Summary

The Commission proposes four common objectives based on the responses from the Member States to the questionnaire on their own situations and their expectations at national level. In order to achieve these objectives, the Commission presents lines of action at national and European levels for each of them.

Objective 1 – Identify knowledge relating to priority themes

This involves identifying and organising existing knowledge relating to priority themes in the youth field (i.e. participation, information and voluntary activities) and implementing measures to supplement, update and facilitate access to that knowledge.

Objective 2 – Identify existing knowledge relating to other areas

The aim here is to identify and organise existing knowledge relating to other priority areas of relevance to the youth field and to implement measures to supplement, update and facilitate access to that knowledge.

These other themes of direct interest to the youth field include autonomy, non-formal learning, the fight against discrimination, education and training, employment, transition from education to employment, social inclusion and health.

The lines of action at national level for objectives 1 and 2 are as follows:

  • to identify and organise existing knowledge;
  • to undertake further studies, collect statistical data and gather practical knowledge of NGOs, youth organisations and young people themselves;
  • to facilitate access to knowledge by compiling and disseminating documents, also electronically.

At European level, the Commission proposes exploiting the Youth programm e and making maximum use of any other relevant instruments available at European level, such as Eurobarometer surveys, Eurostat and framework research programmes, as well as any other tools being developed, such as the Online European Knowledge Centre for Youth Policy (EKC).

Objective 3 – Knowledge quality

Ensuring quality, comparability and relevance of knowledge in the youth field by using appropriate methods and tools remains one of the Commission’s priorities.

The lines of action at national level are:

  • to implement and further develop appropriate tools and methods;
  • to promote education and training of researchers and experts, especially younger ones, working in the youth field.

At European level the Commission proposes:

  • cooperation to identify and define common concepts and a minimum core content;
  • cooperation to identify quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods with a view to exploiting and comparing results;
  • cooperation to better identify the indicators which will enable the impact of the current Youth programmes to be evaluated.

Objective 4 – Dialogue and networks

This objective consists in facilitating and promoting exchange, dialogue and creation of networks to ensure the visibility of knowledge in the youth field and anticipate future needs.

The lines of action at national level are:

  • to encourage and develop exchanges, structured dialogue and national networks between policy makers, researchers, young people and their organisations;
  • to discuss future needs and identify new priority themes to be explored through the networks;
  • to promote cross-sectoral cooperation through conferences, seminars and events focusing on themes of common interest.

At European level, the Commission proposes coordinating the national networks by setting up a European network of youth knowledge, in cooperation with its partners in this field.

Implementing and monitoring mechanisms

The Member States must submit reports on their national contributions to the concrete achievements relating to the first priorities (“participation and information”) by the end of 2005 and the “voluntary activities” priority by the end of 2006. In these reports the Member States must also describe the steps taken in order to fulfil the first, third and fourth common objectives for a better understanding and knowledge of youth.

The Member States must subsequently report on the concrete achievements resulting from implementation of the second common objective by the end of 2008. At the same time they must inform the Commission of the further steps taken in order to fulfil the third and fourth common objectives for a better understanding and knowledge of youth.

Related Acts

Analysis of Member States’ and acceding countries’ replies to the Commission questionnaire on a greater understanding and knowledge of youth [SEC(2004) 627 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Resolution of the Council and of the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council, of 27 June 2002 regarding the framework of European cooperation in the youth field[Official Journal C 168 of 13.07.2002].

Commission White Paper of 21 November 2001 ” A new impetus for European youth” [COM(2001) 681 final – Not published in the Official Journal].

Other substances: protection of groundwater

Other substances: protection of groundwater

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Other substances: protection of groundwater

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Environment > Water protection and management

Other substances: protection of groundwater

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 80/68/EEC of 17 December 1979 on the protection of groundwater against pollution caused by certain dangerous substances [See amending acts].

Summary

The purpose of this Directive is to prevent the discharge of certain toxic, persistent and bioaccumulable substances into groundwater.

The following are not covered:

  • discharges of domestic effluents from isolated dwellings;
  • discharges containing substances listed in Directive 80/68/EEC in very small quantities and concentrations;
  • discharges of matter containing radioactive substances.

There are two lists of dangerous substances drawn up for the protection of groundwater:

  • direct discharge of substances in List I is prohibited. This list includes organohalogen, organophosphorus and organotin compounds, mercury and cadmium and their compounds, and hydrocarbons and cyanides;
  • discharge of substances in List II must be limited. This list includes certain metals such as copper, zinc, lead and arsenic, and other substances such as fluorides, toxic or persistent organic compounds of silicon, and biocides and their derivatives not appearing in List I.

All indirect discharges of substances in List I and all direct or indirect discharges of substances in List II are subject to prior authorisation. Such authorisation:

  • is granted after an investigation into the receiving environment;
  • is granted for a limited period and subject to regular review;
  • lays down the conditions that have to be met for discharges. If they have not been or cannot be met, the authorisation is withdrawn or refused.

Monitoring of compliance with these conditions and of the effects of discharges on groundwater is the responsibility of the competent authorities of the Member States.

The Directive provides for exceptions, under certain conditions, to the ban on discharges of substances in List I.

It also lays down special rules for artificial recharges of groundwater intended for public water supplies.

The competent authorities of the Member States must keep an inventory of authorisations:

  • of discharges of substances in List I;
  • of direct discharges of substances in List II;
  • of artificial recharges for the purpose of groundwater management.

The Member States concerned must inform one another in the event of discharges into transboundary groundwater.

Member States may introduce more stringent measures than those laid down in this Directive.

Every three years, reports by the Member States on the implementation of Directive 80/68/EEC and other relevant Directives, drawn up on the basis of a questionnaire or outline drafted by the Commission in accordance with the procedure laid down in Directive 91/692/EEC. The Commission is responsible for publishing a report on the basis of this information.

References

Act Entry into force – Date of expiry Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 80/68/EEC 19.12.1979 19.12.1983 OJ L 20 of 26.01.1980
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 91/692/EEC 23.12.1991 01.01.1993 OJ L 377 of 31.12.1991

Related Acts

of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy [Official Journal L 327 of 22.12.2000].
This Directive repeals Directive 80/68/EC as of 21 December 2013.

Commission Decision 92/446/EEC of 27 July 1992 concerning questionnaires relating to Directives in the water sector [Official Journal L 247 of 27.08.1992].

This Decision draws up the outlines of questionnaires needed to monitor the implementation of and compliance with the provisions of all Directives in the water sector, including Directive 80/68/EEC.

 

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Food safety > Veterinary checks animal health rules food hygiene

Intra-Community trade of bovine animals and swine

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 64/432/EEC of 26 June 1964 on animal health problems affecting intra-Community trade in bovine animals and swine [See amending act(s)].

Summary

The Directives apply to intra-Community trade in bovine animals or swine for breeding, production or slaughter.

The transport of bovine animals and swine to another Member State is only authorised if the animals:

  • do not display any clinical sign of disease;
  • have not been obtained from a holding subject to prohibition for animal health reasons;
  • are identified in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2008/71/EC for swine and in accordance with the provisions of Regulation (EC) No 1760/2000 for bovine animals;
  • are accompanied by a health certificate (see Annex F) during transport to the country of destination;
  • come from a bovine herd officially free of tuberculosis, brucellosis or enzootic bovine leukosis (this condition only affects bovine animals).

During transport the animals must not come into contact with other animals which do not conform to the same health conditions.

Furthermore, the vehicles used to transport animals must guarantee their well-being and meet the following additional conditions. They must:

  • be designed in such a way as to prevent the dispersal of droppings, litter or fodder;
  • be cleaned and disinfected after each transportation of animals, in line with the methods and procedures approved by the competent authority;
  • hold a register including information on the location, date and time of the loading and delivery of animals, the type and quantity of animals transported, the length of the journey, the date and location of when the vehicle was disinfected, etc. This information must be kept for at least three years.

In accordance with animal health requirements, animals for slaughter, which have been transported directly to an abattoir on their arrival in the destination country, must be slaughtered within the 72 hours following their arrival. If the animals are transported directly to an approved assembly centre on their arrival in the destination country before being transported to the abattoir, their slaughter must take place within the three working days following their arrival in the assembly centre.

A Member State which has a national control programme for one of the contagious diseases not referred to in Annex E for the whole or part of its territory may submit the said programme to the Commission.

REFERENCES

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal
Directive 64/432/EEC

30.06.1964

30.06.1965

 L 121 of 29.07.1964

Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition into the Member States Official Journal

Directive 80/1098/EEC

20.11.1980

1.7.1981

OJ L 325 of 1.12.1980

Directive 80/1274/EEC

31.12.1980

1.1.1981

OJ L 375 of 31.12.1980

Directive 81/476/EEC

1.7.1981

OJ L 186 of 8.07.1981

Directive 82/61/EEC

10.2.1982

1.1.1982

OJ L 29 of 6.02.1982

Directive 82/893/EEC

29.12.1982

1.1.1983

OJ L 378 of 31.12.1982

Directive 83/336/EEC

30.6.1984

OJ L 177 of 4.7.1984

Directive 84/643/EEC

30.06.1984

30.09.1985 (Ireland – United Kingdom)

OJ L 339 of 27.12.1984

Directive 84/644/EEC

30.09.1985

OJ L 339 of 27.12.1984

Directive 85/586/EEC

24.12.1985

01.01.1986

OJ L 372 of 31.12.1985

Directive 87/231/EEC

10.04.1987

OJ L 99 of 11.04.1987

Directive 87/489/EEC

30.10.1987

31.12.1988

OJ L 280 of 03.10.1987

Directive 89/662/EEC

22.12.1989

31.12.1991

31.12.1992 (for Greece)

OJ L 395 of 30.12.1989

Directive 90/423/EEC

26.7.1990

1.1.1992

OJ L 224 of 18.08.1990

Directive 90/425/EEC

26.7.1990

1.7.1992

OJ L 224 of 18.08.1990

Directive 91/687/EEC

19.11.1992

1.1.1992 (for Article 1 point 3 and Article 2 point 1)

1.7.1992 (for all other articles)

OJL 377 of 31.12.1991

Directive 92/65/EEC

29.7.1992

1.1.1994

OJ L 268 of 14.9.1992

Directive 92/102/EEC

08.12.1992

1.2.1993 (registration of bovine animals according to national measures)
1.10.1993 (Community system of registering bovine animals)
1.1.1994 (swine)
1.1.1995 (ovine and caprine)

OJ L 355 of 5.12.1992

Directive 97/12/EC

25.4.1997

30.6.1998

OJ L 109 of 25.4.1997

Directive 98/46/EC

15.7.1998

30.6.1999

OJ L 198 of 15.7.1998

Directive 98/99/EC

31.12.1998

1.1.1999 (Article 2)

1.7.1999 (Article 1)

OJ L 358 of 31.12.1998

Directive 2000/15/EC

3.5.2000

OJ L 105 of 3.5.2000

Directive 2000/20/EC

4.7.2000

1.12.1999

OJ L 163 of 4.7.2000

Regulation (EC) No 535/2002

13.4.2002

OJ L 80 of 23.3.2002

Regulation (EC) No 1226/2002

29.7.2002

OJ L 179 of 9.7.2002

Regulation (EC) No 21/2004

29.1.2004

OJ L 5 of 9.1.2004

Regulation (EC) No 1/2005

25.1.2005

OJ L 3 of 5.1.2005

Decision 2006/911/EC

29.12.2006

OJ L 346 of 9.12.2006

Directive 2006/104/EC

1.1.2007

OJ L 363 of 20.12.2006

Decision 2007/729/EC

OJ L 294 of 13.11.2007

Directive 2008/73/EC

3.9.2008

1.10.2010

OJ L 219 of 14.8.2008

Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 64/432/EEC have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version  is for reference purpose only.

Related Acts

Commission Decision 2008/185/EC of 21 February 2008 on additional guarantees in intra-Community trade of pigs relating to Aujeszky’s disease and criteria to provide information on this disease [Official Journal L 59 of 4.3.2008].
See consolidated version

Commission Decision 2004/558/ECOfficial Journal L 249 of 23.07.2004 of 15 July 2004 implementing Council Directive 64/432/EEC as regards additional guarantees for intra-Community trade in bovine animals relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the approval of the eradication programmes presented by certain Member States.
See consolidated version

Commission Decision 2003/467/EC of 23 June 2003 establishing the official tuberculosis, brucellosis, and enzootic-bovine-leukosis-free status of certain Member States and regions of Member States as regards bovine herds [Official Journal L 156 of 25.6.2003].
See consolidated version

Rare diseases

Rare diseases

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Rare diseases

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Public health > Threats to health

Rare diseases

Document or Iniciative

Council Recommendation 2009/C 151/02 of 8 June 2009 on an action in the field of rare diseases.

Summary

This Recommendation aims at introducing measures at European level to increase level of knowledge on rare diseases, as well as improve the quality of life and care of patients.

Plans and strategies

The European Commission recommends that Member States introduce plans or strategies to combat rare diseases. The aim is provide patients suffering from these diseases with high quality care, diagnosis, treatment and effective orphan drugs.

In this regard, Member States are encouraged to adopt a plan or strategy under their respective social and health schemes by 2013. These plans or strategies should integrate all current and future initiatives at local, regional and national levels in the field of rare diseases.

These national initiatives should form part of the framework of the European Project for Rare Diseases National Plans Development (EUROPLAN), which itself belongs to the Community action programme in the field of public health for 2008-2013.

Definitions, codification and inventorying

At present, a rare disease is defined as such if it does not affect more than 5 in 10 000 persons. The Commission considers this definition needs expanding and encourages Member States to work together on a definition which takes into account the parameters of incidence.

The Commission action aims to facilitate the coding and traceability of rare diseases in all health information systems, and particularly in the future version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). An inventory could be established on the basis of the Orphanet network or other networks.

Member States are called upon to support specific information networks, registers and databases relating to diseases.

Research

Current knowledge in research on rare diseases should be updated.

Needs and priorities should be determined in the field of basic, clinical, translational and social research before encouraging national researchers to participate in this kind of programme.

The European Commission is responsible for establishing cooperation with third countries and fostering the exchange of information and the sharing of expertise.

Centres of expertise and European Reference Networks

The Commission invites Member States to identify qualified centres of expertise by the end of 2013 and ensure that these centres benefit from support measures. These centres are to be encouraged to participate in European Reference Networks and to develop a multidisciplinary approach.

Healthcare pathways for patients suffering from a rare disease should be created through cooperation between experts and professionals in this field. Experts should be mobile in order to facilitate the treatment of patients in their own environment.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as telemedicine should be integrated, ensuring distant access to specific healthcare.

Gathering expertise at European level

The Commission considers it crucial to gather different national experts in the field of rare diseases together in order to support:

  • the exchange of best practice in terms of diagnostic tools and medical care as well as education and social care;
  • teaching and training for healthcare professionals;
  • medical training in the diagnosis of diseases and aspects related to genetics, immunology, neurology, oncology or paediatrics;
  • guidelines on population screening;
  • exchange of information between Member States.

Empowerment of patient organisations

The creation and development of associations for patients suffering from rare diseases are encouraged insofar as this facilitates access for patients to up-to-date information.

Context

A first Community action programme on rare diseases covering the period 1999 to 2003 defined a rare disease as a disease affecting less than 5 in 10 000 persons. Its aim was to improve knowledge in this field. This Recommendation forms part of this perspective and aims to enhance cooperation and knowledge in order to improve cover and treatment for rare diseases.

Related Act

Commission Decision No (EC) 2009/872 of 30 November 2009 establishing a European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases

This Decision establishes an EU committee of experts on rare diseases. The committee is tasked with:

  • implementing Community action programmes;
  • preparing Commission reports;
  • providing opinions and recommendations;
  • assisting the Commission in disseminating the measures taken at Community level, as well drawing up guidelines.

The Committee comprises 51 members and their alternates. The Committee shall be convened by the Commission and shall meet on its premises three times a year.

Speed limitation on-board devices of certain categories of motor vehicles

Speed limitation on-board devices of certain categories of motor vehicles

Outline of the Community (European Union) legislation about Speed limitation on-board devices of certain categories of motor vehicles

Topics

These categories group together and put in context the legislative and non-legislative initiatives which deal with the same topic.

Internal market > Motor vehicles > Technical implications of road safety

Speed limitation on-board devices of certain categories of motor vehicles (until 2014)

Document or Iniciative

Council Directive 92/24/EEC of 31 March 1992 relating to speed limitation devices or similar speed limitation on-board systems of certain categories of motor vehicles [See amending acts].

Summary

Speed limitation devices for heavy motor vehicles help improve road safety by reducing the wear and tear on engines and tyres and the severity of injuries resulting from accidents. They also have positive effects on atmospheric pollution and fuel consumption. The European Union has therefore considered it necessary for vehicles circulating within the Community to be equipped with such devices.

Scope

This directive applies to EEC type-approved speed limitation devices and similar systems which fulfil the same speed limitation function.

It initially applied only to heavy motor vehicles. Amended by Directive 2004/11/EC, it has been extended to cover all buses and all goods transport vehicles weighing over 3.5 tonnes. It now applies to all M2, M3, N2 and N3 category motor vehicles (as defined in Annex II of Directive 70/156/EEC) intended for on-road use, having at least four wheels and a maximum design speed exceeding 25km/h.

Requirements

The directive requires that the speed limitation device be so designed, constructed and assembled as to resist corrosion and ageing phenomena, and that it be resistant to tampering so that the limitation threshold can neither be increased nor overridden.

EEC type-approval

The application for EEC type-approval for the speed limitation of a vehicle type must be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer, but for a speed limitation device as a technical unit it must be submitted by the manufacturer of that device.

If the requirements of the Directive have been met, the Member States may not, on grounds relating to the speed limitation devices, refuse EEC or national type-approval for a vehicle or a speed limitation device, nor may they refuse the registration, sale, or entry into service of a vehicle or a speed limitation device.

In contrast, the Member States are obliged to refuse, on grounds relating to the speed limitation devices, EC or national type-approval for vehicles or speed limitation devices which do not satisfy the requirements of the Directive. In addition, as of 1 January 2005, they must also ban the sale, registration and entry into service of vehicles or speed limitation devices that do not comply with the requirements of the Directive.

Background

Directive 92/24/EEC is one of the separate Directives of the Community type-approval procedure established by Directive 70/156/EEC. By harmonising the technical provisions relating to speed limitation devices and speed limitation systems, it therefore plays a part in ensuring the smooth operation of the internal market.

References

Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 1992/24/EEC 10.04.1992 01.01.1993 OJ L 129 of 14.05.1992
Amending act(s) Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Directive 2004/11/EC [adoption: co-decision COD/2003/0122] 17.02.2004 16.11.2004 OJ L 44 of 14.02.2004

Related Acts

Council Directive 92/6/EEC of 10 February 1992 on the installation and use of speed limitation devices for certain categories of motor vehiclesin the Community [OJ L 57 of 02.03.1992], amended by Directive 2002/85/EC of 5 November 2002 [OJ L 327 of 4.12.2002].
Directive 1992/6/EEC stipulates that motor vehicles may only circulate within the European Community if they are equipped with a speed limitation device for which a maximum speed is set. The Directive was initially aimed at heavy vehicles. Subsequent to its amendment by Directive 2002/85/EC, it has been extended to cover light commercial vehicles.